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Versions: (draft-aranda-sf-dp-mobile) 00 01 02 03 04

SFC                                                  P. Aranda Gutierrez
Internet-Draft
Intended status: Experimental                               M. Gramaglia
Expires: January 2, 2018                                            UC3M
                                                              DRL. Lopez
                                                                     TID
                                                             W. Haeffner
                                                                Vodafone
                                                           July 01, 2017


    Service Function Chaining Dataplane Elements in Mobile Networks
                     draft-aranda-sfc-dp-mobile-04

Abstract

   The evolution of the network towards 5G implies a challenge for the
   infrastructure.  The targeted services and the full deployment of
   virtualization in all segments of the network will be possible and
   necessary to provide some traffic-specific services near the next
   generation base stations where the radio is processed.  Thus, service
   function chains that currently reside in the infrastructure of the
   Network operator (like, e.g. the Expeded Packet Gateway(EPG)) will be
   extended to the radio access network (RAN).

   In this draft we provide a non-exhaustive but representative list of
   service functions in 4G and 5G networks, and explore different
   scenarios for service-aware orchestration.

   We base on the problem statement [RFC7498] and architecture framework
   [RFC7665]  of the SFC working group, as well on the existing mobile
   networks use cases [I-D.ietf-sfc-use-case-mobility]  and the
   requirement gathering process of the ITU-R IMT 2020 [1] and different
   initiatives in Europe [2], Korea [3] and China [4] to anticipate
   network elements that will be needed in 5G networks.

   We then explore service-aware orchestration scenarios identifying
   where different network functions can be deployed in a fully
   virtualised future network, where both the core and the edge provide
   advanced virtualisation capabilities.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute



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   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 2, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  General scope of mobile service chains  . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.3.  Requirements for 5G networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       1.3.1.  Evolution of the end-to-end carrier network . . . . .   5
   2.  Mobile network overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Building blocks of 4G and 5G networks . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.1.1.  Classification schemes for 5G networks  . . . . . . .   7
     2.2.  Transport Network Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.3.  Control plane considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.4.  Operator requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  New concepts for virtualised mobile networks  . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  Service-aware orchestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Combining Access and Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     7.3.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13



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   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   The evolution of the network towards 5G implies a challenge for the
   infrastructure.  The targeted services and the full deployment of
   virtualization in all segments of the network will need service
   function chains that previously resided in the(local and remote)
   infrastructure of the Network operators to extend to the radio access
   network (RAN).

   Existing mobile networks use cases presented to the working group and
   the requirement gathering process of the ITU-R IMT 2020 and different
   initiatives in Europe, Korea and China to anticipate network elements
   that will be needed in 5G networks allow us to define use cases for
   this next generation mobile networks.  Once on the pillars of them
   will be service-aware orchestration.  We present scenarios
   identifying where different network functions con be deployed in a
   fully virtualised future network, where both the core and the edge
   provide advanced virtualisation capabilities.  These scenarios will
   allow us to derive Service Function Chaining (SFC)-specific
   requirements.

1.1.  Terminology and abbreviations

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [RFC2119].

   Much of the terminology used in this document has been defined by
   either the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) or by activities
   related to 5G networks like IMT2020 in ITU-R.  Some terms are defined
   here for convenience, in addition to those found in RFC6459
   [RFC6459].

















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   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
   | UE    | User equipment like tablets or smartphones                |
   | eNB   | enhanced NodeB, radio access part of the LTE system       |
   | S-GW  | Serving Gateway, primary function is user plane mobility  |
   | P-GW  | Packet Gateway, actual service creation point, terminates |
   |       | 3GPP mobile network, interface to Packet Data Networks    |
   |       | (PDN)                                                     |
   | HSS   | Home Subscriber Server (control plane element)            |
   | MME   | Mobility Management Entity (control plane element)        |
   | GTP   | GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Tunnel Protocol       |
   | S-IP  | Source IP address                                         |
   | D-IP  | Destination IP address                                    |
   | IMSI  | The International Mobile Subscriber Identity that         |
   |       | identifies a mobile subscriber                            |
   | (S)Gi | Egress termination point of the mobile network (SGi in    |
   |       | case of LTE, Gi in case of UMTS/HSPA). The internal data  |
   |       | structure of this interface is not standardized by 3GPP   |
   | PCRF  | 3GPP standardized Policy and Charging Rules Function      |
   | PCEF  | Policy and Charging Enforcement Function                  |
   | TDF   | Traffic Detection Function                                |
   | TSSF  | Traffic Steering Support Function                         |
   | IDS   | Intrusion Detection System                                |
   | FW    | Firewall                                                  |
   | ACL   | Access Control List                                       |
   | PEP   | Performance Enhancement Proxy                             |
   | IMS   | IP Multimedia Subsystem                                   |
   | LI    | Legal Intercept                                           |
   +-------+-----------------------------------------------------------+

                                  Table 1

1.2.  General scope of mobile service chains

   Current mobile access networks terminate at a mobile service creation
   point (called Packet Gateway) typically located at the edge of an
   operator IP backbone.  Within the mobile network, the user payload is
   encapsulated in 3GPP specific tunnels terminating eventually at the
   P-GW.  In many cases application-specific IP traffic is not directly
   exchanged between the original mobile network, more specific the
   P-GW, and an application platform, but will be forced to pass a set
   of service functions.  Network operators use these service functions
   to differentiate their services.

   In order to cope with the stringent requirements of 5G networks (cf.
   Section 1.3), we expect a new architecture to appear.  This
   architecture will surely make extensive use of virtualisation up to
   the RAN.  We also expect that IP packets will need to be processed
   much earlier than in the current 3GPP architecture.  In this context,



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   it is foreseeable that Service Function Chaining will play a
   substantial role when managing the chains network traffic will
   traverse.  We also expect new kinds of service functions specific to
   the radio access part to appear and that these new service functions
   will need to be managed by the SFC management infrastructure of the
   operator.

1.3.  Requirements for 5G networks

   As set forth by the 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership
   (5GPPP) [5], the evolution of the infrastructure towards 5G should
   enable the following features in the mobile environment:

   o  Providing 1000 times higher wireless area capacity

   o  Saving up to 90% of energy per service provided

   o  Reducing the average service creation time cycle from 90 hours to
      90 minutes

   o  Facilitating very dense deployments of wireless communication
      links to connect over 7 trillion wireless devices serving over 7
      billion people

1.3.1.  Evolution of the end-to-end carrier network

   [SFC-Mobile-UC] presents the structure of end-to-end carrier networks
   and focused on the Service Function Chaining use cases for mobile
   carrier networks, such as current 3GPP- based networks.  We recognise
   that other types of carrier networks that are currently deployed
   share similarities in the structure of the access networks and the
   service functions with mobile networks.  The evolution towards 5G
   networks will make the distinction between these different types of
   networks blur and eventually disappear.

   5G networks are expected to massively deploy virtualisation
   technologies from the radio elements to the core of the network.  The
   four building blocks of the RAN, i.e. i) spectrum allocation or
   physical layer (PHY), ii) Medium Access Control (MAC), iii) Radio
   Link Control (RLC) and iv) Packet Data Convergence, are candidates
   for virtualisation.

2.  Mobile network overview

   [SFC-Mobile-UC] provides an overview of mobile networks up to LTE
   (Long Term Evolution) networks.  As the specifications mature, we
   will provide the updates to the LTE architecture.




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2.1.  Building blocks of 4G and 5G networks

   The major functional components of an LTE network are shown in
   Figure 1 and include user equipment (UE) like smartphones or tablets,
   the LTE radio unit named enhanced NodeB (eNB), the serving gateway
   (S-GW) which together with the mobility management entity (MME) takes
   care of mobility and the packet gateway (P-GW), which finally
   terminates the actual mobile service.  These elements are described
   in detail in [ts-23-401].  Other important components are the home
   subscriber system (HSS), the Policy and Charging Rule Function (PCRF)
   and the optional components: the Traffic Detection Function (TDF) and
   the Traffic Steering Support Function (TSSF), which are described in
   [ts-23-203].  The P-GW interface towards the SGi-LAN is called the
   SGi-interface, which is described in [ts-29-061].  The TDF resides on
   this interface.  Finally, the SGi-LAN is the home of service function
   chains (SFC), which are not standardized by 3GPP.


   +--------------------------------------------+
   | Control Plane (C)      [HSS]               |  [OTT Appl. Platform]
   |                          |                 |             |
   |               +--------[MME]       [PCRF]--+--------+ Internet
   |               |          |            |    |        |    |
   |  [UE-C] -- [eNB-C] == [S-GW-C] == [P-GW-C] |        |    |
   +=====|=========|==========|============|====+  +-----+----+-------+
   |     |         |          |            |    |  |     |    |       |
   |  [UE-U] -- [eNB-U] == [S-GW-U] == [P-GW-U]-+--+----[SGi-LAN]     |
   |                                            |  |        |         |
   |                                            |  |        |         |
   |                                            |  | [Appl. Platform] |
   |                                            |  |                  |
   | User Plane (U)                             |  |                  |
   +--------------------------------------------+  +------------------+


                          Source [SFC-Mobile-UC]

   Figure 1: End to end context including all major components of an LTE
                                 network.

   Service Functions handle session flows between mobile user equipment
   and application platforms.  Control plane metadata supporting policy
   based traffic handling may be linked to individual service functions.
   In 5G networks, we expect the packet gateway (P-GW) to loose its
   central position and be integrated with functions in the RAN.  Radio
   Resource Control (RRC) in 5G network will be integrated into the
   Control Plane environment.




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2.1.1.  Classification schemes for 5G networks

   TBD: We expect classification schemes for 5G networks to evolve as
   the standards appear.

2.2.  Transport Network Considerations

   The role of an enhanced SDN controller will become fundamental in the
   context of cloudified RAN deployments.  RAN functions, e.g.  PHY,
   Medium Access Control (MAC), RRM, located either at the edge or in
   the core network need to be flexibly controlled according to their
   functional split.  This approach is also envisioned by e.g. 3GPP in
   its Rel. 14.

   A cRAN functional split takes place independently of other network
   management functionalities, the integrated SDN controller manages the
   transport network shall

   o  Jointly optimize RAN and Core network functions by leveraging on
      its centralized network control capabilities.

   o  Steer user flows across different network functions according to
      the functional split implemented in the network.

   SFC techniques are expected to play a fundamental role in this
   scenario.

2.3.  Control plane considerations

   TBD: We except the RRC to be integrated with the SFC Control plane in
   5G.

2.4.  Operator requirements

   4G mobile operators use service function chains to enable and
   optimize service delivery, offer network related customer services,
   optimize network behavior or protect networks against attacks and
   ensure privacy.  Service function chains are essential to their
   business.  Without these, mobile operators are not able to deliver
   the necessary and contracted Quality of Experience (QoE) or even
   certain products to their customers.

   Operators are forced to high efficiency with respect to cost and
   resources in deployment and operation to offer affordable services to
   their customers and, as we discussed in Section 1.3, the 5G
   Infrastructure Private-Public Partnership [6] has identified a set of
   additional requirements as the key differentiators for future
   networks.  To meet these additional requirements, operators will need



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   to make an extensive use of service chains and to extend their scope
   to functions in the Radio Access Network.

3.  New concepts for virtualised mobile networks

   Virtualisation and softwarization will be among the key technology
   introduced in the design of future 5G Network architecture.  They
   allow to decouple the binding between hardware and software
   components in a flexible way.  While used in conjunction with SFC,
   future mobile network may support the dynamical allocation of Network
   Functions (NFs) in network nodes and their orchestration according to
   the requirements of the implemented service.  These concepts will be
   the building blocks of the future 5G architecture.  Current efforts
   in the definition of SFC mostly focus on Core Network functions.  We
   believe that the cloudification of RAN functions will increase the
   flexiblity needed to support very demanding and heterogeneous
   services envisioned by future 5G Networks, and hence the definition
   of the SFC Dataplane elements must also take into account functions
   once considered monolithically embedded in the eNB.  In the next
   sections, we present some technical solutions that leverage on these
   novel concepts.

3.1.  Service-aware orchestration

   The current 3GPP LTE Mobile Network architecture offers a low
   flexibility.  Even by applying SFC techniques, specific network
   functions are executed in well-defined units (e.g., eNB and P-GW
   functions are carried out in dedicated hardware).  Moreover, those
   network equipment are usually physically located in precise
   locations.  This static approach burdens the flexibility needed by
   future 5G Networks.

   Softwarization and Virtualisation techniques allow for the flexible
   deployment of functions in the network.  Therefore, the placement and
   execution of network functions should not be driven by topological
   constraints, but rather on QoS ones such as the specific requirements
   of the implemented service (e.g., latency, bandwidth and reliability,
   among others), the radio characteristics and the transport network
   capacity.

   This approach enables the concurrent execution of different
   instantiations of the protocol stack in the same nework
   infrastructure, as envisioned by the network slicing concepts.  SFC
   is set to be a fundamental technology in this framework, allowing the
   dynamic deployment of different chains across many network slices
   spanning different cloud infrastructure arrangements.  Hence, network
   functions can be physically located into different zones of the
   network: near the transmission point (edge cloud) or in centralised



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   data centers (central cloud).  The choice on the orchestration of
   such network functions will hence happen on a per-service basis.


      Edge Cloud                                       Central Cloud
   +--------------------Vehicular Communications----------------------+
   | +----+ +----+ +----+ +----+                         +----+       |
   | | DR | | CR | | DC | | CC |                         | CC |       |
   | +----+ +----+ +----+ +----+                         +----+       |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   +--------------------Haptic Internet-------------------------------+
   | +----+ +----+ +----+                                +----+       |
   | | DR | | CR | | DC |                                | CC |       |
   | +----+ +----+ +----+                                +----+       |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   +--------------------Internet Access-------------------------------+
   |        +----+                        +----+ +----+ +----+ +----+ |
   |        | DR |                        | DR | | CR | | DC | | CC | |
   |        +----+                        +----+ +----+ +----+ +----+ |
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   DR: data plane RAN
   CR: control plane RAN
   DC: data plane Core
   CC: control plane Core

                          Source [SFC-Mobile-UC]

        Figure 2: Service-aware orchestration of network functions.

   In order to achieve a service aware orchestration described above,
   there are some challenges that need to be addressed.  They are
   illustrated by the following examples :

   o  Vehicular communications need low latency and sessionless
      connectivity.  Therefore, almost all the NFs belonging to this
      service should be located close to the transmission point,
      including those traditionally located in the core network;

   o  Haptic Internet applications require both low latency and session
      continuity.  Therefore, most of the network functions should be
      located close to the transmission point, but some control plane
      ones should be located in the core network;

   o  Internet access users do not usually have strict latency
      requirements.  Thus, the network functions related to them may be
      located in the core network, efficiently exploiting the
      multiplexing gain enabled by this kind of deployment.




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3.2.  Combining Access and Core

   Traditional architectures force a fixed topological relation between
   network functions, while in a virtualised architecture, as the one
   proposed above, these constraints are relaxed.  This difference is
   especially highlighted for access and core network functions.  While
   in a traditional architecture, these functions are usually executed
   in different parts of the network (e.g., the scheduler in the base
   station and a firewall in the centre of the network), a virtualised
   architecture blends the boundaries between access and core functions:
   their final location is decided on a functional basis.

   For instance, services with strict latency requirements may be
   located close to the transmission points, while services that can
   exploit centralisation may be located in the core data centre.  The
   application of this concept may end up with access and core functions
   sharing the same network location.  This fact enables possible
   improvements, as detailed in the following example.  Currently,
   mobility and scheduling decisions are taken separately.  The
   mobility-related network functions are traditionally located in the
   core network and their decisions are taken before scheduling ones,
   which are taken subsequently, in the access network.  It is important
   to note that a decision about mobility cannot be modified at the
   scheduling level.  With a fully virtualised architecture, the
   mobility and scheduler network functions may be co-located in the
   same network node, enabling a possible joint-optimisation between
   mobility and scheduling.

   However, this is only one example of possible optimisations that can
   be achieved using this kind of approach.  The proposed approach
   reduces high latencies introduced by the traditionally separated
   deployment of access and core domains.  Therefore, further
   optimisation may be introduced as the impact of signalling protocols
   is reduced.  SFC is expected to play a fundamental role in this
   picture, allowing the flexible chaining of network functions.

4.  Security Considerations

   Organizational security policies must apply to ensure the integrity
   of the SFC environment.

   SFC will very likely handle user traffic and user specific
   information in greater detail than the current service environments
   do today.  This is reflected in the considerations of carrying more
   metadata through the service chains and the control systems of the
   service chains.  This metadata will contain sensitive information
   about the user and the environment in which the user is situated.
   This will require proper considerations in the design, implementation



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   and operations of such environments to preserve the privacy of the
   user and also the integrity of the provided metadata.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

6.  Acknowledgements

   This work has been partially performed in the scope of the
   SUPERFLUIDITY project, which has received funding from the European
   Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant
   agreement No.671566 (Research and Innovation Action).  This work has
   also been partially performed in the framework of the H2020-ICT-
   2014-2 project 5G NORMA.  The authors would like to acknowledge the
   contributions of their colleagues.  This information reflects the
   consortium's view, but the consortium is not liable for any use that
   may be made of any of the information contained therein.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6459]  Korhonen, J., Ed., Soininen, J., Patil, B., Savolainen,
              T., Bajko, G., and K. Iisakkila, "IPv6 in 3rd Generation
              Partnership Project (3GPP) Evolved Packet System (EPS)",
              RFC 6459, DOI 10.17487/RFC6459, January 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6459>.

   [RFC7498]  Quinn, P., Ed. and T. Nadeau, Ed., "Problem Statement for
              Service Function Chaining", RFC 7498,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7498, April 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7498>.

   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7665>.








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7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-sfc-use-case-mobility]
              Haeffner, W., Napper, J., Stiemerling, M., Lopez, D., and
              J. Uttaro, "Service Function Chaining Use Cases in Mobile
              Networks", draft-ietf-sfc-use-case-mobility-05 (work in
              progress), October 2015.

   [fiveg]    "The 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership",
              <https://5g-ppp.eu/>.

   [ts-23-003]
              3GPP, ""Numbering, addressing and identification"",  ,
              July 2015.

   [ts-23-203]
              3GPP, "Policy and charging control architecture",
              TS 29.203, July 2015.

   [ts-23-401]
              3GPP, "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements
              for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
              (E-UTRAN) access", 3GPP YS 23.401, July 2015.

   [ts-29-061]
              3GPP, "Interworking between the Public Land Mobile
              Network(PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet
              Data Networks (PDN)", 3GPP TS 29.061, March 2015.

   [ts-29-212]
              3GPP, "3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved General
              Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for Control
              plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3", 3GPP TS , July 2015.

   [ts-29-274]
              3GPP, "3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS); Evolved General
              Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunneling Protocol for Control
              plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3", 3GPP 29.274, December 2013.

   [ts-29-281]
              3GPP, "General Packet Radio System (GPRS) Tunneling
              ProtocolUser Plane (GTPv1-U)", 3GPP TS , January 2015.

   [ts-33-210]
              3GPP, "3G security; Network Domain Security (NDS); IP
              network layer security", 3GPP TS 33.210, December 2012.





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7.3.  URIs

   [1] http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-
       2020/Pages/default.aspx

   [2] https://5g-ppp.eu

   [3] http://www.5gforum.org/#!eng/cvb1

   [4] http://www.imt-2020.cn/en/introduction

   [5] https://5g-ppp.eu

   [6] fiveg

Authors' Addresses

   Pedro A. Aranda Gutierrez

   Email: paaguti@gmail.com


   Marco Gramaglia
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad, 30
   Leganes  28911
   Spain

   Email: mgramagl@it.uc3m.es


   Diego R. Lopez
   Telefonica I+D
   Zurbaran, 12
   Madrid  28010
   Spain

   Email: diego@tid.es


   Walter Haeffner
   Vodafone D2 GmbH
   Ferdinand-Braun-Platz 1
   Duesseldorf  40549
   Germany

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