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Versions: 00 01 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 4187

Network Working Group                                           J. Arkko
Internet-Draft                                                  Ericsson
Expires: October 4, 2004                                    H. Haverinen
                                                                   Nokia
                                                           April 5, 2004


 Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for UMTS Authentication and
                        Key Agreement (EAP-AKA)
                   draft-arkko-pppext-eap-aka-12.txt

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 4, 2004.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document specifies an Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
   mechanism for authentication and session key distribution using the
   Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Authentication and
   Key Agreement (AKA) mechanism. UMTS AKA is based on symmetric keys,
   and runs typically in a UMTS Subscriber Identity Module, a smart card
   like device.

   EAP-AKA includes optional identity privacy support, optional result
   indications, and an optional fast re-authentication procedure.




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Table of Contents

   1.    Introduction and Motivation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.    Terms and Conventions Used in This Document  . . . . . . . .  5
   3.    Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.    Operation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   4.1   Identity Management  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.1.1 Format, Generation and Usage of Peer Identities  . . . . . . 13
   4.1.2 Communicating the Peer Identity to the Server  . . . . . . . 19
   4.1.3 Message Sequence Examples (Informative)  . . . . . . . . . . 24
   4.2   Fast Re-authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   4.2.1 General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   4.2.2 Comparison to UMTS AKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   4.2.3 Fast Re-authentication Identity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
   4.2.4 Fast Re-authentication Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   4.2.5 Fast Re-authentication Procedure when Counter is Too
         Small  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
   4.3   EAP-AKA Notifications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   4.3.1 General  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   4.3.2 Result Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
   4.4   Error Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   4.4.1 Peer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   4.4.2 Server Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   4.4.3 EAP-Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   4.4.4 EAP-Success  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
   4.5   Key Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
   5.    Message Format and Protocol Extensibility  . . . . . . . . . 44
   5.1   Message Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
   5.2   Protocol Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
   6.    Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   6.1   EAP-Request/AKA-Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   6.2   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
   6.3   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   6.4   EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
   6.5   EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject . . . . . . . . . . . 48
   6.6   EAP-Response/AKA-Synchronization-Failure . . . . . . . . . . 48
   6.7   EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   6.8   EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
   6.9   EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   6.10  EAP-Request/AKA-Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   6.11  EAP-Response/AKA-Notification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
   7.    Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   7.1   Table of Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
   7.2   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   7.3   AT_ANY_ID_REQ  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
   7.4   AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   7.5   AT_IDENTITY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
   7.6   AT_RAND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54



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   7.7   AT_AUTN  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   7.8   AT_RES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
   7.9   AT_AUTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   7.10  AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
   7.11  AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   7.12  AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_PADDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
   7.13  AT_CHECKCODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
   7.14  AT_RESULT_IND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
   7.15  AT_MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
   7.16  AT_COUNTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   7.17  AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   7.18  AT_NONCE_S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
   7.19  AT_NOTIFICATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
   7.20  AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
   8.    IANA and Protocol Numbering Considerations . . . . . . . . . 64
   9.    Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   9.1   Identity Protection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   9.2   Mutual Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   9.3   Flooding the Authentication Centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
   9.4   Key Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   9.5   Brute-Force and Dictionary Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
   9.6   Protection, Replay Protection and Confidentiality  . . . . . 67
   9.7   Negotiation Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   9.8   Protected Result Indications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
   9.9   Man-in-the-middle Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   9.10  Generating Random Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   10.   Security Claims  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
   11.   Acknowledgements and Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
         Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
         Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
         Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
   A.    Pseudo-Random Number Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
         Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 74


















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1. Introduction and Motivation

   This document specifies an Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
   mechanism for authentication and session key distribution using the
   UMTS AKA authentication mechanism [TS 33.102]. UMTS is a global third
   generation mobile network standard.

   AKA is based on challenge-response mechanisms and symmetric
   cryptography. AKA typically runs in a UMTS Subscriber Identity Module
   (USIM). Compared to the GSM mechanism, UMTS AKA provides
   substantially longer key lengths and mutual authentication.

   The introduction of AKA inside EAP allows several new applications.
   These include the following:

   o  The use of the AKA also as a secure PPP authentication method in
      devices that already contain an USIM.
   o  The use of the third generation mobile network authentication
      infrastructure in the context of wireless LANs
   o  Relying on AKA and the existing infrastructure in a seamless way
      with any other technology that can use EAP.

   AKA works in the following manner:

   o  The USIM and the home environment have agreed on a secret key
      beforehand.
   o  The actual authentication process starts by having the home
      environment produce an authentication vector, based on the secret
      key and a sequence number. The authentication vector contains a
      random part RAND, an authenticator part AUTN used for
      authenticating the network to the USIM, an expected result part
      XRES, a session key for integrity check IK, and a session key for
      encryption CK.
   o  The RAND and the AUTN are delivered to the USIM.
   o  The USIM verifies the AUTN, again based on the secret key and the
      sequence number. If this process is successful (the AUTN is valid
      and the sequence number used to generate AUTN is within the
      correct range), the USIM produces an authentication result, RES
      and sends this to the home environment.
   o  The home environment verifies the correct result from the USIM. If
      the result is correct, IK and CK can be used to protect further
      communications between the USIM and the home environment.

   When verifying AUTN, the USIM may detect that the sequence number the
   network uses is not within the correct range. In this case, the USIM
   calculates a sequence number synchronization parameter AUTS and sends
   it to the network. AKA authentication may then be retried with a new
   authentication vector generated using the synchronized sequence



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   number.

   For a specification of the AKA mechanisms and how the cryptographic
   values AUTN, RES, IK, CK and AUTS are calculated, see [TS 33.102].

   In EAP-AKA, the EAP server node obtains the authentication vectors,
   compares RES and XRES, and uses CK and IK in key derivation.

   In the third generation mobile networks, AKA is used both for radio
   network authentication and IP multimedia service authentication
   purposes. Different user identities and formats are used for these;
   the radio network uses the International Mobile Subscriber Identifier
   (IMSI), whereas the IP multimedia service uses the Network Access
   Identifier (NAI) [RFC2486].

2. Terms and Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   The terms and abbreviations "authenticator", "backend authentication
   server", "EAP server", "peer", "Silently Discard", "Master Session
   Key (MSK)", and "Extended Master Session Key (EMSK)" in this document
   are to be interpreted as described in [EAP].

   This document frequently uses the following terms and abbreviations:

   AAA protocol

         Authentication, Authorization and Accounting protocol

   AKA

         Authentication and Key Agreement

   AuC

         Authentication Centre. The mobile network element that can
         authenticate subscribers either in GSM or in UMTS networks.

   EAP

         Extensible Authentication Protocol
   [EAP]

   GSM




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         Global System for Mobile communications.

   NAI

         Network Access Identifier
   [RFC2486]

   AUTN

         Authentication value generated by the AuC which together with the
         RAND authenticates the server to the peer, 128 bits
   [TS 33.102]

   AUTS

         A value generated by the peer upon experiencing a synchronization
         failure, 112 bits.

   Fast Re-authentication Identity

         A fast re-authentication identity of the peer, including an NAI realm
         portion in environments where a realm is used. Used on re-
         authentication only.

   Fast Re-authentication Username

         The username portion of fast re-authentication identity, ie. not
         including any realm portions.

   Nonce

         A value that is used at most once or that is never repeated
         within the same cryptographic context. In general, a nonce can be
         predictable (e.g. a counter) or unpredictable (e.g. a random value).
         Since some cryptographic properties may depend on the randomness of
         the nonce, attention should be paid to whether a nonce is required
         to be random or not. In this document, the term nonce is only
         used to denote random nonces, and it is not used to denote counters.

   Permanent Identity

         The permanent identity of the peer, including an NAI realm
         portion in environments where a realm is used. The permanent
         identity is usually based on the IMSI. Used on full
         authentication only.

   Permanent Username




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         The username portion of permanent identity, ie. not including any
         realm portions.

   Pseudonym Identity

         A pseudonym identity of the peer, including an NAI realm portion
         in environments where a realm is used. Used on full authentication
         only.

   Pseudonym Username

         The username portion of pseudonym identity, ie. not including any
         realm portions.

   RAND

         Random number generated by the AuC, 128 bits
   [TS 33.102]
   .

   RES

         Authentication result from the peer, which together with the RAND
         authenticates the peer to the server, 128 bits
   [TS 33.102]

   SQN

         Sequence number used in the authentication process, 48 bits
   [TS 33.102]

   SIM

         Subscriber Identity Module. The SIM is traditionally a smart
         card distributed by a GSM operator.

   SRES

         The authentication result parameter in GSM, corresponds to the
         RES parameter in UMTS aka, 32 bits.

   USIM

         UMTS Subscriber Identity Module. USIM is an application that is
         resident e.g. on smart cards distributed by UMTS operators.






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3. Protocol Overview

   Figure 1 shows the basic successful full authentication exchange in
   EAP-AKA, when optional result indications are not used. The
   authenticator typically communicates with an EAP server that is
   located on a backend authentication server using an AAA protocol. The
   authenticator shown in the figure is often simply relaying EAP
   messages to and from the EAP server, but these back end AAA
   communications are not shown. At the minimum, EAP-AKA uses two
   roundtrips to authorize the user and generate session keys. As in
   other EAP schemes, an identity request/response message pair is
   usually exchanged first. On full authentication, the peer's identity
   response includes either the user's International Mobile Subscriber
   Identity (IMSI), or a temporary identity (pseudonym) if identity
   privacy is in effect, as specified in Section 4.1. (As specified in
   [EAP], the initial identity request is not required, and MAY be
   bypassed in cases where the network can presume the identity, such as
   when using leased lines, dedicated dial-ups, etc. Please see also
   Section 4.1.2 for specification how to obtain the identity via EAP
   AKA messages.)

   After obtaining the subscriber identity, the EAP server obtains an
   authentication vector (RAND, AUTN, RES, CK, IK) for use in
   authenticating the subscriber. From the vector, the EAP server
   derives the keying material, as specified in Section 4.5. The vector
   may be obtained by contacting an Authentication Centre (AuC) on the
   UMTS network; per UMTS specifications, several vectors may be
   obtained at a time. Vectors may be stored in the EAP server for use
   at a later time, but they may not be reused.

   Next, the EAP server starts the actual AKA protocol by sending an
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge message. EAP-AKA packets encapsulate
   parameters in attributes, encoded in a Type, Length, Value format.
   The packet format and the use of attributes are specified in Section
   5. The EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge message contains a RAND random
   number (AT_RAND) and a network authentication token (AT_AUTN), and a
   message authentication code AT_MAC. The EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge
   message MAY optionally contain encrypted data, which is used for
   identity privacy and fast re-authentication support, as described in
   Section 4.1. The AT_MAC attribute contains a message authentication
   code covering the EAP packet. The encrypted data is not shown in the
   figures of this section.

   The peer runs the AKA algorithm (typically using a USIM) and verifies
   the AUTN. If this is successful, the peer is talking to a legitimate
   EAP server and proceeds to send the EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge. This
   message contains a result parameter that allows the EAP server in
   turn to authenticate the peer, and the AT_MAC attribute to integrity



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   protect the EAP message.

   The EAP server verifies that the RES and the MAC in the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Challenge packet are correct. Because protected success
   indications are not used in this example, the EAP server sends the
   EAP-Success packet, indicating that the authentication was
   successful. (Protected success indications are discussed in Section
   4.3.2.)  The EAP server may also include derived keying material in
   the message it sends to the authenticator. The peer has derived the
   same keying material, so the authenticator does not forward the
   keying material to the peer along with EAP-Success.

       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                      EAP-Request/Identity             |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes user's NAI)                                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server runs UMTS algorithms, |
          |                            | generates RAND and AUTN.     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                         EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge     |
          |                         (AT_RAND, AT_AUTN, AT_MAC)    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
      | Peer runs UMTS algorithms on USIM,  |                     |
      | verifies AUTN and MAC, derives RES  |                     |
      | and session key                     |                     |
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge                            |
          | (AT_RES, AT_MAC)                                      |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |                          | Server checks the given RES,   |
          |                          | and MAC and finds them correct.|
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |                                          EAP-Success  |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|

            Figure 1: EAP-AKA full authentication procedure

   Figure 2 shows how the EAP server rejects the Peer due to a failed
   authentication.






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       Peer                                              Authenticator
          |                      EAP-Request/Identity             |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes user's NAI)                                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server runs UMTS algorithms, |
          |                            | generates RAND and AUTN.     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                      EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge        |
          |                      (AT_RAND, AT_AUTN, AT_MAC)       |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
      | Peer runs UMTS algorithms on USIM,  |                     |
      | possibly verifies AUTN, and sends an|                     |
      | invalid response                    |                     |
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge                            |
          | (AT_RES, AT_MAC)                                      |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |              +------------------------------------------+
          |              | Server checks the given RES and the MAC, |
          |              | and finds one of them incorrct.          |
          |              +------------------------------------------+
          |                      EAP-Request/AKA-Notification     |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Notification                         |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                          EAP-Failure  |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|

                  Figure 2: Peer authentication fails

   Figure 3 shows the peer rejecting the AUTN of the EAP server.

   The peer sends an explicit error message (EAP-Response/
   AKA-Authentication-Reject) to the EAP server, as usual in AKA when
   AUTN is incorrect. This allows the EAP server to produce the same
   error statistics as AKA in general produces in UMTS.










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        Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                      EAP-Request/Identity             |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes user's NAI)                                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server runs UMTS algorithms, |
          |                            | generates RAND and a bad AUTN|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                         EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge     |
          |                         (AT_RAND, AT_AUTN, AT_MAC)    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
      | Peer runs UMTS algorithms on USIM   |                     |
      | and discovers AUTN that can not be  |                     |
      | verified                            |                     |
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject                |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                          EAP-Failure  |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|

                 Figure 3: Network authentication fails

   The AKA uses shared secrets between the Peer and the Peer's home
   operator together with a sequence number to actually perform an
   authentication. In certain circumstances it is possible for the
   sequence numbers to get out of sequence. Figure 4 shows what happens
   then.





















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        Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                      EAP-Request/Identity             |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes user's NAI)                                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server runs UMTS algorithms, |
          |                            | generates RAND and AUTN.     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                         EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge     |
          |                         (AT_RAND, AT_AUTN, AT_MAC)    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
      | Peer runs UMTS algorithms on USIM   |                     |
      | and discovers AUTN that contains an |                     |
      | inappropriate sequence number       |                     |
      +-------------------------------------+                     |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Synchronization-Failure              |
          | (AT_AUTS)                                             |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                              +---------------------------+
          |                              | Perform resynchronization |
          |                              | Using AUTS and            |
          |                              | the sent RAND             |
          |                              +---------------------------+
          |                                                       |

               Figure 4: Sequence number synchronization

   After the resynchronization process has taken place in the server and
   AAA side, the process continues by the server side sending a new
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge message.

   In addition to the full authentication scenarios described above,
   EAP-AKA includes a fast re-authentication procedure, which is
   specified in Section 4.2. Fast re-authentication is based on keys
   derived on full authentication. If the peer has maintained state
   information for re- authentication and wants to use fast
   re-authentication, then the peer indicates this by using a specific
   fast re-authentication identity instead of the permanent identity or
   a pseudonym identity. The fast re-authentication procedure is
   described in Section 4.2.

4. Operation






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4.1 Identity Management

4.1.1 Format, Generation and Usage of Peer Identities

4.1.1.1 General

   In the beginning of EAP authentication, the Authenticator or the EAP
   server usually issues the EAP-Request/Identity packet to the peer.
   The peer responds with EAP-Response/Identity, which contains the
   user's identity. The formats of these packets are specified in [EAP].

   UMTS subscribers are identified with the International Mobile
   Subscriber Identity (IMSI) [TS 23.003]. The IMSI is composed of a
   three digit Mobile Country Code (MCC), a two or three digit Mobile
   Network Code (MNC) and a not more than 10 digit Mobile Subscriber
   Identification Number (MSIN). In other words, the IMSI is a string of
   not more than 15 digits. MCC and MNC uniquely identify the GSM
   operator and  help identify the AuC from which the authentication
   vectors need to be retrieved for this subscriber.

   Internet AAA protocols identify users with the Network Access
   Identifier (NAI) [RFC2486]. When used in a roaming environment, the
   NAI is composed of a username and a realm, separated with "@"
   (username@realm). The username portion identifies the subscriber
   within the realm.

   This section specifies the peer identity format used in EAP-AKA. In
   this document, the term identity or peer identity refers to the whole
   identity string that is used to identify the peer. The peer identity
   may include a realm portion. "Username" refers to the portion of the
   peer identity that identifies the user, i.e. the username does not
   include the realm portion.

4.1.1.2 Identity Privacy Support

   EAP-AKA includes optional identity privacy (anonymity) support that
   can be used to hide the cleartext permanent identity and thereby to
   make the subscriber's EAP exchanges untraceable to eavesdroppers.
   Because the permanent identity never changes, revealing it would help
   observers to track the user. The permanent identity is usually based
   on the IMSI, which may further help the tracking, because the same
   identifier may be used in other contexts as well. Identity privacy is
   based on temporary identities, or pseudonyms, which are equivalent to
   but separate from the Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identities (TMSI)
   that are used on cellular networks. Please see Section 9.1 for
   security considerations regarding identity privacy.





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4.1.1.3 Username Types in EAP-AKA Identities

   There are three types of usernames in EAP-AKA peer identities:

   (1) Permanent usernames. For example, 0123456789098765@myoperator.com
   might be a valid permanent identity. In this example,
   0123456789098765 is the permanent username.

   (2) Pseudonym usernames. For example, 2s7ah6n9q@myoperator.com might
   be a valid pseudonym identity. In this example, 2s7ah6n9q is the
   pseudonym username.

   (3) Fast re-authentication usernames. For example,
   43953754@myoperator.com might be a valid fast re-authentication
   identity. In this case, 43953754 is the fast re-authentication
   username.

   The first two types of identities are only used on full
   authentication and the last one only on fast re-authentication. When
   the optional identity privacy support is not used, the non-pseudonym
   permanent identity is used on full authentication. The fast
   re-authentication exchange is specified in Section 4.2.

4.1.1.4 Username Decoration

   In some environments, the peer may need to decorate the identity by
   prepending or appending the username with a string, in order to
   indicate supplementary AAA routing information in addition to the NAI
   realm. (The usage of a NAI realm portion is not considered to be
   decoration.) Username decoration is out of the scope of this
   document. However, it should be noted that username decoration might
   prevent the server from recognizing a valid username. Hence, although
   the peer MAY use username decoration in the identities the peer
   includes in EAP-Response/Identity, and the EAP server MAY accept a
   decorated peer username in this message, the peer or the EAP server
   MUST NOT decorate any other peer identities that are used in various
   EAP-AKA attributes. Only the identity used in EAP-Response/Identity
   may be decorated.

4.1.1.5 NAI Realm Portion

   The peer MAY include a realm portion in the peer identity, as per the
   NAI format. The use of a realm portion is not mandatory.

   If a realm is used, the realm MAY be chosen by the subscriber's home
   operator and it MAY a configurable parameter in the EAP-SIM peer
   implementation. In this case, the peer is typically configured with
   the NAI realm of the home operator. Operators MAY reserve a specific



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   realm name for EAP-AKA users. This convention makes it easy to
   recognize that the NAI identifies a UMTS subscriber. Such reserved
   NAI realm may be useful as a hint as to the first authentication
   method to use during method negotiation. When the peer is using a
   pseudonym username instead of the permanent username, the peer
   selects the realm name portion similarly as it select the realm
   portion when using the permanent username.

   If no configured realm name is available, the peer MAY derive the
   realm name from the MCC and MNC portions of the IMSI. A RECOMMENDED
   way to derive the realm from the IMSI using the realm 3gppnetwork.org
   will be specified in [Draft 3GPP TS 23.003].

   Some old implementations derive the realm name from the IMSI by
   concatenating "mnc", the MNC digits of IMSI, ".mcc", the MCC digits
   of IMSI and ".owlan.org". For example, if the IMSI is
   123456789098765, and the MNC is three digits long, then the derived
   realm name is "mnc456.mcc123.owlan.org". As there are no DNS servers
   running at owlan.org, these realm names can only be used with
   manually configured AAA routing. New implementations SHOULD use the
   mechanism specified in [Draft 3GPP TS 23.003] instead of owlan.org as
   soon as the 3GPP specification is finalized.

   The IMSI is a string of digits without any explicit structure, so the
   peer may not be able to determine the length of the MNC portion. If
   the peer is not able to determine whether the MNC is two or three
   digits long, the peer MAY use a 3-digit MNC. If the correct length of
   the MNC is two, then the MNC used in the realm name includes the
   first digit of MSIN. Hence, when configuring AAA networks for
   operators that have 2-digit MNC's, the network SHOULD also be
   prepared for realm names with incorrect 3-digit MNC's.

4.1.1.6 Format of the Permanent Username

   The non-pseudonym permanent username SHOULD be derived from the IMSI.
   In this case, the permanent username MUST be of the format "0" |
   IMSI, where the character "|" denotes concatenation. In other words,
   the first character of the username is the digit zero (ASCII value 30
   hexadecimal), followed by the IMSI. The IMSI is an ASCII string that
   consists of not more than 15 decimal digits (ASCII values between 30
   and 39 hexadecimal), one character per IMSI digit, in the order as
   specified in [TS 23.003]. For example, a permanent username derived
   from the IMSI 295023820005424 would be encoded as the ASCII string
   "0295023820005424"  (byte values in hexadecimal notation: 30 32 39 35
   30 32 33 38 32 30 30 30 35 34 32 34)

   The EAP server MAY use the leading "0" as a hint to try EAP-AKA as
   the first authentication method during method negotiation, rather



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   than for example EAP-SIM. The EAP-AKA server MAY propose EAP-AKA even
   if the leading character was not "0".

   Alternatively, an implementation MAY choose a permanent username that
   is not based on the IMSI. In this case the selection of the username,
   its format, and its processing is out of the scope of this document.
   In this case, the peer implementation MUST NOT prepend any leading
   characters to the username.

4.1.1.7 Generating Pseudonyms and Fast Re-authentication Identities by
        the Server

   Pseudonym usernames and fast re-authentication identities are
   generated by the EAP server. The EAP server produces pseudonym
   usernames and fast re-authentication identities in an
   implementation-dependent manner. Only the EAP server needs to be able
   to map the pseudonym username to the permanent identity, or to
   recognize a fast re-authentication identity.

   EAP-AKA includes no provisions to ensure that the same EAP server
   that generated a pseudonym username will be used on the
   authentication exchange when the pseudonym username is used. It is
   recommended that the EAP servers implement some centralized mechanism
   to allow all EAP servers of the home operator to map pseudonyms
   generated by other severs to the permanent identity. If no such
   mechanism is available, then the EAP server failing to understand a
   pseudonym issued by another server can request the peer to send the
   permanent identity.

   When issuing a fast re-authentication identity, the EAP server may
   include a realm name in the identity to make the fast
   re-authentication request be forwarded to the same EAP server.

   When generating fast re-authentication identities, the server SHOULD
   choose a fresh new fast re-authentication identity that is different
   from the previous ones used within a same reauthentication context.
   The fast re-authentication identity SHOULD include a random
   component. The random component works as a full authentication
   context identifier. A context-specific fast re-authentication
   identity can help the server to detect whether its fast
   re-authentication state information matches the peer's fast
   re-authentication state information (in other words whether the state
   information is from the same full authentication exchange). The
   random component also makes the fast re-authentication identities
   unpredictable, so an attacker cannot initiate a fast
   re-authentication exchange to get the server's EAP-Request/SIM/
   Re-authentication packet.




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   Regardless of construction method, the pseudonym username MUST
   conform to the grammar specified for the username portion of an NAI.
   The fast re-authentication identity also MUST conform to the NAI
   grammar. The EAP servers that the subscribers of an operator can use
   MUST ensure that the pseudonym usernames and the username portions
   used in fast re-authentication identities they generate are unique.

   In any case, it is necessary that permanent usernames, pseudonym
   usernames and fast re-authentication usernames are separate and
   recognizable from each other. It is also desirable that EAP-SIM and
   EAP-AKA user names be recognizable from each other as an aid for the
   server to which method to offer.

   In general, it is the task of the EAP server and the policies of its
   administrator to ensure sufficient separation in the usernames.
   Pseudonym usernames and fast re-authentication usernames are both
   produced and used by the EAP server. The EAP server MUST compose
   pseudonym usernames and fast re-authentication usernames so that it
   can recognize if a NAI username is an EAP-AKA pseudonym username or
   an EAP-AKA fast re-authentication username. For instance, when the
   usernames have been derived from the IMSI, the server could use
   different leading characters in the pseudonym usernames and fast
   re-authentication usernames (e.g. the pseudonym could begin with a
   leading "2" character). When mapping a fast re-authentication
   identity to a permanent identity, the server SHOULD only examine the
   username portion of the fast re-authentication identity and ignore
   the realm portion of the identity.

   Because the peer may fail to save a pseudonym username sent to in an
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge, for example due to malfunction, the EAP
   server SHOULD maintain at least the most recently used pseudonym
   username in addition to the most recently issued pseudonym username.
   If the authentication exchange is not completed successfully, then
   the server SHOULD NOT overwrite the pseudonym username that was
   issued during the most recent successful authentication exchange.

4.1.1.8 Transmitting Pseudonyms and Fast Re-authentication Identities to
        the Peer

   The server transmits pseudonym usernames and fast re-authentication
   identities to the peer in cipher, using the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

   The EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge message MAY include an encrypted
   pseudonym username and/or an encrypted fast re-authentication
   identity in the value field of the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute. Because
   identity privacy support and fast re-authentication are optional to
   implement, the peer MAY ignore the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute and always
   use the permanent identity. On fast re-authentication (discussed in



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   Section 4.2), the server MAY include a new encrypted fast
   re-authentication identity in the EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication
   message.

   On receipt of the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge, the peer MAY decrypt the
   encrypted data in AT_ENCR_DATA and if a pseudonym username is
   included, the peer may use the obtained pseudonym username on the
   next full authentication. If a fast re-authentication identity is
   included, then the peer MAY save it together with other fast
   re-authentication state information, as discussed in Section 4.2, for
   the next re- authentication.

   If the peer does not receive a new pseudonym username in the EAP-
   Request/AKA-Challenge message, the peer MAY use an old pseudonym
   username instead of the permanent username on next full
   authentication. The username portions of fast re-authentication
   identities are one-time usernames, which the peer MUST NOT re-use.
   When the peer uses a fast re-authentication identity in an EAP
   exchange, the peer MUST discard the fast re-authentication identity
   and not re-use it in another EAP authentication exchange, even if the
   authentication exchange was not completed.

4.1.1.9 Usage of the Pseudonym by the Peer

   When the optional identity privacy support is used on full
   authentication, the peer MAY use a pseudonym username received as
   part of a previous full authentication sequence as the username
   portion of the NAI. The peer MUST NOT modify the pseudonym username
   received in AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM. However, as discussed above, the peer
   MAY need to decorate the username in some environments by appending
   or prepending the username with a string that indicates supplementary
   AAA routing information.

   When using a pseudonym username in an environment where a realm
   portion is used, the peer concatenates the received pseudonym
   username with the "@" character and a NAI realm portion. The
   selection of the NAI realm is discussed above. The peer can select
   the realm portion similarly regardless of whether it uses the
   permanent username or a pseudonym username.

4.1.1.10 Usage of the Fast Re-authentication Identity by the Peer

   On fast re-authentication, the peer uses the fast re-authentication
   identity, received as part of the previous authentication sequence. A
   new fast re-authentication identity may be delivered as part of both
   full authentication and fast re-authentication. The peer MUST NOT
   modify the username part of the fast re-authentication identity
   received in AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID, except in cases when username



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   decoration is required. Even in these cases, the "root" fast
   re-authentication username must not be modified, but it may be
   appended or prepended with another string.

4.1.2 Communicating the Peer Identity to the Server

4.1.2.1 General

   The peer identity MAY be communicated to the server with the
   EAP-Response/Identity message. This message MAY contain the permanent
   identity, a pseudonym identity, or a fast re-authentication identity.
   If the peer uses the permanent identity or a pseudonym identity,
   which the server is able to map to the permanent identity, then the
   authentication proceeds as discussed in the overview of Section 3. If
   the peer uses a fast re-authentication identity, and if the fast
   re-authentication identity matches with a valid fast
   re-authentication identity maintained by the server , then a fast
   re-authentication exchange is performed, as described in Section 4.2.

   The peer identity can also be transmitted from the peer to the server
   using EAP-AKA messages instead of EAP-Response/Identity. In this
   case, the server includes an identity requesting attribute
   (AT_ANY_ID_REQ, AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ or AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ) in the
   EAP-Request/AKA-Identity message, and the peer includes the
   AT_IDENTITY attribute, which contains the peer's identity, in the
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message. The AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute is a
   general identity requesting attribute, which the server uses if it
   does not specify which kind of an identity the peer should return in
   AT_IDENTITY. The server uses the AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ attribute to
   request either the permanent identity or a pseudonym identity. The
   server uses the AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ attribute to request the peer to
   send its permanent identity. The EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge,
   EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge, or the packets used on fast
   re-authentication may optionally include the AT_CHECKCODE attribute,
   which enables the protocol peers to ensure the integrity of the
   AKA-Identity packets. AT_CHECKCODE is specified in Section 7.13.

   The identity format in the AT_IDENTITY attribute is the same as in
   the EAP-Response/Identity packet (except that identity decoration is
   not allowed). The AT_IDENTITY attribute contains a permanent
   identity, a pseudonym identity or a fast re-authentication identity.

   Obtaining the subscriber identity via EAP-AKA messages is useful if
   the server does not have any EAP-AKA peer identity at the beginning
   of the EAP-AKA exchange or does not recognize the identity the peer
   used in EAP-Response/Identity.  This may happen if, for example, the
   EAP-Response/Identity has been issued by some EAP method other than
   EAP-AKA or if intermediate entities or software layers in the peer



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   have modified the identity string in the EAP-Response/Identity
   packet. Also, some EAP layer implementations may cache the identity
   string from the first EAP authentication and do not obtain a new
   identity string from the EAP method implementation on subsequent
   authentication exchanges.

   As the identity string is used in key derivation, any of these cases
   will result in failed authentication unless the EAP server uses
   EAP-AKA attributes to obtain an unmodified copy of the identity
   string.  Therefore, unless the EAP server can be certain that no
   intermediate element or software layer has modified the EAP-
   Response/Identity packet, the EAP server MUST use the EAP-AKA
   attributes to obtain the identity, even if the identity received in
   EAP-Response/Identity was valid.

   Please note that the EAP-AKA peer and the EAP-AKA server only process
   the AT_IDENTITY attribute and entities that only pass through EAP
   packets do not process this attribute. Hence, if the EAP server is
   not co-located in the authenticator, then the authenticator and other
   intermediate AAA elements (such as possible AAA proxy servers) will
   continue to refer to the peer with the original identity from the
   EAP-Response/Identity packet regardless of whether the AT_IDENTITY
   attribute is used in EAP-AKA to transmit another identity.

4.1.2.2 Choice of Identity for the EAP-Response/Identity

   If EAP-AKA peer is started upon receiving an EAP-Request/Identity
   message, then the peer performs the following steps.

   If the peer has maintained fast re-authentication state information
   and if the peer wants to use fast re-authentication, then the peer
   transmits the fast re-authentication identity in EAP-Response/
   Identity.

   Else, if the peer has a pseudonym username available, then the peer
   transmits the pseudonym identity in EAP-Response/Identity.

   In other cases, the peer transmits the permanent identity in
   EAP-Response/Identity.

4.1.2.3 Server Operation in the Beginning of EAP-AKA Exchange

   If the EAP server has not received any EAP-AKA peer identity
   (permanent identity, pseudonym identity or fast re-authentication
   identity) from the peer when sending the first EAP-AKA request, or if
   the EAP server has received an EAP-Response/Identity packet but the
   contents do not appear to be a valid permanent identity, pseudonym
   identity or a re- authentication identity, then the server MUST



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   request an identity from the peer using one of the methods below.

   The server sends the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity message with the
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ message to indicate that the server wants the
   peer to include the permanent identity in the AT_IDENTITY attribute
   of the EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message. This is done in the
   following cases:

   o  The server does not support fast re-authentication or identity
      privacy.
   o  The server received an identity that it recognizes as a pseudonym
      identity but the server is not able to map the pseudonym identity
      to a permanent identity.

   o  The server issues the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet with the
      AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ attribute to indicate that the server wants the
      peer to include a full authentication identity (pseudonym identity
      or permanent identity) in the AT_IDENTITY attribute of the
      EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message.  This is done in the following
      cases:
   o  The server does not support fast re-authentication and the server
      supports identity privacy
   o  The server received an identity that it recognizes as a re-
      authentication identity but the server is not able to map the re-
      authentication identity to a permanent identity

   The server issues the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet with the
   AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute to indicate that the server wants the peer to
   include an identity in the AT_IDENTITY attribute of the EAP-Response/
   SIM/Start message, and the server does not indicate any preferred
   type for the identity. This is done in other cases, such as when the
   server does not have any identity, or the server does not recognize
   the format of a received identity.

4.1.2.4 Processing of EAP-Request/AKA-Identity by the Peer

   Upon receipt of an EAP-Request/AKA-Identity message, the peer MUST
   perform the following steps.

   If the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity includes AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, and if
   the peer does not have a pseudonym available, then the peer MUST
   respond with EAP-Response/AKA-Identity and include the permanent
   identity in AT_IDENTITY. If the peer has a pseudonym available, then
   the peer MAY refuse to send the permanent identity; hence in this
   case the peer MUST either respond with EAP-Response/AKA-Identity and
   include the permanent identity in AT_IDENTITY or respond with
   EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error packet with code "unable to process
   packet".



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   If the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity includes AT_FULL_AUTH_ID_REQ, and if
   the peer has a pseudonym available, then the peer SHOULD respond with
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity and include the pseudonym identity in
   AT_IDENTITY. If the peer does not have a pseudonym when it receives
   this message, then the peer MUST respond with EAP-Response/
   AKA-Identity and include the permanent identity in AT_IDENTITY. The
   Peer MUST NOT use a fast re-authentication identity in the
   AT_IDENTITY attribute.

   If the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity includes AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and if the
   peer has maintained fast re-authentication state information and the
   peer wants to use fast re-authentication, then the peer responds with
   EAP- Response/AKA-Identity and includes the fast re-authentication
   identity in AT_IDENTITY. Else, if the peer has a pseudonym identity
   available, then the peer responds with EAP-Response/AKA-Identity and
   includes the pseudonym identity in AT_IDENTITY. Else, the peer
   responds with EAP-Response/AKA-Identity and includes the permanent
   identity in AT_IDENTITY.

   An EAP-AKA exchange may include several EAP/AKA-Identity rounds. The
   server may issue a second EAP-Request/AKA-Identity, if it was not
   able to recognize the identity the peer used in the previous
   AT_IDENTITY attribute. At most three EAP/AKA-Identity rounds can be
   used, so the peer MUST NOT respond to more than three EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity messages within an EAP exchange. The peer MUST verify
   that the sequence of EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packets the peer
   receives comply with the sequencing rules defined in this document.
   That is, AT_ANY_ID_REQ can only be used in the first EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity, in other words AT_ANY_ID_REQ MUST NOT be used in the
   second or third EAP-Request/AKA-Identity. AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ MUST NOT
   be used if the previous EAP-Request/AKA-Identity included
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ. The peer operation in cases when it receives an
   unexpected attribute or an unexpected message is specified in Section
   4.4.1.

4.1.2.5 Attacks against Identity Privacy

   The section above specifies two possible ways the peer can operate
   upon receipt of AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ. This is because a received
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ does not necessarily originate from the valid
   network, but an active attacker may transmit an EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity packet with an AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ attribute to the
   peer, in an effort to find out the true identity of the user. If the
   peer does not want to reveal its permanent identity, then the peer
   sends the EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error packet with the error code
   "unable to process packet", and the authentication exchange
   terminates.




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   Basically, there are two different policies that the peer can employ
   with regard to AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ. A "conservative" peer assumes
   that the network is able to maintain pseudonyms robustly. Therefore,
   if a conservative peer has a pseudonym username, the peer responds
   with EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error to the EAP packet with
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, because the peer believes that the valid network
   is able to map the pseudonym identity to the peer's permanent
   identity. (Alternatively, the conservative peer may accept
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ in certain circumstances, for example if the
   pseudonym was received a long time ago.) The benefit of this policy
   is that it protects the peer against active attacks on anonymity. On
   the other hand, a "liberal" peer always accepts the
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ and responds with the permanent identity. The
   benefit of this policy is that it works even if the valid network
   sometimes loses pseudonyms and is not able to map them to the
   permanent identity.

4.1.2.6 Processing of AT_IDENTITY by the Server

   When the server receives an EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message with
   the AT_IDENTITY (in response to the server's identity requesting
   attribute), the server MUST operate as follows.

   If the server used AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, and if the AT_IDENTITY does
   not contain a valid permanent identity, then the server sends an
   EAP-Request/AKA-Notification packet with AT_NOTIFICATION code 16384
   to terminate the EAP exchange. If the server recognizes the permanent
   identity and is able to continue, then the server proceeds with full
   authentication by sending EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge.

   If the server used AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ, and if AT_IDENTITY contains a
   valid permanent identity or a pseudonym identity that the server can
   map to a valid permanent identity, then the server proceeds with full
   authentication by sending EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge. If AT_IDENTITY
   contains a pseudonym identity that the server is not able to map to a
   valid permanent identity, or an identity that the server is not able
   to recognize or classify, then the server sends EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity with AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ.

   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and if the AT_IDENTITY contains a
   valid permanent identity or a pseudonym identity that the server can
   map to a valid permanent identity, then the server proceeds with full
   authentication by sending EAP-Request/ AKA-Challenge.

   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and if AT_IDENTITY contains a valid
   fast re-authentication identity and the server agrees on using re-
   authentication, then the server proceeds with fast re-authentication
   by sending EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication (Section 4.2).



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   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and if the peer sent an
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity with AT_IDENTITY that contains an identity
   that the server recognizes as a fast re-authentication identity, but
   the server is not able to map the identity to a permanent identity,
   then the server sends EAP-Request/AKA-Identity with
   AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ.

   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and if AT_IDENTITY contains a valid
   fast re-authentication identity, which the server is able to map to a
   permanent identity, and if the server does not want to use fast
   re-authentication, then the server proceeds with full authentication
   by sending EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge.

   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and AT_IDENTITY contains an
   identity that the server recognizes as a pseudonym identity but the
   server is not able to map the pseudonym identity to a permanent
   identity, then the server sends EAP-Request/AKA-Identity with
   AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ.

   If the server used AT_ANY_ID_REQ, and AT_IDENTITY contains an
   identity that the server is not able to recognize or classify, then
   the server sends EAP-Request/AKA-Identity with AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ.

4.1.3 Message Sequence Examples (Informative)

   This section contains non-normative message sequence examples to
   illustrate how the peer identity can be communicated to the server.

4.1.3.1 Usage of AT_ANY_ID_REQ

   Obtaining the peer identity with EAP-AKA attributes is illustrated in
   Figure 5 below.



















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       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                                                       |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not have any     |
          |                            | Subscriber identity available|
          |                            | When starting EAP-AKA        |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |          EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                     |
          |          (AT_ANY_ID_REQ)                              |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY)                                         |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |

                    Figure 5: Usage of AT_ANY_ID_REQ


4.1.3.2 Fall Back on Full Authentication

   Figure 6 illustrates the case when the server does not recognize the
   fast re-authentication identity the peer used in AT_IDENTITY.




























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       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                                                       |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not have any     |
          |                            | Subscriber identity available|
          |                            | When starting EAP-AKA        |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |        EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                       |
          |        (AT_ANY_ID_REQ)                                |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY containing a fast re-auth. identity)     |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not recognize    |
          |                            | The fast re-auth.            |
          |                            | Identity                     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |     EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                          |
          |     (AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ)                              |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY with a full-auth. Identity)              |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |

               Figure 6: Fall back on full authentication

   If the server recognizes the fast re-authentication identity, but
   still wants to fall back on full authentication, the server may issue
   the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge packet. In this case, the full
   authentication procedure proceeds as usual.

4.1.3.3 Requesting the Permanent Identity 1

   Figure 7 illustrates the case when the EAP server fails to decode a
   pseudonym identity included in the EAP-Response/Identity packet.













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       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                               EAP-Request/Identity    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes a pseudonym)                                |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server fails to decode the   |
          |                            | Pseudonym.                   |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |  EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                             |
          |  (AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ)                                |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY with permanent identity)                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |

             Figure 7: Requesting the permanent identity 1

   If the server recognizes the permanent identity, then the
   authentication sequence proceeds as usual with the EAP Server issuing
   the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge message.

4.1.3.4 Requesting the Permanent Identity 2

   Figure 8 illustrates the case when the EAP server fails to decode the
   pseudonym included in the AT_IDENTITY attribute.






















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       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                                                       |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not have any     |
          |                            | Subscriber identity available|
          |                            | When starting EAP-AKA        |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |        EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                       |
          |        (AT_ANY_ID_REQ)                                |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          |EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                              |
          |(AT_IDENTITY with a pseudonym identity)                |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server fails to decode the   |
          |                            | Pseudonym in AT_IDENTITY     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                EAP-Request/AKA-Identity               |
          |                (AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ)                  |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY with permanent identity)                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |

             Figure 8: Requesting the permanent identity 2


4.1.3.5 Three EAP/AKA-Identity Round Trips

   Figure 9 illustrates the case with three EAP/AKA-Identity round
   trips.


















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       Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                                                       |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not have any     |
          |                            | Subscriber identity available|
          |                            | When starting EAP-AKA        |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |        EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                       |
          |        (AT_ANY_ID_REQ)                                |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY with fast re-auth. identity)             |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server does not accept       |
          |                            | The fast re-authentication   |
          |                            | Identity                     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                                                       |
          :                                                       :
          :                                                       :





























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          :                                                       :
          :                                                       :
          |     EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                          |
          |     (AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ)                              |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                              |
          |(AT_IDENTITY with a pseudonym identity)                |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |                            | Server fails to decode the   |
          |                            | Pseudonym in AT_IDENTITY     |
          |                            +------------------------------+
          |           EAP-Request/AKA-Identity                    |
          |           (AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ)                       |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Identity                             |
          | (AT_IDENTITY with permanent identity)                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |

                  Figure 9: Three EAP-AKA Start rounds

   After the last EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message, the full
   authentication sequence proceeds as usual.

4.2 Fast Re-authentication

4.2.1 General

   In some environments, EAP authentication may be performed frequently.
   Because the EAP-AKA full authentication procedure makes use of the
   UMTS AKA algorithms, and it therefore requires fresh authentication
   vectors from the Authentication Centre, the full authentication
   procedure may result in many network operations when used very
   frequently. Therefore, EAP-AKA includes a more inexpensive fast
   re-authentication procedure that does not make use of the UMTS AKA
   algorithms and does not need new vectors from the Authentication
   Centre.

   Fast re-authentication is optional to implement for both the EAP-AKA
   server and peer. On each EAP authentication, either one of the
   entities may also fall back on full authentication if they do not
   want to use fast re-authentication.

   Fast re-authentication is based on the keys derived on the preceding
   full authentication. The same K_aut and K_encr keys as in full
   authentication are used to protect EAP-AKA packets and attributes,
   and the original Master Key from full authentication is used to



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   generate a fresh Master Session Key, as specified in Section 4.5.

   The fast re-authentication exchange makes use of an unsigned 16-bit
   counter, included in the AT_COUNTER attribute. The counter has three
   goals: 1) it can be used to limit the number of successive
   reauthentication exchanges without full-authentication  2) it
   contributes to the keying material, and 3) it protects the peer and
   the server from replays. On full authentication, both the server and
   the peer initialize the counter to one. The counter value of at least
   one is used on the first fast re-authentication. On subsequent fast
   re-authentications, the counter MUST be greater than on any of the
   previous fast re-authentications. For example, on the second fast
   re-authentication, counter value is two or greater etc. The
   AT_COUNTER attribute is encrypted.

   Both the peer and the EAP server maintain a copy of the counter. The
   EAP server sends its counter value to the peer in the fast
   re-authentication request. The peer MUST verify that its counter
   value is less than or equal to the value sent by the EAP server.

   The server includes an encrypted server random nonce (AT_NONCE_S) in
   the fast re-authentication request. The AT_MAC attribute in the
   peer's response is calculated over NONCE_S to provide a challenge/
   response authentication scheme. The NONCE_S also contributes to the
   new Master Session Key.

   Both the peer and the server SHOULD have an upper limit for the
   number of subsequent fast re-authentications allowed before a full
   authentication needs to be performed. Because a 16-bit counter is
   used in fast re-authentication, the theoretical maximum number of re-
   authentications is reached when the counter value reaches FFFF
   hexadecimal. In order to use fast re-authentication, the peer and the
   EAP server need to store the following values: Master Key, latest
   counter value and the next fast re-authentication identity. K_aut,
   K_encr may either be stored or derived again from MK. The server may
   also need to store the permanent identity of the user.

4.2.2 Comparison to UMTS AKA

   When analyzing the fast re-authentication exchange, it may be helpful
   to compare it with the UMTS Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA)
   exchange, which it resembles closely. The counter corresponds to the
   UMTS AKA sequence number, NONCE_S corresponds to RAND, and AT_MAC in
   EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication corresponds to AUTN, the AT_MAC in
   EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication corresponds to RES,
   AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL corresponds to AUTS, and encrypting the counter
   corresponds to the usage of the Anonymity Key. Also the key
   generation on fast re-authentication with regard to random or fresh



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   material is similar to UMTS AKA -- the server generates the NONCE_S
   and counter values, and the peer only verifies that the counter value
   is fresh.

   It should also be noted that encrypting the AT_NONCE_S, AT_COUNTER or
   AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL attributes is not important to the security of
   the fast re-authentication exchange.

4.2.3 Fast Re-authentication Identity

   The fast re-authentication procedure makes use of separate re-
   authentication user identities. Pseudonyms and the permanent identity
   are reserved for full authentication only. If a fast
   re-authentication identity is lost and the network does not recognize
   it, the EAP server can fall back on full authentication. If the EAP
   server supports fast re-authentication, it MAY include the skippable
   AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID attribute in the encrypted data of EAP- Request/
   AKA-Challenge message. This attribute contains a new re-
   authentication identity for the next fast re-authentication. The
   attribute also works as a capability flag that indicates the fact
   that the server supports fast re-authentication, and that the server
   wants to continue using fast re-authentication within the current
   context. The peer MAY ignore this attribute, in which case it will
   use full authentication next time. If the peer wants to use fast
   re-authentication, it uses this fast re-authentication identity on
   next authentication. Even if the peer has a fast re-authentication
   identity, the peer MAY discard the re- authentication identity and
   use a pseudonym or the permanent identity instead, in which case full
   authentication MUST be performed. If the EAP server does not include
   the AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID in the encrypted data of EAP-Request/
   AKA-Challenge or EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication, then the peer MUST
   discard its current fast re-authentication state information and
   perform a full authentication next time.

   In environments where a realm portion is needed in the peer identity,
   the fast re-authentication identity received in AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID
   MUST contain both a username portion and a realm portion, as per the
   NAI format. The EAP Server can choose an appropriate realm part in
   order to have the AAA infrastructure route subsequent fast
   re-authentication related requests to the same AAA server. For
   example, the realm part MAY include a portion that is specific to the
   AAA server. Hence, it is sufficient to store the context required for
   fast re-authentication in the AAA server that performed the full
   authentication.

   The peer MAY use the fast re-authentication identity in the
   EAP-Response/Identity packet or, in response to server's
   AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute, the peer MAY use the fast re-authentication



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   identity in the AT_IDENTITY attribute of the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Identity packet. The peer MUST NOT modify the username portion of
   the fast re-authentication identity, but the peer MAY modify the
   realm portion or replace it with another realm portion.

   Even if the peer uses a fast re-authentication identity, the server
   may want to fall back on full authentication, for example because the
   server does not recognize the fast re-authentication identity or does
   not want to use fast re-authentication. If the server was able to
   decode the fast re-authentication identity to the permanent identity,
   the server issues the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge packet to initiate
   full authentication. If the server was not able to recover the peer's
   identity from the fast re-authentication identity, the server starts
   the full authentication procedure by issuing an EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity packet. This packet always starts a full authentication
   sequence if it does not include the AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute.

4.2.4 Fast Re-authentication Procedure

   Figure 10 illustrates the fast re-authentication procedure. In this
   example, the optional protected success indication is not used.
   Encrypted attributes are denoted with '*'. The peer uses its fast
   re-authentication identity in the EAP-Response/Identity packet. As
   discussed above, an alternative way to communicate the fast
   re-authentication identity to the server is for the peer to use the
   AT_IDENTITY attribute in the EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message. This
   latter case is not illustrated in the figure below, and it is only
   possible when the server requests the peer to send its identity by
   including the AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute in the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   packet.

   If the server recognizes the identity as a valid fast
   re-authentication identity, and if the server agrees on using fast
   re-authentication, then the server sends the EAP- Request/
   AKA-Reauthentication packet to the peer. This packet MUST include the
   encrypted AT_COUNTER attribute, with a fresh counter value, the
   encrypted AT_NONCE_S attribute that contains a random number chosen
   by the server, the AT_ENCR_DATA and the AT_IV attributes used for
   encryption, and the AT_MAC attribute that contains a message
   authentication code over the packet. The packet MAY also include an
   encrypted AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID attribute that contains the next fast
   re-authentication identity.

   Fast re-authentication identities are one-time identities. If the
   peer does not receive a new fast re-authentication identity, it MUST
   use either the permanent identity or a pseudonym identity on the next
   authentication to initiate full authentication.




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   The peer verifies that AT_MAC is correct and that the counter value
   is fresh (greater than any previously used value). The peer MAY save
   the next fast re-authentication identity from the encrypted
   AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID for next time. If all checks are successful, the
   peer responds with the EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication packet,
   including the AT_COUNTER attribute with the same counter value and
   the AT_MAC attribute.

   The server verifies the AT_MAC attribute and also verifies that the
   counter value is the same that it used in the EAP-Request/AKA-
   Reauthentication packet. If these checks are successful, the fast
   re-authentication has succeeded and the server sends the EAP-Success
   packet to the peer.

   If protected success indications (Section 4.3.2) were used, the
   EAP-Success packet would be preceded by an EAP-SIM notification
   round.

        Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                                                       |
          |                               EAP-Request/Identity    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes a fast re-authentication identity)          |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |                          | Server recognizes the identity |
          |                          | and agrees on using fast       |
          |                          | re-authentication              |
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |  EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication                     |
          |  (AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA, *AT_COUNTER,                   |
          |   *AT_NONCE_S, *AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID, AT_MAC)            |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |
          :                                                       :
          :                                                       :













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          :                                                       :
          :                                                       :
          |                                                       |
     +-----------------------------------------------+            |
     | Peer verifies AT_MAC and the freshness of     |            |
     | the counter. Peer MAY store the new re-       |            |
     | authentication identity for next re-auth.     |            |
     +-----------------------------------------------+            |
          |                                                       |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication                     |
          | (AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA, *AT_COUNTER with same value,    |
          |  AT_MAC)                                              |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |                          | Server verifies AT_MAC and     |
          |                          | the counter                    |
          |                          +--------------------------------+
          |                                          EAP-Success  |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          |                                                       |

                      Figure 10: Reauthentication


4.2.5 Fast Re-authentication Procedure when Counter is Too Small

   If the peer does not accept the counter value of EAP-Request/
   AKA-Reauthentication, it indicates the counter synchronization
   problem by including the encrypted AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL in
   EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication. The server responds with
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge to initiate a normal full authentication
   procedure. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Encrypted attributes are
   denoted with '*'.


















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        Peer                                             Authenticator
          |                               EAP-Request/Identity    |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
          | EAP-Response/Identity                                 |
          | (Includes a fast re-authentication identity)          |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |                                                       |
          |  EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication                     |
          |  (AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA, *AT_COUNTER,                   |
          |   *AT_NONCE_S, *AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID, AT_MAC)            |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
     +-----------------------------------------------+            |
     | AT_MAC is valid but the counter is not fresh. |            |
     +-----------------------------------------------+            |
          | EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication                     |
          | (AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA, *AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL,          |
          |  *AT_COUNTER, AT_MAC)                                 |
          |------------------------------------------------------>|
          |            +----------------------------------------------+
          |            | Server verifies AT_MAC but detects           |
          |            | That peer has included AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL|
          |            +----------------------------------------------+
          |                        EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge      |
          |<------------------------------------------------------|
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
     |                Normal full authentication follows.            |
     +---------------------------------------------------------------+
          |                                                       |

          Figure 11: Fast re-authentication counter too small

   In the figure above, the first three messages are similar to the
   basic fast re-authentication case. When the peer detects that the
   counter value is not fresh, it includes the AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL
   attribute in EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication. This attribute
   doesn't contain any data but it is a request for the server to
   initiate full authentication. In this case, the peer MUST ignore the
   contents of the server's AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID attribute.

   On receipt of AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL, the server verifies AT_MAC and
   verifies that AT_COUNTER contains the same counter value as in the
   EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication packet. If not, the server
   terminates the authentication exchange by sending the EAP-Request/
   AKA-Notification packet with AT_NOTIFICATION code 16384. If all
   checks on the packet are successful, the server transmits a
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge packet and the full authentication
   procedure is performed as usual. Since the server already knows the
   subscriber identity, it MUST NOT use the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity



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   packet to request the identity.

4.3 EAP-AKA Notifications

4.3.1 General

   The EAP server can use EAP-AKA notifications to convey localizable
   notifications and result indications (Section 4.3.2) to the peer.

   The server MUST use notifications in cases discussed in Section
   4.4.2.  When the EAP server issues an EAP-Request/AKA-Notification
   packet to the peer, the peer MUST process the notification packet.The
   peer MAY show a notification message to the user and the peer MUST
   respond to the EAP server with an EAP-Response/AKA-Notification
   packet, even if the peer did not recognize the notification code.

   An EAP-AKA full authentication exchange or a fast re-authentication
   exchange MUST NOT include more than one EAP-AKA notification round.

   The notification code is a 16-bit number. The most significant bit is
   called the Failure bit (F bit). The F bit specifies whether the
   notification implies failure. The code values with the F bit set to
   zero (code values 0...32767) are used on unsuccessful cases. The
   receipt of a notification code from this range implies failed EAP
   exchange, so the peer can use the notification as a failure
   indication. After receiving the EAP-Response/AKA-Notification for
   these notification codes, the server MUST send the EAP-Failure
   packet.

   The receipt of a notification code with the F bit set to one (values
   32768...65536) does not imply failure. Notification code 32768 has
   been reserved as a general notification code to indicate successful
   authentication.

   The second most significant bit of the notification code is called
   the Phase bit (P bit). It specifies at which phase of the EAP-AKA
   exchange the notification can be used. If the P bit is set to zero,
   the notification can only be used after  a successful EAP/
   AKA-Challenge round in full authentication or a successful EAP/
   AKA-Reauthentication round in reautentication. A re-authentication
   round is considered successful only if the peer has successfully
   verified AT_MAC and AT_COUNTER attributes, and does not include the
   AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL attribute in EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication.

   If the P bit is set to one, the notification can only by used before
   the EAP/AKA-Challenge round in full authentication or before the EAP/
   AKA-Reauthentication round in reauthentication.




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   Section 6.10  and Section 6.11 specify what other attributes must be
   included in the notification packets.

   Some of the notification codes are authorization related and hence
   not usually considered as part of the responsibility of an EAP
   method. However, they are included as part of EAP-AKA because there
   are currently no other ways to convey this information to the user in
   a localizable way, and the information is potentially useful for the
   user. An EAP-AKA server implementation may decide never to send these
   EAP-AKA notifications.

4.3.2 Result Indications

   As discussed in Section 4.4, the server and the peer use explicit
   error messages in all error cases. If the server detects an error
   after successful authentication, the server uses an EAP-AKA
   notification to indicate failure to the peer. In this case, the
   result indication is integrity and replay protected.

   By sending an EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge packet or an EAP-Response/
   AKA-Reauthentication packet (without AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL), the peer
   indicates that it has successfully authenticated the server and that
   the peer's local policy accepts the EAP exchange. In other words,
   these packets are implicit success indications from the peer to the
   server.

   EAP-AKA also supports optional protected success indications from the
   server to the peer. If the EAP server wants to use protected success
   indications, it includes the AT_RESULT_IND attribute in the
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge or the EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication
   packet. This attribute indicates, that the EAP server would like to
   use result indications in both successful and unsuccessful cases. If
   the peer also wants this, the peer includes AT_RESULT_IND in
   EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge or EAP-Response/AKA-Re-authentication. The
   peer MUST NOT include AT_RESULT_IND if it did not receive
   AT_RESULT_IND from the server. If both the peer and the server used
   AT_RESULT_IND, then the EAP exchange is not complete yet, but an
   EAP-AKA notification round will follow. The following EAP-SIM
   notification may indicate either failure or success.

   Success indications with the AT_NOTIFICATION code 32768 can only be
   used if both the server and the peer indicate they want to use them
   with AT_RESULT_IND. If the server did not include AT_RESULT_IND in
   the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge or EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication
   packet, or if the peer did not include AT_RESULT_IND in the
   corresponding response packet, then the server MUST NOT use protected
   success indications.




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   Because the AT_NOTIFICATION code 32768 is used to indicate success,
   the server MUST ignore the contents of the EAP-AKA response it
   receives to the EAP-Request/AKA-Notification with this code.
   Regardless of the contents of the EAP-AKA response, the server MUST
   send EAP-Success as the next packet.

4.4 Error Cases

   This section specifies the operation of the peer and the server in
   error cases. The subsections below require the EAP-AKA peer and
   server to send an error packet (EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error or
   EAP-Request/AKA-Notification) in error cases. However,
   implementations SHOULD NOT rely upon the correct error reporting
   behavior of the peer, authenticator, or the server.  It is possible
   for error and other messages to be lost in transit or for a malicious
   participant to attempt to consume resources by not issuing error
   messages.  Both the peer and the EAP server SHOULD have a mechanism
   to clean up state even if an error message or EAP-Success is not
   received after a timeout period.

4.4.1 Peer Operation

   Two special error messages have been specified for error cases that
   are related to the processing of the UMTS AKA AUTN parameter, as
   described in Section 3: (1) if the peer does not accept AUTN, the
   peer responds with EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject (Section
   6.5), and the server issues EAP-Failure, and (2) if the peer detects
   that the sequence number in AUTN is not correct, the peer responds
   with EAP-Response/AKA-Synchronization-Failure (Section 6.6), and the
   server proceeds with a new EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge.

   In other error cases, when an EAP-AKA peer detects an error in a
   received EAP-AKA packet, the EAP-AKA peer responds with the
   EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error packet. In response to the
   EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error, the EAP server MUST issue the
   EAP-Failure packet and the authentication exchange terminates.

   By default, the peer uses the client error code 0, "unable to process
   packet". This error code is used in the following cases:

   o  EAP exchange is not acceptable according to the peer's local
      policy.
   o  the peer is not able to parse the EAP request, i.e. the EAP
      request is malformed
   o  the peer encountered a malformed attribute
   o  wrong attribute types or duplicate attributes have been included
      in the EAP request




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   o  a mandatory attribute is missing
   o  unrecognized non-skippable attribute
   o  unrecognized or unexpected EAP-AKA Subtype in the EAP request
   o  invalid AT_MAC
   o  invalid AT_CHECKCODE
   o  invalid pad bytes in AT_PADDING
   o  the peer does not want to process AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ

4.4.2 Server Operation

   If an EAP-AKA server detects an error in a received EAP-AKA response,
   the server MUST issue the EAP-Request/AKA-Notification packet with an
   AT_NOTIFICATION code that implies failure. By default, the server
   uses one of the general failure codes (0 or 16384). The choice
   between these two codes depends on the phase of the EAP-AKA exchange,
   see Section 4.3. The errors cases when the server issues an
   EAP-Request/AKA-Notification that implies failure include the
   following:

   o  the server is not able to parse the peer's EAP response
   o  the server encounters a malformed attribute, a non-recognized non-
      skippable attribute, or a duplicate attribute
   o  a mandatory attribute is missing or an invalid attribute was
      included
   o  unrecognized or unexpected EAP-AKA Subtype in the EAP Response
   o  invalid AT_MAC
   o  invalid AT_CHECKCODE
   o  invalid AT_COUNTER

4.4.3 EAP-Failure

   The EAP-AKA server sends EAP-Failure in three cases:

   1) In response to an EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error packet the server
   has received from the peer, or

   2) In response to an EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject  packet
   the server has received from the peer, or

   3) Following an EAP-AKA notification round, when the AT_NOTIFICATION
   code implies failure.

   The EAP-AKA server MUST NOT send EAP-Failure in other cases than
   these three. However, it should be noted that even though the EAP-AKA
   server would not send an EAP-Failure, an authorization decision that
   happens outside EAP-AKA, such as in the AAA server or in an
   intermediate AAA proxy, may result in a failed exchange.




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   The peer MUST accept the EAP-Failure packet in case 1), case 2) and
   case 3) above. The peer SHOULD silently discard the EAP-Failure
   packet in other cases.

4.4.4 EAP-Success

   On full authentication, the server can only send EAP-Success after
   the EAP/AKA-Challenge round. The peer MUST silently discard any
   EAP-Success packets if they are received before the peer has
   successfully authenticated the server and sent the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Challenge packet.

   If the peer did not indicate that it wants to use protected success
   indications with AT_RESULT_IND (as discussed in Section 4.3.2) on
   full authentication, then the peer MUST accept EAP-Success after a
   successful EAP/AKA-Challenge round.

   If the peer indicated that it wants to use protected success
   indications with AT_RESULT_IND (as discussed in Section 4.3.2), then
   the peer MUST NOT accept EAP-Success after a successful EAP/
   AKA-Challenge round. In this case, the peer MUST only accept
   EAP-Success after receiving an EAP-AKA Notification with the
   AT_NOTIFICATION code 32768.

   On fast re-authentication, EAP-Success can only be sent after the
   EAP/AKA-Reauthentication round. The peer MUST silently discard any
   EAP-Success packets if they are received before the peer has
   successfully authenticated the server and sent the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Reauthentication packet.

   If the peer did not indicate that it wants to use protected success
   indications with AT_RESULT_IND (as discussed in Section 4.3.2) on
   fast re-authentication, then the peer MUST accept EAP-Success after a
   successful EAP/AKA-Reauthentication round.

   If the peer indicated that it wants to use protected success
   indications with AT_RESULT_IND (as discussed in Section 4.3.2), then
   the peer MUST NOT accept EAP-Success after a successful EAP/
   AKA-Reauthentication round. In this case, the peer MUST only accept
   EAP-Success after receiving an EAP-AKA Notification with the
   AT_NOTIFICATION code 32768.

   If the peer receives an EAP-AKA notification (Section 4.3) that
   indicates failure, then the peer MUST no longer accept the EAP-
   Success packet even if the server authentication was successfully
   completed.





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4.5 Key Generation

   This section specifies how keying material is generated.

   On EAP-AKA full authentication, a Master Key (MK) is derived from the
   underlying UMTS AKA values (CK and IK keys), and the identity as
   follows.

   MK = SHA1(Identity|IK|CK)

   In the formula above, the "|" character denotes concatenation.
   Identity denotes the peer identity string without any terminating
   null characters. It is the identity from the AT_IDENTITY attribute
   from the last EAP-Response/AKA-Identity packet, or, if AT_IDENTITY
   was not used, the identity from the EAP-Response/Identity packet. The
   identity string is included as-is, without any changes and including
   the possible identity decoration. The hash function SHA-1 is
   specified in [SHA-1].

   The Master Key is fed into a Pseudo-Random number Function (PRF),
   which generates separate Transient EAP Keys (TEKs) for protecting
   EAP-AKA packets, as well as a Master Session Key (MSK) for link layer
   security and an Extended Master Session Key (EMSK) for other
   purposes. On fast re-authentication, the same TEKs MUST be used for
   protecting EAP packets, but a new MSK and a new EMSK MUST be derived
   from the original MK and new values exchanged in the fast
   re-authentication.

   EAP-AKA requires two TEKs for its own purposes, the authentication
   key K_aut to be used with the AT_MAC attribute, and the encryption
   key K_encr, to be used with the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute. The same
   K_aut and K_encr keys are used in full authentication and subsequent
   fast re-authentications.

   Key derivation is based on the random number generation specified in
   NIST Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication
   186-2 [PRF]. The pseudo-random number generator is specified in the
   change notice 1 (2001 October 5) of [PRF] (Algorithm 1). As specified
   in the change notice (page 74), when Algorithm 1 is used as a
   general-purpose pseudo-random number generator, the "mod q" term in
   step 3.3 is omitted. The function G used in the algorithm is
   constructed via Secure Hash Standard as specified in Appendix 3.3 of
   the standard. It should be noted that the function G is very similar
   to SHA-1, but the message padding is different. Please refer to [PRF]
   for full details. For convenience, the random number algorithm with
   the correct modification is cited in Annex A.

   160-bit XKEY and XVAL values are used, so b = 160. On each full



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   authentication, the Master Key is used as the initial secret seed-key
   XKEY. The optional user input values (XSEED_j) in step 3.1 are set to
   zero.

   On full authentication, the resulting 320-bit random numbers x_0,
   x_1, ..., x_m-1 are concatenated and partitioned into suitable-sized
   chunks and used as keys in the following order: K_encr (128 bits),
   K_aut (128 bits), Master Session Key (64 bytes), Extended Master
   Session Key (64 bytes).

   On fast re-authentication, the same pseudo-random number generator
   can be used to generate a new Master Session Key and a new Extended
   Master Session Key. The seed value XKEY' is calculated as follows:

   XKEY' = SHA1(Identity|counter|NONCE_S| MK)

   In the formula above, the Identity denotes the fast re-authentication
   identity, without any terminating null characters, from the
   AT_IDENTITY attribute of the EAP-Response/AKA-Identity packet, or, if
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity was not used on fast re-authentication, the
   identity string from the EAP-Response/Identity packet. The counter
   denotes the counter value from AT_COUNTER attribute used in the
   EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication packet. The counter is used in
   network byte order. NONCE_S denotes the 16-byte random NONCE_S value
   from the AT_NONCE_S attribute used in the EAP-Request/
   AKA-Reauthentication packet. The MK is the Master Key derived on the
   preceding full authentication.

   On fast re-authentication, the pseudo-random number generator is run
   with the new seed value XKEY', and the resulting 320-bit random
   numbers x_0, x_1, ..., x_m-1 are concatenated and partitioned into
   64-byte chunks and used as the new 64-byte Master Session Key and the
   new 64-byte Extended Master Session Key. Note that because K_encr and
   K_aut are not derived on fast re-authentication, the Master Session
   Key and the Extended Master Session key are obtained from the
   beginning of the key stream x_0, x_1, ....

   The first 32 bytes of the MSK can be used as the Pairwise Master Key
   (PMK) for IEEE 802.11i.

   When the RADIUS attributes specified in [RFC2548] are used to
   transport keying material, then the first 32 bytes of the MSK
   correspond to MS-MPPE-RECV-KEY and the second 32 bytes to
   MS-MPPE-SEND-KEY. In this case, only 64 bytes of keying material (the
   MSK) are used.






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5. Message Format and Protocol Extensibility

5.1 Message Format

   As specified in [EAP], EAP packets begin with the Code, Identifiers,
   Length, and Type fields, which are followed by EAP method specific
   Type-Data. The Code field in the EAP header is set to 1 for EAP
   requests, and to 2 for EAP Responses. The usage of the Length and
   Identifier fields in the EAP header is also specified in [EAP]. In
   EAP-AKA, the Type field is set to 23.

   In EAP-AKA, the Type-Data begins with an EAP-AKA header that consists
   of a 1-octet Subtype field, and a 2-octet reserved field. The Subtype
   values used in EAP-AKA are defined in Section 8. The formats of the
   EAP header and the EAP-AKA header are shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Identifier   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Subtype    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The rest of the Type-Data, immediately following the EAP-AKA header,
   consists of attributes that are encoded in Type, Length, Value
   format. The figure below shows the generic format of an attribute.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |Attribute Type |    Length     | Value...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Attribute Type

         Indicates the particular type of attribute. The attribute type
         values are listed in
   Section 8
   .

   Length

         Indicates the length of this attribute in multiples of 4 bytes.
         The maximum length of an attribute is 1024 bytes. The length
         includes the Attribute Type and Length bytes.

   Value



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         The particular data associated with this attribute. This field is
         always included and it is two or more bytes in length. The type
         and length fields determine the format and length of the value
         field.

   Attributes numbered within the range 0 through 127 are called
   non-skippable attributes. When an EAP-AKA peer encounters a
   non-skippable attribute type that the peer does not recognize, the
   peer MUST send the EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error packet, and the
   authentication exchange terminates. If an EAP-AKA server encounters a
   non-skippable attribute that the server does not recognize, then the
   server sends EAP-Request/AKA-Notification packet with an
   AT_NOTIFICATION code that implies general failure (0 or 16384
   depending on the phase of the exchange),  and the authentication
   exchange terminates.

   When an attribute numbered in the range 128 through 255 is
   encountered but not recognized that particular attribute is ignored,
   but the rest of the attributes and message data MUST still be
   processed. The Length field of the attribute is used to skip the
   attribute value when searching for the next attribute. These
   attributes are called skippable attributes.

   Unless otherwise specified, the order of the attributes in an EAP AKA
   message is insignificant, and an EAP-AKA implementation should not
   assume a certain order to be used.

   Attributes can be encapsulated within other attributes. In other
   words, the value field of an attribute type can be specified to
   contain other attributes.

5.2 Protocol Extensibility

   EAP-AKA can be extended by specifying new attribute types. If
   skippable attributes are used, it is possible to extend the protocol
   without breaking old implementations. As specified in Section 7.13,
   if new attributes are specified for EAP-Request/AKA-Identity or
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity, then the AT_CHECKCODE MUST be used to
   integrity protect the new attributes.

   When specifying new attributes, it should be noted that EAP-AKA does
   not support message fragmentation. Hence, the sizes of the new
   extensions MUST be limited so that the maximum transfer unit (MTU) of
   the underlying lower layer is not exceeded. According to [EAP], lower
   layers must provide an EAP MTU of 1020 bytes or greater, so any
   extensions to EAP-AKA SHOULD NOT exceed the EAP MTU of 1020 bytes.

   EAP-AKA packets do not include a version field. However, should there



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   be a reason to revise this protocol in the future, new non-skippable
   or skippable attributes could be specified in order to implement
   revised EAP-AKA versions in a backward-compatible manner. It is
   possible to introduce version negotiation in the EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity and EAP-Response/AKA-Identity messages by specifying new
   skippable attributes.

6. Messages

   This section specifies the messages used in EAP-AKA. It specifies
   when a message may be transmitted or accepted, which attributes are
   allowed in a message, which attributes are required in a message, and
   other message specific details. Message format is specified in
   Section 5.1.

6.1 EAP-Request/AKA-Identity

   The EAP/AKA-Identity roundtrip MAY used for obtaining the peer
   identity to the server. As discussed in Section 4.1, several
   AKA-Identity rounds may be required in order to obtain a valid peer
   identity.

   The server MUST include one of the following identity requesting
   attributes: AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ, AT_ANY_ID_REQ.
   These three attributes are mutually exclusive, so the server MUST NOT
   include more than one of the attributes.

   If the server has previously issued an EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   message with the AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ attribute, and if the server has
   received a response from the peer, then the server MUST NOT issue a
   new EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet.

   If the server has previously issued an EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   message with the AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ attribute, and if the server has
   received a response from the peer, then the server MUST NOT issue a
   new EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet with the AT_ANY_ID_REQ or
   AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ attributes.

   If the server has previously issued an EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   message with the AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute, and if the server has
   received a response from the peer, then the server MUST NOT issue a
   new EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet with the AT_ANY_ID_REQ.

   This message MUST NOT include AT_MAC, AT_IV, or AT_ENCR_DATA.

6.2 EAP-Response/AKA-Identity

   The peer sends EAP-Response/AKA-Identity in response to a valid EAP-



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   Request/AKA-Identity from the server.

   The peer MUST include the AT_IDENTITY attribute. The usage of
   AT_IDENITY is defined in Section 4.1.

   This message MUST NOT include AT_MAC, AT_IV, or AT_ENCR_DATA.

6.3 EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge

   The server sends the EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge on full authentication
   after successfully obtaining the subscriber identity.

   The AT_RAND attribute MUST be included.

   AT_MAC MUST be included. In EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge, there is no
   message-specific data covered by the MAC, see Section 7.15.

   The AT_RESULT_IND attribute MAY be included. The usage of this
   attribute is discussed in Section 4.3.2.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute MAY be included, and in certain cases
   specified in Section 7.13, it MUST be included.

   The EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge packet MAY include encrypted attributes
   for identity privacy and for communicating the next re-
   authentication identity. In this case, the AT_IV and AT_ENCR_DATA
   attributes are included (Section 7.12).

   The plaintext of the AT_ENCR_DATA value field consist of nested
   attributes. The nested attributes MAY include AT_PADDING (as
   specified in Section 7.12). If the server supports identity privacy
   and wants to communicate a pseudonym to the peer for the next full
   authentication, then the nested encrypted attributes include the
   AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM attribute. If the server supports re-
   authentication and wants to communicate a fast re-authentication
   identity to the peer, then the nested encrypted attributes include
   the AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID attribute. Later versions of this protocol MAY
   specify additional attributes to be included within the encrypted
   data.

   When processing this message, the peer MUST process AT_RAND and
   AT_AUTN before processing other attributes. Only if these attributes
   are verified to be valid, the peer derives keys and verifies AT_MAC.
   The operation in case an error occurs is specified in Section 4.4.1.

6.4 EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge

   The peer sends EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge in response to a valid



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   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge.

   Sending this packet indicates, that the peer has successfully
   authenticated the server and that the EAP exchange will be accepted
   by the peer's local policy. Hence, if these conditions are not met,
   then the peer MUST NOT send EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge, but the peer
   MUST send EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error.

   The AT_MAC attribute MUST be included. In EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge,
   there is no message-specific data covered by the MAC, see Section
   7.15.

   The AT_RES attribute MUST be included.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute MAY be included, and in certain cases
   specified in Section 7.13, it MUST be included.

   The AT_RESULT_IND attribute MAY be included, if it was included in
   EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge. The usage of this attribute is discussed
   in Section 4.3.2.

   Later versions of this protocol MAY make use of the AT_ENCR_DATA and
   AT_IV attributes in this message to include encrypted (skippable)
   attributes. The EAP server MUST process EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge
   messages that include these attributes even if the server did not
   implement these optional attributes.

6.5 EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject

   The peer sends the EAP-Response/AKA-Authentication-Reject packet if
   it does not accept the AUTN parameter. This version of the protocol
   does not specify any attributes for this message. Future versions of
   the protocol MAY specify attributes for this message.

   The AT_MAC, AT_ENCR_DATA, or AT_IV attributes MUST NOT be used in
   this message.

6.6 EAP-Response/AKA-Synchronization-Failure

   The peer sends the EAP-Response/AKA-Synchronization-Failure, when the
   sequence number in the AUTN parameter is incorrect.

   The peer MUST include the AT_AUTS attribute. Future versions of the
   protocol MAY specify other additional attributes for this message.

   The AT_MAC, AT_ENCR_DATA, or AT_IV attributes MUST NOT be used in
   this message.




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6.7 EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication

   The server sends the EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication message if it
   wants to use fast re-authentication, and if it has received a valid
   fast re-authentication identity in EAP-Response/Identity or
   EAP-Response/AKA-Identity.

   The AT_MAC attribute MUST be included. No message-specific data is
   included in the MAC calculation, see Section 7.15.

   The AT_RESULT_IND attribute MAY be included. The usage of this
   attribute is discussed in Section 4.3.2.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute MAY be included, and in certain cases
   specified in Section 7.13, it MUST be included.

   The AT_IV and AT_ENCR_DATA attributes MUST be included. The plaintext
   consists of the following nested encrypted attributes, which MUST be
   included: AT_COUNTER and AT_NONCE_S. In addition, the nested
   encrypted attributes MAY include the following attributes:
   AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID and AT_PADDING.

6.8 EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication

   The client sends the EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication packet in
   response to a valid EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication.

   The AT_MAC attribute MUST be included. For EAP-Response/AKA-
   Reauthentication, the MAC code is calculated over the following data:
   EAP packet| NONCE_S. The EAP packet is represented as specified in
   Section 5.1. It is followed by the 16-byte NONCE_S value from the
   server's AT_NONCE_S attribute.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute MAY be included, and in certain cases
   specified in Section 7.13, it MUST be included.

   The AT_IV and AT_ENCR_DATA attributes MUST be included. The nested
   encrypted attributes MUST include the AT_COUNTER attribute. The
   AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL attribute MAY be included in the nested
   encrypted attributes, and it is included in cases specified in
   Section 4.2. The AT_PADDING attribute MAY be included.

   The AT_RESULT_IND attribute MAY be included, if it was included in
   EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication. The usage of this attribute is
   discussed in Section 4.3.2.

   Sending this packet without AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL indicates, that the
   peer has successfully authenticated the server and that the EAP



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   exchange will be accepted by the peer's local policy. Hence, if these
   conditions are not met, then the peer MUST NOT send EAP-Response/
   AKA-Reauthentication, but the peer MUST send EAP-Response/
   AKA-Client-Error.

6.9 EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error

   The peer sends EAP-Response/AKA-Client-Error in error cases, as
   specified in Section 4.4.1.

   The AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE attribute MUST be included. The AT_MAC,
   AT_IV, or AT_ENCR_DATA attributes MUST NOT be used with this packet.

6.10 EAP-Request/AKA-Notification

   The usage of this message is specified in Section 4.3.

   The AT_NOTIFICATION attribute MUST be included.

   The AT_MAC attribute MUST be included if the P bit of the
   AT_NOTIFICATION code is set to zero, and MUST NOT be included if the
   P bit is set to one. The P bit is discussed in in Section 4.3.

   No message-specific data is included in the MAC calculation. See
   Section 7.15.

   If EAP-Request/AKA-Notification is used on a fast re-authentication
   exchange, and if the P bit in AT_NOTIFICATION is set to zero, then
   AT_COUNTER is used for replay protection. In this case, the
   AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_IV attributes MUST be included, and the
   encapsulated plaintext attributes MUST include the AT_COUNTER
   attribute. The counter value included in AT_COUNTER MUST be the same
   as in the EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication packet on the same fast
   re-authentication exchange.

6.11 EAP-Response/AKA-Notification

   The usage of this message is specified in Section 4.3. This packet is
   an acknowledgement of EAP-Request/AKA-Notification.

   The AT_MAC attribute MUST included in cases when the P bit of the
   notification code in AT_NOTIFICATION of EAP-Request/AKA-Notification
   is set to zero, and MUST NOT be included in cases when the P bit is
   set to one. The P bit is discussed in Section 4.3.

   If EAP-Request/AKA-Notification is used on fast a re-authentication
   exchange, and if the P bit in AT_NOTIFICATION is set to zero, then
   AT_COUNTER is used for replay protection. In this case, the



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   AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_IV attributes MUST be included, and the
   encapsulated plaintext attributes MUST include the AT_COUNTER
   attribute. The counter value included in AT_COUNTER MUST be the same
   as in the EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication packet on the same fast
   re-authentication exchange.

7. Attributes

   This section specifies the format of message attributes. The
   attribute type numbers are specified in Section 8.

7.1 Table of Attributes

   The following table provides a guide to which attributes may be found
   in which kinds of messages, and in what quantity. Messages are
   denoted with numbers in parentheses as follows: (1) EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity, (2) EAP-Response/AKA-Identity, (3) EAP-Request/
   AKA-Challenge, (4) EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge, (5) EAP-Request/
   AKA-Notification, (6) EAP-Response/AKA-Notification, (7) EAP-
   Response/AKA-Client-Error (8) EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication, (9)
   EAP-Response/AKA-Re-authentication, (10) EAP-Response/
   AKA-Authentication-Reject, and (11) EAP-Response/
   AKA-Synchronization-Failure. The column denoted with "E" indicates
   whether the attribute is a nested attribute that MUST be included
   within AT_ENCR_DATA.

   "0" indicates that the attribute MUST NOT be included in the message,
   "1" indicates that the attribute MUST be included in the message,
   "0-1" indicates that the attribute is sometimes included in the
   message, and "0*" indicates that the attribute is not included in the
   message in cases specified in this document, but MAY be included in
   the future versions of the protocol.



















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              Attribute (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)(11) E
    AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ 0-1  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
          AT_ANY_ID_REQ 0-1  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
     AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ 0-1  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
            AT_IDENTITY  0  0-1  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
                AT_RAND  0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
                AT_AUTN  0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
                 AT_RES  0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
                AT_AUTS  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   N
      AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM  0   0  0-1  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0   Y
      AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID  0   0  0-1  0   0   0   0  0-1  0   0   0   Y
                  AT_IV  0   0  0-1  0* 0-1 0-1  0   1   1   0   0   N
           AT_ENCR_DATA  0   0  0-1  0* 0-1 0-1  0   1   1   0   0   N
             AT_PADDING  0   0  0-1  0* 0-1 0-1  0  0-1 0-1  0   0   Y
           AT_CHECKCODE  0   0  0-1 0-1  0   0   0  0-1 0-1  0   0   N
          AT_RESULT_IND  0   0  0-1 0-1  0   0   0  0-1 0-1  0   0   N
                 AT_MAC  0   0   1   1  0-1 0-1  0   1   1   0   0   N
             AT_COUNTER  0   0   0   0  0-1 0-1  0   1   1   0   0   Y
   AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   0  0-1  0   0   Y
             AT_NONCE_S  0   0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   Y
        AT_NOTIFICATION  0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   0   0   N
   AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE  0   0   0   0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   N

   It should be noted that attributes AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, AT_ANY_ID_REQ
   and AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ are mutually exclusive, so that only one of
   them can be included at the same time. If one of the attributes AT_IV
   and AT_ENCR_DATA is included, then both of the attributes MUST be
   included.

7.2 AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ

   The format of the AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |AT_PERM..._REQ | Length = 1    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The use of the AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ is defined in Section 4.1. The
   value field only contains two reserved bytes, which are set to zero
   on sending and ignored on reception.

7.3 AT_ANY_ID_REQ

   The format of the AT_ANY_ID_REQ attribute is shown below.





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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |AT_ANY_ID_REQ  | Length = 1    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The use of the AT_ANY_ID_REQ is defined in Section 4.1. The value
   field only contains two reserved bytes, which are set to zero on
   sending and ignored on reception.

7.4 AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ

   The format of the AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |AT_FULLAUTH_...| Length = 1    |           Reserved            |
   +---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+

   The use of the AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ is defined in Section 4.1. The
   value field only contains two reserved bytes, which are set to zero
   on sending and ignored on reception.

7.5 AT_IDENTITY

   The format of the AT_IDENTITY attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_IDENTITY   | Length        | Actual Identity Length        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   .                       Identity                                .
   .                                                               .
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The use of the AT_IDENTITY is defined in Section 4.1. The value field
   of this attribute begins with 2-byte actual identity length, which
   specifies the length of the identity in bytes. This field is followed
   by the subscriber identity of the indicated actual length. The
   identity is the permanent identity, a pseudonym identity or a fast
   re-authentication identity. The identity format is specified in
   Section 4.1.1. The same identity format is used in the AT_IDENTITY
   attribute and the EAP-Response/Identity packet, with the exception
   that the peer MUST NOT decorate the identity it includes in



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   AT_IDENTITY. The identity does not include any terminating null
   characters. Because the length of the attribute must be a multiple of
   4 bytes, the sender pads the identity with zero bytes when necessary.

7.6 AT_RAND

   The format of the AT_RAND attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    AT_RAND    | Length = 5    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                             RAND                              |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute contains two reserved bytes
   followed by the AKA RAND parameter, 16 bytes (128 bits). The reserved
   bytes are set to zero when sending and ignored on reception.

7.7 AT_AUTN

   The format of the AT_AUTN attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    AT_AUTN    | Length = 5    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        AUTN                                   |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute contains two reserved bytes
   followed by the AKA AUTN parameter, 16 bytes (128 bits). The reserved
   bytes are set to zero when sending and ignored on reception.

7.8 AT_RES

   The format of the AT_RES attribute is shown below.






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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     AT_RES    |    Length     |          RES Length           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-|
   |                                                               |
   |                             RES                               |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute begins with the 2-byte RES Length,
   which is identifies the exact length of the RES in bits. The RES
   length is followed by the UMTS AKA RES parameter. According to [TS
   33.105] the length of the AKA RES can vary between 32 and 128 bits.
   Because the length of the AT_RES attribute must be a multiple of 4
   bytes, the sender pads the RES with zero bits where necessary.

7.9 AT_AUTS

   The format of the AT_AUTS attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-++-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+|
   |    AT_AUTS    | Length = 4    |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   |                                                               |
   |                             AUTS                              |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute contains the AKA AUTS parameter,
   112 bits (14 bytes).

7.10 AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM

   The format of the AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_NEXT_PSEU..| Length        | Actual Pseudonym Length       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   .                          Next Pseudonym                       .
   .                                                               .
   |                                                               |



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   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute begins with 2-byte actual pseudonym
   length which specifies the length of the following pseudonym in
   bytes. This field is followed by a pseudonym username that the peer
   can use in the next authentication. The username MUST NOT include any
   realm portion. The username does not include any terminating null
   characters. Because the length of the attribute must be a multiple of
   4 bytes, the sender pads the pseudonym with zero bytes when
   necessary. The username encoding MUST follow the UTF-8 transformation
   format [RFC2279]. This attribute MUST always be encrypted by
   encapsulating it within the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

7.11 AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID

   The format of the AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_NEXT_REAU..| Length        | Actual Re-Auth Identity Length|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   .              Next Fast Re-authentication Username             .
   .                                                               .
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute begins with 2-byte actual
   re-authentication identity length which specifies the length of the
   following fast re-authentication identity in bytes. This field is
   followed by a fast re-authentication identity that the peer can use
   in the next fast re-authentication, as described in Section 4.2. In
   environments where a realm portion is required, the fast
   re-authentication identity includes both a username portion and a
   realm name portion. The fast re-authentication identity does not
   include any terminating null characters. Because the length of the
   attribute must be a multiple of 4 bytes, the sender pads the fast
   re-authentication identity with zero bytes when necessary. The
   identity encoding MUST follow the UTF-8 transformation format
   [RFC2279]. This attribute MUST always be encrypted by encapsulating
   it within the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

7.12 AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_PADDING

   AT_IV and AT_ENCR_DATA attributes can be used to transmit encrypted
   information between the EAP-SIM peer and server.




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   The value field of AT_IV contains two reserved bytes followed by a
   16-byte initialization vector required by the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.
   The reserved bytes are set to zero when sending and ignored on
   reception. The AT_IV attribute MUST be included if and only if the
   AT_ENCR_DATA is included. Section 4.4 specifies the operation if a
   packet that does not meet this condition is encountered.

   The sender of the AT_IV attribute chooses the initialization vector
   by random. The sender MUST NOT reuse the initialization vector value
   from previous EAP-AKA packets. The sender SHOULD use a good source of
   randomness to generate the initialization vector. Please see
   [RFC1750]  for more information about generating random numbers for
   security applications. The format of AT_IV is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     AT_IV     | Length = 5    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                 Initialization Vector                         |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute consists of two
   reserved bytes followed by cipher text bytes encrypted using the
   Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [AES] with a 128-bit key in the
   Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode of operation using the
   initialization vector from the AT_IV attribute. The reserved bytes
   are set to zero when sending and ignored on reception. Please see
   [CBC] for a description of the CBC mode. The format of the
   AT_ENCR_DATA attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_ENCR_DATA  | Length        |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   .                    Encrypted Data                             .
   .                                                               .
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The derivation of the encryption key (K_encr) is specified in Section
   4.5.




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   The plaintext consists of nested EAP-AKA attributes.

   The encryption algorithm requires the length of the plaintext to be a
   multiple of 16 bytes. The sender may need to include the AT_PADDING
   attribute as the last attribute within AT_ENCR_DATA. The AT_PADDING
   attribute is not included if the total length of other nested
   attributes within the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute is a multiple of 16
   bytes. As usual, the Length of the Padding attribute includes the
   Attribute Type and Attribute Length fields. The length of the Padding
   attribute is 4, 8 or 12 bytes. It is chosen so that the length of the
   value field of the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute becomes a multiple of 16
   bytes. The actual pad bytes in the value field are set to zero (00
   hexadecimal) on sending. The recipient of the message MUST verify
   that the pad bytes are set to zero. If this verification fails on the
   peer, then it MUST send the EAP-Response/AKA-Client- Error packet
   with the error code "unable to process packet" to terminate the
   authentication exchange. If this verification fails on the server,
   then the server sends the EAP-Response/AKA-Notification packet with
   an AT_NOTIFICATION code that implies failure to terminate the
   authentication exchange. The format of the AT_PADDING attribute is
   shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  AT_PADDING   | Length        | Padding...                    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


7.13 AT_CHECKCODE

   The AT_MAC attribute is not used in the very first EAP-AKA messages
   during the AKA-Identity round, because keying material has not been
   derived yet. The peer and the server may exchange one or more pairs
   of EAP-AKA messages of the Subtype AKA-Identity before keys are
   derived and before the AT_MAC attribute can be applied. The EAP/
   AKA-Identity messages may also be used upon fast re-authentication.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute MAY be used to protect the EAP/
   AKA-Identity messages. AT_CHECKCODE is included in EAP-Request/
   AKA-Challenge and/or EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge upon full
   authentication. In fast re-authentication, AT_CHECKCODE MAY be
   included in EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication and/or EAP-Response/
   AKA-Reauthentication. Because the AT_MAC attribute is used in these
   messages, AT_CHECKCODE will be integrity protected with AT_MAC. The



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   format of the AT_CHECKCODE attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_CHECKCODE  | Length        |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                     Checkcode (0 or 20 bytes)                 |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of AT_CHECKCODE begins with two reserved bytes, which
   may be followed by a 20-byte checkcode. If the checkcode is not
   included in AT_CHECKCODE, then the attribute indicates that no EAP/
   AKA-Identity messages were exchanged. This may occur in both full
   authentication and fast re-authentication. The reserved bytes are set
   to zero when sending and ignored on reception.

   The checkcode is a hash value, calculated with SHA1 [SHA-1], over all
   EAP-Request/AKA-Identity and EAP-Response/ AKA-Identity packets
   exchanged in this authentication exchange. The packets are included
   in the order that they were transmitted, that is, starting with the
   first EAP-Request/ AKA-Identity message, followed by the
   corresponding EAP-Response/ AKA-Identity, followed by the second
   EAP-Request/ AKA-Identity (if used) etc.

   EAP packets are included in the hash calculation "as-is", as they
   were transmitted or received. All reserved bytes, padding bytes etc.
   that are specified for various attributes are included as such, and
   the receiver must not reset them to zero. No delimiter bytes, padding
   or any other framing are included between the EAP packets when
   calculating the checkcode.

   Messages are included in request/response pairs; in other words only
   full "round trips" are included. Packets that are silently discarded
   are not included. The EAP server must only include an EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity in the calculation once it has received a corresponding
   response, with the same Identifier value. Retransmissions or requests
   to which the server does not receive response are not included.

   The peer must include the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity and the
   corresponding response in the calculation only if the peer receives a
   subsequent EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge, or a follow-up EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity with different attributes (attribute types) than in the
   first EAP-Request/AKA-Identity. After sending EAP-Response/



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   AKA-Identity, if the peer receives another EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   with the same attributes as in the previous request, then the peer's
   response to the first request must have been lost. In this case the
   peer must not include the first request and its response in the
   calculation of the checkcode.

   The AT_CHECKCODE attribute is optional to implement. It is specified
   in order to allow protecting the EAP/AKA-Identity messages and any
   future extensions to them. The implementation of AT_CHECKCODE is
   RECOMMENDED.

   If the receiver of AT_CHECKCODE implements this attribute, then the
   receiver MUST check that the checkcode is correct. If the checkcode
   is invalid, the receiver must operate as specified in Section 4.4.

   If the EAP/AKA-Identity messages are extended with new attributes
   then AT_CHECKCODE MUST be implemented and used. More specifically, if
   the server includes any other attributes than AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ,
   AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ or AT_ANY_ID_REQ in the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity
   packet, then the server MUST include AT_CHECKCODE in EAP-Request/
   AKA-Challenge or EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication. If the peer
   includes any other attributes than AT_IDENTITY in the EAP-Response/
   AKA-Identity message, then the peer MUST include AT_CHECKCODE in
   EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge or EAP-Response/AKA-Reauthentication.

   If the server implements the processing of any other attribute than
   AT_IDENTITY for the EAP-Response/AKA-Identity message, then the
   server MUST implement AT_CHECKCODE. In this case, if the server
   receives any other attribute than AT_IDENTITY in the EAP- Response/
   AKA-Identity message, then the server MUST check that AT_CHECKCODE is
   present in EAP-Response/AKA-Challenge or EAP- Response/
   AKA-Reauthentication. The operation when a mandatory attribute is
   missing is specified in Section 4.4.

   Similarly, if the peer implements the processing of any other
   attribute than AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ or
   AT_ANY_ID_REQ for the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet, then the peer
   MUST implement AT_CHECKCODE. In this case, if the peer receives any
   other attribute than AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ, AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ or
   AT_ANY_ID_REQ in the EAP-Request/AKA-Identity packet, then the peer
   MUST check that AT_CHECKCODE is present in EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge
   or EAP-Request/AKA-Reauthentication. The operation when a mandatory
   attribute is missing is specified in Section 4.4.

7.14 AT_RESULT_IND

   The format of the AT_RESULT_IND attribute is shown below.




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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  AT_RESULT_...| Length = 1    |           Reserved            |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute consists of two reserved bytes,
   which are set to zero upon sending and ignored upon reception. This
   attribute is always sent unencrypted, so it MUST NOT be encapsulated
   within the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

7.15 AT_MAC

   The AT_MAC attribute is used for EAP-AKA message authentication.
   Section 6 specifies which messages AT_MAC MUST be included.

   The value field of the AT_MAC attribute contains two reserved bytes
   followed by a keyed message authentication code (MAC). The MAC is
   calculated over the whole EAP packet, concatenated with optional
   message-specific data, with the exception that the value field of the
   MAC attribute is set to zero when calculating the MAC. The EAP packet
   includes the EAP header that begins with the Code field, the EAP-AKA
   header that begins with the Subtype field, and all the attributes, as
   specified in Section 5.1. The reserved bytes in AT_MAC are set to
   zero when sending and ignored on reception. The contents of the
   message-specific data that may be included in the MAC calculation are
   specified separately for each EAP-AKA message in Section 6.

   The format of the AT_MAC attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     AT_MAC    | Length = 5    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                           MAC                                 |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The MAC algorithm is HMAC-SHA1-128 [RFC2104]  keyed hash value. (The
   HMAC-SHA1-128 value is obtained from the 20-byte HMAC-SHA1 value by
   truncating the output to 16 bytes. Hence, the length of the MAC is 16
   bytes.) The derivation of the authentication key (K_aut) used in the
   calculation of the MAC is specified in Section 4.5.

   When the AT_MAC attribute is included in an EAP-AKA message, the



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   recipient MUST process the AT_MAC attribute before looking at any
   other attributes, except when processing EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge.
   The processing of EAP-Request/AKA-Challenge is specified in Section
   6.3. If the message authentication code is invalid, then the
   recipient MUST ignore all other attributes in the message and operate
   as specified in Section 4.4.

7.16 AT_COUNTER

   The format of the AT_COUNTER attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  AT_COUNTER   | Length = 1    |           Counter             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of the AT_COUNTER attribute consists of a 16-bit
   unsigned integer counter value, represented in network byte order.
   This attribute MUST always be encrypted by encapsulating it within
   the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

7.17 AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL

   The format of the AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  AT_COUNTER...| Length = 1    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute consists of two reserved bytes,
   which are set to zero upon sending and ignored upon reception. This
   attribute MUST always be encrypted by encapsulating it within the
   AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

7.18 AT_NONCE_S

   The format of the AT_NONCE_S attribute is shown below.











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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | AT_NONCE_S    | Length = 5    |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   |                            NONCE_S                            |
   |                                                               |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of the AT_NONCE_S attribute contains two reserved
   bytes followed by a random number generated by the server (16 bytes)
   freshly for this EAP-AKA fast re-authentication. The random number is
   used as challenge for the peer and also a seed value for the new
   keying material. The reserved bytes are set to zero upon sending and
   ignored upon reception. This attribute MUST always be encrypted by
   encapsulating it within the AT_ENCR_DATA attribute.

   The server MUST NOT reuse the NONCE_S value from a previous EAP-AKA
   fast re-authentication exchange. The server SHOULD use a good source
   of randomness to generate NONCE_S. Please see [RFC1750]  for more
   information about generating random numbers for security
   applications.

7.19 AT_NOTIFICATION

   The format of the AT_NOTIFICATION attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |AT_NOTIFICATION| Length = 1    |F|P|  Notification Code        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute contains a two-byte notification
   code. The first and second bit (F and P) of the notification code are
   interpreted as described in Section 4.3.

   The notification code values listed below have been reserved. The
   descriptions below illustrate the semantics of the notifications. The
   peer implementation MAY use different wordings when presenting the
   notifications to the user. The "requested service" depends on the
   environment where EAP-AKA is applied.

   0 - General failure. (implies failure, used after successful
   authentication)



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   16384 - General failure. (implies failure, used before
   authentication)

   32768 - User has been successfully authenticated. (does not imply
   failure, used after successful authentication). The usage of this
   code is discussed in Section 4.3.2.

   1026 - User has been temporarily denied access to the requested
   service. (Implies failure, used after successful authentication)

   1031 - User has not subscribed to the requested service (implies
   failure, used after successful authentication)

7.20 AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE

   The format of the AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE attribute is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |AT_CLIENT_ERR..| Length = 1    |     Client Error Code         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The value field of this attribute contains a two-byte client error
   code. The following error code values have been reserved.

   0    "unable to process packet": a general error code

8. IANA and Protocol Numbering Considerations

   IANA has assigned the EAP type number 23 for EAP-AKA authentication.

   EAP-AKA messages include a Subtype field. The Subtype is a new
   numbering space for which IANA administration is required. The
   following Subtypes are specified in this document:

        AKA-Challenge...................................1
        AKA-Authentication-Reject.......................2
        AKA-Synchronization-Failure.....................4
        AKA-Identity....................................5
        AKA-Notification...............................12
        AKA-Reauthentication...........................13
        AKA-Client-Error...............................14

   The messages are composed of attributes, which have attribute type
   numbers. The EAP-AKA attribute type number is a new numbering space
   for which IANA administration is required.  The following attribute
   types are specified in this document:



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        AT_RAND.........................................1
        AT_AUTN.........................................2
        AT_RES..........................................3
        AT_AUTS.........................................4
        AT_PADDING......................................6
        AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ............................10
        AT_MAC.........................................11
        AT_NOTIFICATION................................12
        AT_ANY_ID_REQ..................................13
        AT_IDENTITY....................................14
        AT_FULLAUTH_ID_REQ.............................17
        AT_COUNTER.....................................19
        AT_COUNTER_TOO_SMALL...........................20
        AT_NONCE_S.....................................21
        AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE...........................22
        AT_IV.........................................129
        AT_ENCR_DATA..................................130
        AT_NEXT_PSEUDONYM.............................132
        AT_NEXT_REAUTH_ID.............................133
        AT_CHECKCODE..................................134
        AT_RESULT_IND.................................135


   The AT_NOTIFICATION attribute contains a notification code value. The
   notification code is a new numbering space for which IANA
   administration is required. Values 0, 1024, 1026, 1031, 16384 and
   32768 have been specified in Section 7.19 of this document.

   The AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE attribute contains a client error code. The
   client error code is a new numbering space for which IANA
   administration is required. Value 0 has been specified in Section
   7.20 of this document.

   All requests for value assignment from the various number spaces
   described in this document require proper documentation, according to
   the "Specification Required" policy described in [RFC2434]. Requests
   must be specified in sufficient detail so that interoperability
   between independent implementations is possible. Possible forms of
   documentation include, but are not limited to, RFCs, the products of
   another standards body (e.g. 3GPP), or permanently and readily
   available vendor design notes.

   EAP-AKA and EAP-SIM [EAP-SIM] are "sister" protocols with similar
   message structure and protocol numbering spaces. Many attributes and
   message Subtypes have the same protocol numbers in these two
   protocols. Hence, it is recommended that the same protocol number
   value SHOULD NOT be allocated for two different purposes in EAP-AKA
   and EAP-SIM.



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9. Security Considerations

   The EAP base protocol specification [EAP] highlights several attacks
   that are possible against the EAP protocol. This section discusses
   the claimed security properties of EAP-AKA as well as vulnerabilities
   and security recommendations.

9.1 Identity Protection

   EAP-AKA includes optional Identity privacy support that protects the
   privacy of the subscriber identity against passive eavesdropping.
   This document only specifies a mechanism to deliver pseudonyms from
   the server to the peer as part of an EAP-SIM exchange. Hence, a peer
   that has not yet performed any EAP-SIM exchanges does not typically
   have a pseudonym available. If the peer does not have a pseudonym
   available, then the privacy mechanism cannot be used, but the
   permanent identity will have to be sent in the clear. The terminal
   SHOULD store the pseudonym in a non-volatile memory so that it can be
   maintained across reboots. An active attacker that impersonates the
   network may use the AT_PERMANENT_ID_REQ attribute (Section 4.1.2) to
   learn the subscriber's IMSI. However, as discussed in Section 4.1.2,
   the terminal can refuse to send the cleartext IMSI if it believes
   that the network should be able to recognize the pseudonym.

   If the peer and server cannot guarantee that the pseudonym will be
   maintained reliably and Identity privacy is required then additional
   protection from an external security mechanism such as Protected
   Extensible Authentication Protocol (PEAP) [PEAP] may be used. The
   benefits and the security considerations of using an external
   security mechanism with EAP-AKA are beyond the scope of this
   document.

9.2 Mutual Authentication

   EAP-AKA provides mutual authentication via the UMTS AKA mechanisms.

9.3 Flooding the Authentication Centre

   The EAP-AKA server typically obtains authentication vectors from the
   Authentication Centre (AuC). EAP-AKA introduces a new usage for the
   AuC. The protocols between the EAP-AKA server and the AuC are out of
   the scope of this document. However, it should be noted that a
   malicious EAP-AKA peer may generate a lot of protocol requests to
   mount a denial of service attack. The EAP-AKA server implementation
   SHOULD take this into account and SHOULD take steps to limit the
   traffic that it generates towards the AuC, preventing the attacker
   from flooding the AuC and from extending the denial of service attack
   from EAP-AKA to other users of the AuC.



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9.4 Key Derivation

   EAP-AKA supports key derivation with 128-bit effective key strength.
   The key hierarchy is specified in Section 4.5.

   The Transient EAP Keys used to protect EAP-AKA packets (K_encr,
   K_aut) and the Master Session Keys are cryptographically separate. An
   attacker cannot derive any non-trivial information from K_encr or
   K_aut based on the Master Session Key or vice versa. An attacker also
   cannot calculate the pre-shared secret from the UMTS AKA IK, UMTS AKA
   CK, EAP-AKA K_encr, EAP-AKA K_aut or from the Master Session Key.

9.5 Brute-Force and Dictionary Attacks

   The effective strength of EAP-AKA values is 128 bits, and there are
   no known computationally feasible brute-force attacks. Because UMTS
   AKA is not a password protocol (the pre-shared secret must not be a
   weak password), EAP-AKA is not vulnerable to dictionary attacks.

9.6 Protection, Replay Protection and Confidentiality

   AT_MAC, AT_IV, AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_COUNTER attributes are used to
   provide integrity, replay and confidentiality protection for EAP-AKA
   Requests and Responses. Integrity protection with AT_MAC includes the
   EAP header. Integrity protection (AT_MAC) is based on a keyed message
   authentication code. Confidentiality (AT_ENCR_DATA and AT_IV) is
   based on a block cipher.

   Because keys are not available in the beginning of the EAP methods,
   the AT_MAC attribute cannot be used for protecting EAP/AKA-Identity
   messages. However, the AT_CHECKCODE attribute can optionally be used
   to protect the integrity of the EAP/AKA-Identity roundtrip.

   Confidentiality protection is applied only to a part of the protocol
   fields. The table of attributes in Section 7.1 summarizes which
   fields are confidentiality protected. It should be noted that the
   error and notification code attributes AT_CLIENT_ERROR_CODE and
   AT_NOTIFICATION are not confidential but they are transmitted in the
   clear. Identity protection is discussed in Section 9.1.

   On full authentication, replay protection of the EAP exchange is
   provided by RAND and AUTN values from the underlying UMTS AKA scheme.
   Protection against replays of EAP-AKA messages is also based on the
   fact that messages that can include AT_MAC can only be sent once with
   a certain EAP-AKA Subtype, and on the fact that a different K_aut key
   will be used for calculating AT_MAC in each full authentication
   exchange.




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   On fast re-authentication, a counter included in AT_COUNTER and a
   server random nonce is used to provide replay protection. The
   AT_COUNTER attribute is also included in EAP-AKA notifications, if
   they are used after successful authentication in order to provide
   replay protection between re-authentication exchanges.

   The contents of the user identity string are implicitly integrity
   protected by including them in key derivation.

   Because EAP-AKA is not a tunneling method, EAP-Request/Notification,
   EAP-Response/Notification, EAP-Success or EAP-Failure packets are not
   confidential, integrity protected or replay protected. On physically
   insecure networks, this may enable an attacker to mount denial of
   service attacks by spoofing these packets. As discussed in Section
   4.4, the peer will only accept EAP-Success after successful
   authentication. Hence, the attacker cannot force the peer to believe
   successful authentication has occurred when mutual authentication
   failed or has not happened yet.

   The security considerations of EAP-AKA result indications are covered
   in Section 9.8

   An eavesdropper will see the EAP Notification, EAP_Success and
   EAP-Failure packets sent in the clear. With EAP-AKA, confidential
   information MUST NOT be transmitted in EAP Notification packets.

9.7 Negotiation Attacks

   EAP-AKA does not protect the EAP-Response/Nak packet. Because EAP-AKA
   does not protect the EAP method negotiation, EAP method downgrading
   attacks may be possible, especially if the user uses the same
   identity with EAP-AKA and other EAP methods.

   As described in Section 5, EAP-AKA allows the protocol to be extended
   by defining new attribute types. When defining such attributes, it
   should be noted that any extra attributes included in EAP-Request/
   AKA-Identity or EAP-Response/AKA-Identity packets are not included in
   the MACs later on, and thus some other precautions must be taken to
   avoid modifications to them.

   EAP-AKA does not support ciphersuite negotiation or EAP-AKA protocol
   version negotiation.

9.8 Protected Result Indications

   EAP-AKA supports optional protected success indications, and
   acknowledged failure indications. If a failure occurs after
   successful authentication, then the EAP-AKA failure indication is



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   integrity and replay protected.

   Even if an EAP-Failure packet is lost when using EAP-SIM over an
   unreliable medium, then the EAP-SIM failure indications will help
   ensure that the peer and EAP server will know the other parties
   authentication decision. If protected success indications are used,
   then the loss of Success packet will also be addressed by the
   acknowledged, integrity and replay protected EAP-SIM success
   indication. If the optional success indications are not used, then
   the peer may end up believing the server succeeded authentication
   when it actually failed. Since access will not be granted in this
   case protected result indications are not needed unless the client is
   not able to realize it does not have access for an extended period of
   time.

9.9 Man-in-the-middle Attacks

   In order to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks and session hijacking,
   user data SHOULD be integrity protected on physically insecure
   networks. The EAP-AKA Master Session Key or keys derived from it MAY
   be used as the integrity protection keys, or, if an external security
   mechanism such as PEAP is used, then the link integrity protection
   keys MAY be derived by the external security mechanism.

   There are man-in-the-middle attacks associated with the use of any
   EAP method within a tunneled protocol such as PEAP, or within a
   sequence of EAP methods followed by each other. This specification
   does not address these attacks. If EAP-AKA is used with a tunneling
   protocol or as part of a sequence of methods, there should be
   cryptographic binding provided between the protocols and EAP-AKA to
   prevent man-in-the-middle attacks through rogue authenticators being
   able to setup one-way authenticated tunnels. EAP-AKA Master Session
   Key MAY be used to provide the cryptographic binding. However the
   mechanism how the binding is provided depends on the tunneling or
   sequencing protocol, and it is beyond the scope of this document.

9.10 Generating Random Numbers

   An EAP-AKA implementation SHOULD use a good source of randomness to
   generate the random numbers required in the protocol. Please see
   [RFC1750] for more information on generating random numbers for
   security applications.

10. Security Claims

   This section provides the security claims required by [EAP].

   Auth. Mechanism: EAP-AKA is based on the UMTS AKA mechanism, which is



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   an authentication and key agreement mechanism based on a symmetric
   128-bit pre-shared secret.

   Ciphersuite negotiation: No

   Mutual authentication: Yes

   Integrity protection: Yes (Section 9.6)

   Replay protection: Yes  (Section 9.6)

   Confidentiality: Yes, except method specific success and failure
   indications (Section 9.1, Section 9.6)

   Key derivation: Yes

   Key strength: EAP-AKA supports key derivation with 128-bit effective
   key strength.

   Description of key hierarchy: Please see Section 4.5.

   Dictinary attack protection: N/A (Section 9.5)

   Fast reconnect: Yes

   Cryptographic binding:  N/A

   Session independence: Yes (Section 9.4)

   Fragmentation: No

   Channel binding: No

   Indication of vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities are discussed in
   Section 9.

11. Acknowledgements and Contributions

   The authors wish to thank Rolf Blom of Ericsson, Bernard Aboba of
   Microsoft, Arne Norefors of Ericsson, N.Asokan of Nokia, Valtteri
   Niemi of Nokia, Kaisa Nyberg of Nokia, Jukka-Pekka Honkanen of Nokia,
   Pasi Eronen of Nokia, Olivier Paridaens of Alcatel and Ilkka Uusitalo
   of Ericsson for interesting discussions in this problem space.

   This protocol has been partly developed in parallel with EAP-SIM
   [EAP-SIM], and hence this specification incorporates many ideas from
   EAP-SIM, and many contributions from the reviewer's of EAP-SIM.




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   The attribute format is based on the extension format of Mobile IPv4
   [RFC3344].

Normative References

   [TS 33.102]
              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical
              Specification 3GPP TS 33.102 V5.1.0: "Technical
              Specification Group Services and System Aspects; 3G
              Security; Security Architecture (Release 5)"", December
              2002.

   [RFC2486]  Aboba, B. and M. Beadles, "The Network Access Identifier",
              RFC 2486, January 1999.

   [EAP]      Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Aboba, B., Carlson, J. and H.
              Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)",
              draft-ietf-eap-rfc2284bis-09 (work in progress), February
              2004.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [TS 23.003]
              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical
              Specification 3GPP TS 23.003 V5.5.1: "3rd Generation
              Parnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core
              Network; Numbering, addressing and identification (Release
              5)"", January 2003.

   [RFC2104]  Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M. and R. Canetti, "HMAC:
              Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
              February 1997.

   [AES]      National Institute of  Standards and Technology, "Federal
              Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication 197,
              "Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)"", November 2001.

              http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197/
              fips-197.pdf

   [CBC]      National Institute of Standards and Technology, "NIST
              Special Publication 800-38A, "Recommendation for Block
              Cipher Modes of Operation - Methods and Techniques"",
              December 2001.

              http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38a/
              sp800-38a.pdf



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   [SHA-1]    National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.
              Department of Commerce, "Federal Information Processing
              Standard (FIPS) Publication 180-1, "Secure Hash
              Standard"", April 1995.

   [PRF]      National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Federal
              Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Publication  186-2
              (with change notice); Digital Signature Standard (DSS)",
              January 2000.

              Available on-line at: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/
              fips/fips186-2/fips186-2-change1.pdf

   [TS 33.105]
              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical
              Specification 3GPP TS 33.105 4.1.0: "Technical
              Specification Group Services and System Aspects; 3G
              Security; Cryptographic Algorithm Requirements (Release
              4)"", June 2001.

   [RFC2279]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", RFC 2279, January 1998.

   [RFC2434]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
              October 1998.

Informative References

   [RFC2548]  Zorn, G., "Microsoft Vendor-specific RADIUS Attributes",
              RFC 2548, March 1999.

   [PEAP]     Palekar, A., Simon, D., Zorn, G., Salowey, J., Zhou, H.
              and S. Josefsson, "Protected EAP Protocol (PEAP)",
              draft-josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-07 (work in progress),
              October 2003.

   [RFC1750]  Eastlake, D., Crocker, S. and J. Schiller, "Randomness
              Recommendations for Security", RFC 1750, December 1994.

   [RFC3344]  Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4", RFC 3344,
              August 2002.

   [EAP-SIM]  Haverinen, H. and J. Salowey, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol Method for GSM Subscriber Identity Modules
              (EAP-SIM)", draft-haverinen-pppext-eap-sim-13 (work in
              progress), April 2004.




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   [Draft 3GPP TS 23.003]
              3rd Generation Partnership Project, "Draft 3GPP Technical
              Specification 3GPP TS 23.003 V 6.1.0: "3rd Generation
              Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core
              Network; Numbering, addressing and identification (Release
              6)", December 2003.

              work in progress


Authors' Addresses

   Jari Arkko
   Ericsson
   FIN-02420 Jorvas
   Finland

   Phone: +358 40 5079256
   EMail: jari.Arkko@ericsson.com


   Henry Haverinen
   Nokia Enterprise Solutions
   P.O. Box 12
   FIN-40101 Jyvaskyla
   Finland

   EMail: henry.haverinen@nokia.com

Appendix A.  Pseudo-Random Number Generator

   The "|" character denotes concatenation, and "^" denotes
   exponentiation.

   Step 1: Choose a new, secret value for the seed-key, XKEY

   Step 2: In hexadecimal notation let
       t = 67452301 EFCDAB89 98BADCFE 10325476 C3D2E1F0
       This is the initial value for H0|H1|H2|H3|H4
       in the FIPS SHS <xref target="SHA-1"/>

   Step 3: For j = 0 to m - 1 do
         3.1 XSEED_j = 0 /* no optional user input */
         3.2 For i = 0 to 1 do
             a. XVAL = (XKEY + XSEED_j) mod 2^b
             b. w_i = G(t, XVAL)
             c. XKEY = (1 + XKEY + w_i) mod 2^b
         3.3 x_j = w_0|w_1



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