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Network Working Group                                 J. Alvarez-Hamelin
Internet-Draft                               Universidad de Buenos Aires
Updates: 2330 (if approved)                                    A. Morton
Intended status: Standards Track                               AT&T Labs
Expires: December 30, 2017                                     J. Fabini
                                                                 TU Wien
                                                           June 28, 2017

                Advanced Unidirectional Route Assessment


   This memo introduces an advanced unidirectional route assessment
   metric and associated measurement methodology, based on the IP
   Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework RFC 2330.  This memo updates RFC
   2330 in the areas of path-related terminology and path description,
   primarily to include the possibility of parallel subpaths.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 30, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Route Metric Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Formal Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Metric Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.4.  Related Round-Trip Delay and Loss Definitions . . . . . .   6
     3.5.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.6.  Reporting the Metric  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Route Assessment Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Active Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Hybrid Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Background on Round-Trip Delay Measurement Goals  . . . . . .   9
   6.  Tools to Measure Delays in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  RTD Measurements Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   The IETF IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) working group first created a
   framework for metric development in [RFC2330].  This framework has
   stood the test of time and enabled development of many fundamental
   metrics.  It has been updated in the area of metric composition
   [RFC5835], and in several areas related to active stream measurement
   of modern networks with reactive properties [RFC7312].

   The [RFC2330] framework motivated the development of "performance and
   reliability metrics for paths through the Internet," and Section 5 of
   [RFC2330] defines terms that support description of a path under

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   test.  However, metrics for assessment of path components and related
   performance aspects had not been attempted in IPPM when this memo was

   This memo takes-up the route measurement challenge and specifies a
   new route metric, two practical frameworks for methods of measurement
   (using either active or hybrid active-passive methods [RFC7799]), and
   round-trip delay and link information discovery using the results of

2.  Scope

   The purpose of this memo is to add new route metrics and methods of
   measurement to the existing set of IPPM metrics.

   The scope is to define route metrics that can identify the path taken
   by a packet traversing the Internet between any two hosts.  Also, to
   specify a framework for active methods of measurement which use the
   techniques described in [PT] at a minimum, and a framework for hybrid
   active-passive methods of measurement, such as the Hybrid Type I
   method [RFC7799] described in [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-data]
   (currently intended only for single administrative domains).
   Combinations of active methods and hybrid active-passive methods are
   also in-scope.

   Further, this memo provides additional analysis of the round-trip
   delay measurements made possible by the methods, in an effort to
   discover more details about the path, such as the link technology in

   This memo updates Section 5 of [RFC2330] in the areas of path-related
   terminology and path description, primarily to include the
   possibility of parallel subpaths.

   There are several simple non-goals of this memo.  There is no attempt
   to assess the reverse path from any host on the path to the host
   attempting the path measurement.  The reverse path contribution to
   delay will be that experienced by ICMP packets (in active methods),
   and may be different from UDP or TCP packets.  Also, the round trip
   delay will include an unknown contribution of processing time at the
   host that generates the ICMP response.  Therefore, the active methods
   are not supposed to yield accurate, reproducible estimations of the
   round-trip delay that UDP or TCP packets will experience.

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3.  Route Metric Definitions

   Section 7 of [RFC2330] presented a simple example of a "route" metric
   along with several other examples.  The example is reproduced below
   (where the reference is to Section 5 of [RFC2330]):

   "route The path, as defined in Section 5, from A to B at a given

   This example provides a starting point to develop a more complete
   definition of route.  Areas needing clarification include:

   Time:  In practice, this will be a time interval, because active path
      detection methods like [PT] rely on TTL limits for their operation
      and cannot accomplish discovery of all hosts using a single

   Parallel Paths:  This a reality of Internet paths and a strength of
      advanced route assessment methods, so the metric must acknowledge
      this possibility.

   Cloud Subpath:  May contain hosts that do not decrement TTL or Hop
      Count, but have two or more exchange links connecting
      "discoverable" hosts or routers.  Parallel subpaths contained
      within clouds cannot be discovered.  The assessment methods only
      discover hosts or routers on the path that decrement TTL or Hop

   The refined definition of Route metrics begins with the sections that

3.1.  Formal Name

   Type-P-Route-Ensemble-Method-Variant, abbreviated as Route Ensemble.

   Note that Type-P varies and depends heavily on the chosen method and

3.2.  Parameters

   o  Src, the IP address of a host

   o  Dst, the IP address of a host

   o  i, the TTL or Hop Count of a packet sent from the host at Src to
      the host at Dst.

   o  MaxHops, the maximum value of i used, (i=1,2,3,...MaxHops).

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   o  T0, a time (start of measurement interval)

   o  Tf, a time (end of measurement interval)

   o  T, the host time of a packet as measured at MP(Src), meaning
      Measurement Point at the Source.

   o  Ta, the host time of a reply packet's *arrival* as measured at
      MP(Src), assigned to packets that arrive within a "reasonable"
      time (see parameter below).

   o  Tmax, a maximum waiting time for reply packets to return to the
      source, set sufficiently long to disambiguate packets with long
      delays from packets that are discarded (lost), thus the
      distribution of delay is not truncated.

   o  F, the number of different flows simulated by the method and

   o  flow, the stream of packets with the same n-tuple of designated
      header fields that (when held constant) results in identical
      treatment in a multi-path decision (such as that taken in load

3.3.  Metric Definitions

   Define the following measured components of the Route metrics:

   M, the total number of packets sent between T0 and Tf.

   N, the smallest value of i needed for a packet to be received at Dst
   (sent between T0 and Tf).

   Nmax, the largest value of i needed for a packet to be received at
   Dst (sent between T0 and Tf).  Nmax may be equal to N.

   Next, define a *singleton* definition for a discoverable host, with
   sufficient indexes to identify all hosts discovered in a measurement

   h(i,j), the IP address and/or identity of one of j discoverable hosts
   that are i hops away from the host with IP address = Src during the
   measurement interval, T0 to Tf.

   Now that host identities can be positioned according to their
   distance from the host with address Src in hops, we introduce two
   forms of Routes:

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   A Route Ensemble is the combination of all routes traversed by
   different flows from the host at Src address to the host at Dst
   address.  The route traversed by each flow (with Src and Dst
   addresses) is a member of the ensemble and called a Member Route.

   Using h(i,j) and components and parameters, further define:

   A Member Route is an ordered graph {h(1,j), ... h(Nj, j)} in the
   context of a single flow, where h(i-1, j) and h(i, j) are by 1 hop
   away from each other and Nj=Dst is the minimum TTL value needed by
   the packet on Member Route j to reach Dst. Member Routes must be
   unique.  This uniqueness requires that any two Member routes j and k
   that are part of the same Route Ensemble differ either in terms of
   minimum hop count Nj and Nk to reach the destination Dst, or, in the
   case of identical hop count Nj=Nk, they have at least one distinct
   hop: h(i,j) != h(i, k) for at least one i (i=1..Nj).

   The Route Ensemble from Src to Dst, during the measurement interval
   T0 to Tf, is the aggregate of all m distinct Member Routes discovered
   between the two hosts with Src and Dst addresses.  More formally,
   with the host having address Src omitted:

   Route Ensemble = {
   {h(1,1), h(2,1), h(3,1), ... h(N1,1)=Dst},
   {h(1,2), h(2,2), h(3,2),..., h(N2,2)=Dst},
   {h(1,m), h(2,m), h(3,m), ....h(Nm,m)=Dst}

   where the following conditions apply: i <= N <= Nj <= Nmax (j=1..m)

   Note that some h(i,j) may be empty (null) in the case that systems do
   not reply (not discoverable).

   h(i-1,j) and h(i,j) are the hosts on the same Member Route one hop
   away from each other.

   h(i,j) may be identical with h(k,l) for i!=k and j!=l ; which means
   there may be portions shared among different Member Routes (parts of
   various routes may overlap).

3.4.  Related Round-Trip Delay and Loss Definitions

   RTD(i,j,T) is defined as a singleton of the [RFC2681] Round-trip
   Delay between the host with IP address = Src and h(i,j) at time T.

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   RTL(i,j,T) is defined as a singleton of the [RFC6673] Round-trip Loss
   between the host with IP address = Src and h(i,j) at time T.

3.5.  Discussion

   to be provided

3.6.  Reporting the Metric

   to be provided

4.  Route Assessment Methodologies

4.1.  Active Methodologies

   We have chosen to describe the method based on that employed in
   current open source tools, thereby providing a practical framework
   for further advanced techniques to be included as method variants.

   Paris-traceroute [PT] provides some measure of protection from path
   variation generated by ECMP load balancing, and it ensures traceroute
   packets will follow the same path in 98% of cases according to
   [SCAMPER].  If it is necessary to find every path possible between
   two hosts, Paris-traceroute provides "exhaustive" mode while scamper
   provides "tracelb" (stands for traceroute load balance).

   The Type-P of packets used could be ICMP (as ones in the original
   traceroute), UDP and TCP.  The later are used when a particular
   characteristic is needed to verify, such as filtering or traffic
   shaping on specific ports (i.e., services).

   The advanced route assessment method used by Paris-traceroute keeps
   these fields constant for every packet that it sends to maintain the
   appearance of the same flow in routers.  Since route assessment can
   be conducted using TCP, UDP or ICMP packets, this method keeps the
   ToS, the protocol, IP source and destination addresses, and the port
   settings for TCP or UDP intact.  For ICMP probes, the method requires
   to keep the type, code, and ICMP checksum constant; which take the
   same position in the header of an IP packet, e.g., bytes 20 to 23
   when the header IP has no options.

   The checksum is most challenging because the ICMP sequence number is
   part of the checksum calculation.  The advanced traceroute method
   requires calculation of the IP identification field, yielding in a
   constant ICMP checksum.

   For TCP and UDP packets, the checksum must also be kept constant.
   Therefore, the first four bytes of UDP data field are modified to

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   compensate for fields that change from packet to packet.  This
   variant of the advanced traceroute method is called Paris traceroute
   [PT].  Note: other variants of advanced traceroute are planned be

   Finally, the return path is also important to check.  Taking into
   account that it is an ICMP time exceeded (during transit) packet, the
   source and destination IP are constant for every reply.  Then, we
   should consider the fields in the first 32 bits of the protocol on
   the top of IP: the type and code of ICMP packet, and its checksum.
   Again, to maintain the ICMP checksum constant for the returning
   packets, we need to consider the whole ICMP message.  It contains the
   IP header of the discarded packet plus the first 8 bytes of the IP
   payload; that is some of the fields of TCP header, the UDP header
   plus four data bytes, the ICMP header plus four bytes.  Therefore,
   for UDP case the data field is used to maintain the ICMP checksum
   constant in the returning packet.  For the ICMP case, the identifier
   and sequence fields of the sent ICMP probe are manipulated to be
   constant.  The TCP case presents no problem because its first eight
   bytes will be the same for every packet probe.

   Formally, to maintain the same flow in the measurements to a certain
   hop, the Type-P-Route-Ensemble-Method-Variant packets should be[PT]:

   o  TCP case: Fields Src, Dst, port-Src, port_Dst, and ToS should be
      the same.

   o  UDP case: Fields Src, Dst, port-Src, port-Dst, and ToS should be
      the same, the UDP-checksum should change to maintain constant the
      IP checksum of the ICMP time exceeded reply.  Then, the data
      length should be fixed, and the data field is used to fixing it
      (consider that ICMP checksum uses its data field, which contains
      the original IP header plus 8 bytes of UDP, where TTL, IP
      identification, IP checksum, and UDP checksum changes).

   o  ICMP case: The Data field should compesate variations on TTL, IP
      identification, and IP checksum for every packet.

   Then, the way to identify different hops and attempts of the same
   flow is:

   o  TCP case: The IP identification field.

   o  UDP case: The IP identification field.

   o  ICMP case: The IP idtentification field, and ICMP Sequence number.

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4.2.  Hybrid Methodologies

   The Hybrid Type I methods provide an alternative method for Route
   Member assessment.  As mentioned in the Scope section,
   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-data] provides a possible set of data
   fields that would support route identification.

   In general, nodes in the measured domain would be equipped with
   specific abilities:

   1.  The ingress node adds one or more fields to the measurement
       packets, and identifies to other nodes in the domain that a route
       assessment will be conducted using one or more specific packets.
       The packets typically originate from a host outside the domain,
       and constitute normal traffic on the domain.

   2.  Each node visited by the specific packet within in the domain
       identifies itself in a data field of the packet (the field has
       been added for this purpose).

   3.  When a measurement packet reaches the edge node of the domain,
       the edge node adds its identity to the list, removes all the
       identities from the packet, forwards the packet onward, and
       communicates the ordered list of node identities to the intended

5.  Background on Round-Trip Delay Measurement Goals

   The aim of this method is to use packet probes to unveil the paths
   between any two end-hosts of the network.  Moreover, information
   derived from RTD measurements might be meaningful to identify:

   1.  Intercontinental submarine links

   2.  Satellite communications

   3.  Congestion

   4.  Interdomain paths

   This categorization is widely accepted in the literature and among
   operators alike, and it can be trusted with empirical data and
   several sources as ground of truth (e.g., [RTTSub] [bdrmap][IDCong]).

   The first two categories correspond to the physical distance
   dependency on Round Trip Delay (RTD) while the last one binds RTD
   with queueing delay on routers.  Due to the significant contribution
   of propagation delay in long distance hops, RTD will be at least

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   100ms on transatlantic hops, depending on the geolocation of the
   vantage points.  Moreover, RTD is typically greater than 480ms when
   two hops are connected using geostationary satellite technology
   (i.e., their orbit is at 36000km).  Detecting congestion with latency
   implies deeper mathematical understanding since network traffic load
   is not stationary.  Nonetheless, as the first approach, a link seems
   to be congested if after sending several traceroute probes, it is
   possible to detect congestion observing different statistics
   parameters (e.g., see [IDCong]).

6.  Tools to Measure Delays in the Internet

   Internet routing is complex because it depends on the policies of
   thousands Autonomous Systems (AS).  While most of the routers perform
   load balancing on flows using Equal Cost Multiple Path (ECMP), a few
   still divide the workload through packet-based techniques.  The
   former scenario is defined according to [RFC2991] while the latter
   generates a round-robin scheme to deliver every new outgoing packet.
   ECMP keeps flow state in the router to ensure every packet of a flow
   is delivered by the same path, and this avoids increasing the packet
   delay variation and possibly producing overwhelming packet reordering
   in TCP flows.

   Taking into account that Internet protocol was designed under the
   "end-to-end" principle, the IP payload and its header do not provide
   any information about the routes or path necessary to reach some
   destination.  For this reason, the well-known tool traceroute was
   developed to gather the IP addresses of each hop along a path using
   the ICMP protocol [RFC0792].  Besides, traceroute adds the measured
   RTD from each hop.  However, the growing complexity of the Internet
   makes it more challenging to develop accurate traceroute
   implementation.  For instance, the early traceroute tools would be
   inaccurate in the current network, mainly because they were not
   designed to retain flow state.  However, evolved traceroute tools,
   such as Paris-traceroute [PT] [MLB] and Scamper [SCAMPER], expect to
   encounter ECMP and achieve more accurate results when they do.

   Paris-traceroute-like tools operate in the following way: every
   packet should follow the same path because the sensitive fields of
   the header are controlled to appear as the same flow.  This means
   that source and destination IP addresses, source and destination port
   numbers are the same in every packet.  Additionally, Differentiated
   Services Code Point (DSCP), checksum and ICMP code should remain
   constant since they may affect the path selection.

   Today's traceroute tools can send either UDP, TCP or ICMP packet
   probes.  Since ICMP header does not include transport layer
   information, there are no fields for source and destination port

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   numbers.  For this reason, these tools keep constant ICMP type, code,
   and checksum fields to generate a kind of flow.  However, the
   checksum may vary in every packet, therefore when probes use ICMP
   packets, ICMP Identifier and Sequence Number are manipulated to
   maintain constant checksum in every packet.  On the other hand, when
   UDP probes are generated, the expected variation in the checksum of
   each packet is again compensated by manipulating the payload.

   Paris-traceroute allows its users to measure RTD in every hop of the
   path for a particular flow.  Furthermore, either Paris-traceroute or
   Scamper is capable of unveiling the many available paths between a
   source and destination (which are visible to this method).  This task
   is accomplished by repeating complete traceroute measurements with
   different flow parameters for each measurement.  The Framework for IP
   Performance Metrics (IPPM) ([RFC2330] updated by[RFC7312]) has the
   flexibility to require that the round-trip delay measurement
   [RFC2681] uses packets with the constraints to assure that all
   packets in a single measurement appear as the same flow.  This
   flexibility covers ICMP, UDP, and TCP.  The accompanying methodology
   of [RFC2681] needs to be expanded to report the sequential hop
   identifiers along with RTD measurements, but no new metric definition
   is needed.

7.  RTD Measurements Statistics

   Several articles have shown that network traffic presents a self-
   similar nature [SSNT] [MLRM] which is accountable for filling the
   queues of the routers.  Moreover, router queues are designed to
   handle traffic bursts, which is one of the most remarkable features
   of self-similarity.  Naturally, while queue length increases, the
   delay to traverse the queue increases as well and leads to an
   increase on RTD.  Due to traffic bursts generate short-term overflow
   on buffers (spiky patterns), every RTD only depicts the queueing
   status on the instant when that packet probe was in transit.  For
   this reason, several RTD measurements during a time window could
   begin to describe the random behavior of latency.  Loss must also be
   accounted for in the methodology.

   To understand the ongoing process, examining the quartiles provides a
   non-parametric way of analysis.  Quartiles are defined by five
   values: minimum RTD (m), RTD value of the 25% of the Empirical
   Cumulative Distribution Function (ECDF) (Q1), the median value (Q2),
   the RTD value of the 75% of the ECDF (Q3) and the maximum RTD (M).
   Congestion can be inferred when RTD measurements are spread apart,
   and consequently, the InterQuartile Range (IQR), the distance between
   Q3 and Q1, increases its value.

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   This procedure requires to compute quartile values "on the fly" using
   the algorithm presented in [P2].

   This procedure allow us to update the quartiles value whenever a new
   measurement arrives, which is radically different from classic
   methods of computing quartiles because they need to use the whole
   dataset to compute the values.  This way of calculus provides savings
   in memory and computing time.

   To sum up, the proposed measurement procedure consists in performing
   traceroutes several times to obtain samples of the RTD in every hop
   from a path, during a time window (W) and compute the quantiles for
   every hop.  This could be done for a single path flow or for every
   detected path flow.

   Even though a particular hop may be understood as the amount of hops
   away from the source, a more detailed classification could be used.
   For example, a possible classification may be identify ICMP Time
   Exceeded packets coming from the same routers to those who have the
   same hop distance, IP address of the router which is replying and TTL
   value of the received ICMP packet.

   Thus, the proposed methodology is based on this algorithm:

  1  input:   W (window time of the measurement)
  2           i_t (time between two measurements)
  3           E (True: exhaustive, False: a single path)
  4           Dst (destination IP address)
  5  output:  Qs (quartiles for every hop and alt in the path(s) to Dst)
  6  T <? start_timer(W)
  7  while T is not finished do:
  8  |       start_timer(i_t)
  9  |       RTD(hop,alt) = advanced-traceroute(Dst,E)
 10  |       for each hop and alt in RTD do:
 11  |       |     Qs[Dst,hop,alt] <? ComputeQs(RTD(hop,alt))
 12  |       done
 13  |       wait until i_t timer is expired
 14  done
 15  return (Qs)

   In line 9 the advance-traceroute could be either Paris-traceroute or
   Scamper, which will use "exhaustive" mode or "tracelb" option if E is
   set True, respectively.  The procedure returns a list of tuples
   (m,Q1,Q2,Q3,M) for each intermediate hop in the path towards the Dst.

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   Additionally, it could also return path variations using "alt"

8.  Conclusions

   Combining the method proposed in Section 4 and statistics in
   Section 7, we can measure the performance of paths interconnecting
   two endpoints in Internet, and attempt the categorization of link
   types and congestion presence based on RTD.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of
   live paths are relevant here as well.  See [RFC4656] and [RFC5357].

   When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
   whose traffic is measured, the sensitive information available to
   potential observers is greatly reduced when using active techniques
   which are within this scope of work.  Passive observations of user
   traffic for measurement purposes raise many privacy issues.  We refer
   the reader to the privacy considerations described in the Large Scale
   Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [RFC7594],
   which covers active and passive techniques.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo makes no requests of IANA.

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank ....

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

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   [RFC2330]  Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
              "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2330, May 1998,

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.

   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, DOI 10.17487/RFC2675, August 1999,

   [RFC2681]  Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A Round-trip
              Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2681, DOI 10.17487/RFC2681,
              September 1999, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2681>.

   [RFC2991]  Thaler, D. and C. Hopps, "Multipath Issues in Unicast and
              Multicast Next-Hop Selection", RFC 2991,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2991, November 2000,

   [RFC4494]  Song, JH., Poovendran, R., and J. Lee, "The AES-CMAC-96
              Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 4494,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4494, June 2006,

   [RFC4656]  Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
              Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
              (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, DOI 10.17487/RFC4656, September 2006,

   [RFC5357]  Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
              Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
              RFC 5357, DOI 10.17487/RFC5357, October 2008,

   [RFC5644]  Stephan, E., Liang, L., and A. Morton, "IP Performance
              Metrics (IPPM): Spatial and Multicast", RFC 5644,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5644, October 2009,

   [RFC5835]  Morton, A., Ed. and S. Van den Berghe, Ed., "Framework for
              Metric Composition", RFC 5835, DOI 10.17487/RFC5835, April
              2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5835>.

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   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,

   [RFC6437]  Amante, S., Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and J. Rajahalme,
              "IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6437,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6437, November 2011,

   [RFC6564]  Krishnan, S., Woodyatt, J., Kline, E., Hoagland, J., and
              M. Bhatia, "A Uniform Format for IPv6 Extension Headers",
              RFC 6564, DOI 10.17487/RFC6564, April 2012,

   [RFC6673]  Morton, A., "Round-Trip Packet Loss Metrics", RFC 6673,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6673, August 2012,

   [RFC7045]  Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Transmission and Processing
              of IPv6 Extension Headers", RFC 7045,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7045, December 2013,

   [RFC7312]  Fabini, J. and A. Morton, "Advanced Stream and Sampling
              Framework for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 7312,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7312, August 2014,

   [RFC7799]  Morton, A., "Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (with
              Hybrid Types In-Between)", RFC 7799, DOI 10.17487/RFC7799,
              May 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7799>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [bdrmap]   Luckie, M., Dhamdhere, A., Huffaker, B., Clark, D., and
              KC. Claffy, "bdrmap: Inference of Borders Between IP
              Networks",  In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Internet
              Measurement Conference, pp. 381-396. ACM, 2016.

              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Pignataro, C., Gredler, H.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Mozes, D., Lapukhov,
              P., <>, R., and d. daniel.bernier@bell.ca, "Data Fields
              for In-situ OAM", draft-brockners-inband-oam-data-05 (work
              in progress), May 2017.

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   [IDCong]   Luckie, M., Dhamdhere, A., Clark, D., and B. Huffaker,
              "Challenges in inferring internet interdomain congestion",
               In Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet
              Measurement Conference, pp. 15-22. ACM, 2014.

   [MLB]      Augustin, B., Friedman, T., and R. Teixeira, "Measuring
              load-balanced paths in the Internet",   Proceedings of the
              7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement, pp.
              149-160. ACM, 2007., 2007.

   [MLRM]     Fontugne, R., Mazel, J., and K. Fukuda, "An empirical
              mixture model for large-scale RTT measurements",  2015
              IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), pp.
              2470-2478. IEEE, 2015., 2015.

   [P2]       Jain, R. and I. Chlamtac, "rereerThe P 2 algorithm for
              dynamic calculation of quantiles and histograms without
              storing observations",  Communications of the ACM 28.10
              (1985): 1076-1085, 2015.

   [PT]       Augustin, B., Cuvellier, X., Orgogozo, B., Viger, F.,
              Friedman, T., Latapy, M., Magnien, C., and R. Teixeira,
              "Avoiding traceroute anomalies with Paris traceroute",
              Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet
              measurement, pp. 153-158. ACM, 2006., 2006.

   [RFC7594]  Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
              Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A Framework for Large-Scale
              Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", RFC 7594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7594, September 2015,

   [RTTSub]   Bischof, Z., Rula, J., and F. Bustamante, "In and out of
              Cuba: Characterizing Cuba's connectivity",  In Proceedings
              of the 2015 ACM Conference on Internet Measurement
              Conference, pp. 487-493. ACM, 2015.

   [SCAMPER]  Matthew Luckie, M., "Scamper: a scalable and extensible
              packet prober for active measurement of the internet",
               Proceedings of the 10th ACM SIGCOMM conference on
              Internet measurement, pp. 239-245. ACM, 2010., 2010.

   [SSNT]     Park, K. and W. Willinger, "Self-Similar Network Traffic
              and Performance Evaluation (1st ed.)",  John Wiley & Sons,
              Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2000.

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Authors' Addresses

   Jose Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin
   Universidad de Buenos Aires
   Av. Paseo Colon 850
   Buenos Aires  C1063ACV

   Phone: +54 11 5285-0716
   Email: ihameli@cnet.fi.uba.ar
   URI:   http://cnet.fi.uba.ar/ignacio.alvarez-hamelin/

   Al Morton
   AT&T Labs
   200 Laurel Avenue South
   Middletown, NJ  07748

   Phone: +1 732 420 1571
   Fax:   +1 732 368 1192
   Email: acmorton@att.com
   URI:   http://home.comcast.net/~acmacm/

   Joachim Fabini
   TU Wien
   Gusshausstrasse 25/E389
   Vienna  1040

   Phone: +43 1 58801 38813
   Fax:   +43 1 58801 38898
   Email: Joachim.Fabini@tuwien.ac.at
   URI:   http://www.tc.tuwien.ac.at/about-us/staff/joachim-fabini/

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