INTERNET-DRAFT A. Van Kerckhoven Document: draft-avk-bib-music-rec-02.txt Fibonacci March 30, 2000 Expires September 30, 2000 Music Records Markup Language (MuReML) 1. Status of this memo This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." To view the list Internet-Draft Shadow Directories, see http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999). All Rights Reserved. 2. Abstract Many music libraries, music centers, authors societies, music publishers, music shops, broadcasting companies and public need to share bibliographic musical records. No standard format exists and exchanging musical records involves an important pre- and/or post-processing of these data. Searching, sorting and cataloging music bibliographical records does not currently follow any standard. The researcher needs, in each library and each music information center, to use different procedure. In some cases, it is just impossible to obtain the targeted result. This document defines the requirements for a standard musical bibliographic format. 3. Introduction Many music libraries, music centers, authors societies, music publishers, music shops broadcasting companies and public need to share bibliographic musical records. No standard format exists and exchanging musical records involves an important pre- and/or post-processing of these data. Searching, sorting and cataloging music bibliographical records does not currently follow any standard. The researcher needs, in each library and each music information center, to use different procedure. In some cases, it is just impossible to obtain the targeted result. The following format may be the base of a standard for musical bibliographic records. It designed as an XML application, as defined by W3C in REC-xml-19980210 accessible at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml.html. It features all properties of XML metalanguage : a structural extensibility, validity controls, independence of data and formatting, and it allows heterogeneity of data sources and targets. XML will likely be supported by the main web browsers in a short future. This format fits the goals and recommendations of RFC-2413 (Dublin Core Metadata for Resource Discovery) : - Simplicity of creation and maintenance - Commonly understood semantics - Conformance to existing and emerging standards - International scope and applicability - Extensibility - Interoperability among collections and indexing systems Organizations may automate to any degree (or not at all) both the creation of these records (about their own publications) and the handling of the records received from other organizations. This format is designed to be simple, for people and for machines, to be easy to read ("human readable") and create without any special programs. The focus of this format has been into many aspects of digital libraries including searching and accessing techniques that do not necessarily use bibliographic records (for example, natural language processing, automatic and full-text indexing). However, the continued use of bibliographic records is expected to remain an important part of the library system environment of the future and its use is an important link between the servers of records and the clients on site, on line or using a distributed media. The use of this format is free and encouraged. There are no limitation on its use. 4. Formal Syntax The following syntax specification uses the Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0. 4.1. Character set The characters set used is defined by ISO-10646 (coding characters on 32 bits) and permits the use of symbols and non latin alphabets. It is preferable, but not mandatory to explicitly declare it. <?xml version=1.0" encoding='ISO-10646' ?> All entities defined by ISO-10646 are permitted but "&" and "<". They can be used, as any other entity, on pointing the referring ISO-10646 code or the pre-defined XML entities with the standard XML syntax : & or & for "&" $#60; or < for "<" 4.2. Languages XML's support for multiple human languages, using the "xml:lang" attribute, handles cases where the same character set is employed by multiple human languages. In consequence, MuReML is a multi-language format. It gives the possibility to labellize the chosen language for each field, and the default language of the record. XML syntax applied to ISO-639 (for language) and optionally to ISO-3166 (for regional linguistic particularities) may be used. <media_title xml:lang='en-GB'>My Foot!</media_title> <media_title xml:lang='fr'>Mon Œil!</media_title> 4.3. Specific formattings Data of each field may refer to any adequate ISO norm for its representation. According to XML specification, this norm will be declared in the opening tag. <broadcasting_country code="ISO-3166">F</broadcasting_country> <world_creation_date format="ISO-8601">1999-10-02T20:30:00Z </world_creation_date> 4.4. Cases Data are case-sensitive. 4.5. White space and End-of-line handling The Music Records Markup Language, as a subset of XML, has the same white space handling and end-of-line handling as specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (W3C Recommendation 10-February-1998). 4.6. Grammar XML has been chosen because it is a flexible, self-describing, structured data format that supports rich schema definitions, and because of its support for multiple character sets. XML's self- describing nature allows any property's value to be extended by adding new elements. This format is a "tagged" format with self-explaining alphabetic tags. It should be possible to prepare and to read bibliographic records using any text editor, without any special programs. It is very easy to adapt any database for reading and writing this format. Converters may be developed to transform such data from this format to plain text or HTML for example. As an XML application, the lay-out and the design of the formatted data may be freely cosen by normalized style sheet mechanism like Cascading Style Sheet (CSS1, CSS2) or Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL). Since linear records are unable to efficiently manage the relation between the different kinds of information involved in music records management, the relational aspect of cataloguing must be maintained. Each element has a descriptive name intended to convey a common semantic understanding. Each packet of data considered in this format contains all significant information regarding a specific aspect of a record. This involves that several linked tables with several fields are necessary. Some fields are mandatory to insure integrity of the records and consistency of the links. Each packet starts with an indentifier (eventually random). This identifier is to check the relative identity of each packet and to make it traceable. A community of users may use it to identify its own packets. 4.7. The tables The various tables must follow the format described below. This diagram constitutes the minimum requirement of the format. It can be extended with other tables for particular uses. To fit the needs of musical records management (for example : highest hierarchy of tables, unnecessary differentiation of the various contributors...), this structure lightly diverges from the recommendations of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. Some tables as one-to-many relationship with others. It involves that some tables may be repeated as needed, for example for works with several rights-holders (composer, author, arranger, publisher, sub-publisher...) or for media with including several versions. Tables are also optional. They may appear in any order inside a particular packet. MEDIA Records relative to the supports of the versions. OCCURRENCE Records relative to the occurrence of a particular version in a particular format. RAPPORT Records relative to the rapport between a particular version and a rights-holder. RIGHTS-HOLDER Records relative to the rights-holders of the works (composers, librettist, arranger, publisher, sub-publisher...). VERSION Records relative to the instrumental versions of the works. WORK Records relative to the original works. 4.8. The fields The various fields should follow the format described below. These diagrams constitute the minimum requirement of the format. They can be extended with other fields for particular uses. These complementary fields names (or tags) have to be built in accordance of XML requirements. These fields are repeatable. A missing mandatory field invalidates the packet. Each field tag name begins with the parent table name, followed by an underscore. For example : <work_title>Monochrone</work_title> [M] means Mandatory; a record without it is invalid. [O] means Optional (here to illustrate the extensibility of MuReML) [L:FIELD] designs the table targeted by a link. Just the fields are parts of this format. Links will be optionally used in the database systems to optimize the data management and the consultation of the records. PACKET ----- [M] id MEDIA ----- [M] id [M] title [M] type [O] producer [O] localization [O] keywords [O] notes OCCURRENCE --------- [M] id [M] id_version [l:version] [M] id_media [l:media] [O] keywords [O] notes VERSION ------- [M] id [M] id_work [l:work] [M] specificity [O] opus [O] start_composition_date [O] start_composition_place [O] end_composition_date [O] end_composition_place [O] keywords [O] notes WORK ---- [M] id [M] title [O] original language title [O] US-english title [O] start_composition_date [O] start_composition_place [O] end_composition_date [O] end_composition_place [O] duration [O] citations [O] keywords [O] notes RAPPORT ------- [M] id [M] id_rights-holder [l:rights-holder] [M] id_version [l:version] [M] status [O] keywords [O] notes RIGHTS-HOLDER ------------- [M] id [M] name [O] type [O] contact [O] keywords [O] notes 4.9. Meta Format and DTD MuReML is an open format. Communities of users may enlarge it to their own needs. The minimal elements needed in a DTD to fit the MuReML specifications are : <!ELEMENT packet (packet_id, media*, occurrence*, version*, work*, rapport*, rights-holder*) > <!ELEMENT packet_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT media (media_id, media_title, media_type) > <!ELEMENT media_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT media_title (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT media_type (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT occurrence (occurrence_id, occurrence_id_media, occurrence_id_version) > <!ELEMENT occurrence_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT occurrence_id_media (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT occurrence_id_version (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT version (version_id, version_id_work, version_specificity) > <!ELEMENT version_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT version_id_work (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT version_specificity (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT work (work_id, work_title) > <!ELEMENT work_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT work_title (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT rapport (rapport_id, rapport_id_rights-holder, rapport_id_version) > <!ELEMENT rapport_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT rapport_id_rights-holder (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT rapport_id_version (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT rights-holder (rights-holder_id, rights-holder_name) > <!ELEMENT rights-holder_id (#PCDATA) > <!ELEMENT rights-holder_name (#PCDATA) > 5. Example ---------------------- Begin of Example ------------------- <?xml version='1.0' encoding='ISO-10646' standalone='no' ?> <packet xml:lang='en-GB'> <packet_id>AVK990127223015</packet_id> <media> <media_id>BS542187935</media_id> <media_title>Two works for four hands</media_title> <media_type>music sheet</media_type> <media_producer>Big Deal Publishing</media_producer> <media_notes>Produced by the publisher</media_notes> </media> <occurrence> <occurrence_id>a12354879654-12</occurrence_id> <occurrence_version_id>PF2H0001</occurrence_version_id> <occurrence_media_id>BS542187935</occurrence_media_id> <occurrence_id>a12354879655-13</occurrence_id> <occurrence_version_id>PF2H0002</occurrence_version_id> <occurrence_media_id>BS542187935</occurrence_media_id> </occurrence> <version> <version_id>PF2H0001</version_id> <version_work_id>00000001</version_work_id> <version_specificity>piano four-hand</version_specificity> <version_opus>102</version_opus> <version_notes>ordered by the publisher and dedicated to AmF</version_notes> <version_id>PF2H0002</version_id> <version_work_id>00000002</version_work_id> <version_specificity>piano four-hand</version_specificity> <version_opus>102</version_opus> <version_notes>ordered by the publisher</version_notes> </version> <work> <work_id>00000001</work_id> <work_title xml:lang='it'>La bella Postina</work_title> <work_start_composition_date format="ISO-8601">1999-02-05 </work_start_composition_date> <work_duration>00:12:30</work_duration> <work_keywords>modules, rehearsals, repetitive, composer's introduction</work_keywords> <work_id>00000002</work_id> <work_title>Jazz</work_title> <work_start_composition_date format="ISO-8601">1999-01-15 </work_start_composition_date> <work_end_composition_date format="ISO-8601">1999-01-30 </work_end_composition_date> <work_duration>00:09:00</work_duration> </work> <rapport> <rapport_id>5478985251454117</rapport_id> <rapport_rights_holder_id>BE_ED001<rapport_rights_holder_id> <rapport_version_id>PF2H0001<rapport_version_id> <rapport_status>original publisher</rapport_status> <rapport_id>5478985251454117</rapport_id> <rapport_rights_holder_id>BE_CP001<rapport_rights_holder_id> <rapport_version_id>PF2H0001<rapport_version_id> <rapport_status>composer</rapport_status> <rapport_id>5478985251454117</rapport_id> <rapport_rights_holder_id>BE_CP002<rapport_rights_holder_id> <rapport_version_id>PF2H0002<rapport_version_id> <rapport_status>composer</rapport_status> </rapport> <rights-holder> <rights-holder_id>BE_ED001</rights-holder_id> <rights-holder_name>Big Deal Publishing</rights-holder_name> <rights-holder_type>publisher</rights-holder_type> <rights-holder_contact>Alain Van Kerckhoven </rights-holder_contact> <rights-holder_keywords>post-modernism, classical, Devreese, Lachert, Lysight, Mendes, Pelecis</rights-holder_keywords> <rights-holder_notes>Founded in 1989</rights-holder_notes> <rights-holder_id>BE_CP001</rights-holder_id> <rights-holder_name>Lachert, Piotr</rights-holder_name> <rights-holder_type>composer</rights-holder_type> <rights-holder_contact>Lachert, Piotr</rights-holder_contact> <rights-holder_keywords>post-modernism, computer music, letters music</rights-holder_keywords> <rights-holder_id>BE_CP002</rights-holder_id> <rights-holder_name>Lysight, Michel</rights-holder_name> <rights-holder_type>composer</rights-holder_type> <rights-holder_contact>Lysight, Michel</rights-holder_contact> <rights-holder_keywords>post-modernism, repetitive music, minimalism</rights-holder_keywords> </rights-holder> </packet> ------------------------- End of Example ------------------- Indentations and line-breaks are for convenient visualization. This example illustrates a music sheet (MEDIA BS542187935) titled "Two works for four hands". It includes one version (PF2H0001 and PF2H0002) of two different works : "La bella Postina" (00000001) and "Jazz" (00000002). The first one is published and has two rights-holders : the publisher Alain Van Kerckhoven (BE_ED001) and the composer Piotr Lachert (BE_CP001). The second one is unpublished and has been reproduced with a simple agreement of the composer, who has the all rights : Michel Lysight (BE_CP002). For reference, the above example contains 3,405 characters. 6. Mandatory fields description PACKET_ID Any value (random, sequential or inductive) marking the beginning and the end of each packet, in order to avoid merging of packets in case of a media default. MEDIA_ID Identifies the media record and is used in management of these records. MEDIA_TITLE Main title of the media. If necessary, sub-titles or translations of the title have to fill other fields. MEDIA_TYPE Type of support : music sheet, CD, CD-ROM, DVD... Formats of the information can be described in other fields (encoding, file type, standard, compression...). occurrence_ID Identifies the occurrence of a version in a media. occurrence_VERSION_ID Points to a specific version. occurrence_MEDIA_ID Points to a specific media. VERSION_ID Identifies the version record and is used in management of these records. VERSION_WORK_ID Points to a specific work. VERSION_SPECIFICITY Main information making this version different from the other versions of the same work. It will often contain formation data : clarinet and piano, flute and piano etc. WORK_ID Identifies the work record and is used in management of these records. WORK_TITLE Main title of the media. If necessary, sub-titles or translations of the title have to fill other fields. RAPPORT_ID Identifies the rapport between a rights-holder and a version. RAPPORT_ID_RIGHTS-HOLDER Points to a specific rights-holder RAPPORT_ID_VERSION Points to a specific rights-holder. RAPPORT_STATUS Describes the status of the rights-holder regarding the pointed version. A composer may be an arranger, and a publisher may be a librettist. RIGHTS-HOLDER_ID Identifies a rights-holder record and is used in management of these records. RIGHTS-HOLDER_NAME Name of the rights-holder (person of company). This includes composers, publishers, sub-publishers, librettists, transcribers, illustrators, arrangers, orchestrators etc. 7. Security Considerations The Music Records Markup Language, as a subset of XML, has the same security considerations as specified in [RFC-2376]. 8. Acknowledgments This document has benefited greatly from the luminous suggestion by Mark Needlaman to move my first format proposition (draft-avk-bib-music-rec-01.txt) into a XML application. Thanks to John Stracke for introducing the Dublin Core to me. Thanks to Steve Coya and to IESG for critics of the first release of this memo. Thanks to the "lazy bits" of Brussels. You know who you are. Thanks to Mireille. 9. References  Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the identification of languages", RFC 1766, UNINETT, March 1995. <http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1766.html>  Berners-Lee, T., and D. Connolly, "HyperText Markup Language Specification - 2.0", RFC 1866, MIT/LCS, November 1995. <http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1866.html>  W3C XML Working Group (WG), "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0", W3C Recommendation, February 1998. <http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-xml-19980210>  Weibel, S., Kunze, J., Lagoze, C., Wolf, M., "Dublin Core Metadata Element Set" <http://purl.org/metadata/dublin_core>  Weibel, S., Kunze, J., Lagoze, C., Wolf, M., "Dublin Core Metadata for Resource Discovery" RFC-2413 <http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2413.html>  Date and Time Formats (based on ISO 8601), W3C Technical Note, <http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime-970915.html>  Ohta, M., "Character Sets ISO-10646 and ISO-10646-J-1", RFC 1815, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Juy 1995. <http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1815.html>  ISO-639, "Code for the representation of names of languages.", International Standards Organization, 1988  ISO-3166, "Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries", International Standards Organization, May 1981. 10. Author's Address Alain Van Kerckhoven avenue Broustin 110 B-1083 Brussels Belgium Phone: +32 2 420.21.21 Fax : +32 2 420.05.05 EMail: email@example.com 11. Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than English. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns. This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.