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Internet-Draft                                                P. Behera
draft behera-ldap-password-policy-07.txt                      L. Poitou
Intended Category: Proposed Standard                   Sun Microsystems
Expires: August 2004                                     J. Sermersheim
                                                                 Novell

                                                          February 2004


                  Password Policy for LDAP Directories


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts as
   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   Technical discussions of this draft are held on the LDAPEXT Working
   Group mailing list at ietf-ldapext@netscape.com. Editorial comments
   may be sent to the authors listed in Section 13.

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All rights Reserved.

   Please see the Copyright Section near the end of this document for
   more information.



Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", and "MAY" in this document
   are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC-2119].



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1. Abstract

   Password policy as described in this document is a set of rules that
   controls how passwords are used and administered in LDAP
   directories. In order to improve the security of LDAP directories
   and make it difficult for password cracking programs to break into
   directories, it is desirable to enforce a set of rules on password
   usage.  These rules are made to ensure that users change their
   passwords periodically, passwords meet construction requirements,
   the re-use of old password is restricted, and users are locked out
   after a certain number of failed attempts.



2. Overview

   LDAP-based directory services are currently accepted by many
   organizations as the access protocol for directories. The ability to
   ensure the secure read and update access to directory information
   throughout the network is essential to the successful deployment.
   Most LDAP implementations support many authentication schemes - the
   most basic and widely used is the simple authentication i.e., user
   DN and password. In this case, many LDAP servers have implemented
   some kind of policy related to the password used to authenticate.
   Among other things, this policy includes:

   - Whether and when passwords expire.
   - Whether failed bind attempts cause the account to be locked.
   - If and how users are able to change their passwords.

   In order to achieve greater security protection and ensure
   interoperability in a heterogeneous environment, LDAP needs to
   standardize on a common password policy model. This is critical to
   the successful deployment of LDAP directories.

2.1. Application of password policy

   The password policy defined in this document can be applied to any
   attribute holding a user's password used for an authenticated LDAP
   bind operation. In this document, the term "user" represents any
   LDAP client application that has an identity in the directory.

   This policy is typically applied to the userPassword attribute in
   the case of the LDAP simple authentication method [RFC-2251] or the
   case of password based SASL [RFC-2222] authentication such as CRAM-
   MD5 [RFC-2195] and DIGEST-MD5 [RFC-Digest].




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   The policy described in this document assumes that the password
   attribute holds a single value. No considerations are made for
   directories or systems that allow a user to maintain multi-valued
   password attributes.

   Server implementations MAY institute internal policy whereby certain
   identities (such as directory administrators) are not forced to
   comply with any of password policy. In this case, the password for a
   directory administrator never expires; the account is never locked,
   etc.

   The term "directory administrator" refers to a user that has
   sufficient access control privileges to modify users' passwords, and
   the pwdPolicy object defined in this document. The access control
   that is used to determine whether an identity is a directory
   administrator is beyond the scope of this document, but typically
   implies that the administrator has 'write' privileges to the
   password attribute.

3. Articles of password policy

   The following sections explain in general terms each aspect of the
   password policy defined in this document as well as the need for
   each. These policies are subdivided into the general groups of
   password usage and password modification. Implementation details are
   presented in Sections 6 and 7.

3.1. Password Usage Policy

   This section describes policy enforced when a password is used to
   authenticate. The general focus of this policy is to minimize the
   threat of intruders once a password is in use.

3.1.1. Password Guessing limit

   In order to prevent intruders from guessing a user's password, a
   mechanism exists to track the number of failed authentication
   attempts, and take action when a limit is reached.

   This policy consists of five parts:

   -  A configurable limit on failed authentication attempts.

   -  A counter to track the number of failed authentication attempts.

   -  A timeframe in which the limit of consecutive failed
      authentication attempts must happen before action is taken.




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   -  The action to be taken when the limit is reached. The action will
      either be nothing, or the account will be locked.

   -  An amount of time the account is locked (if it is to be locked).
      This can be indefinite.

3.2. Password Modification Policy

   This section describes policy enforced while users are modifying
   passwords. The general focus of this policy is to ensure that when
   users add or change their passwords, the security and effectiveness
   of their passwords is maximized. In this document, the term "modify
   password operation" refers to any operation that is used to add or
   modify a password attribute. Often this is done by updating the
   userPassword attribute during an add or modify operation, but MAY be
   done by other means such as an extended operation.


3.2.1. Password Expiration, Expiration Warning, and Grace binds

   One of the key properties of a password is the fact that it is not
   well known. If a password is frequently changed, the chances of that
   user's account being broken into are minimized.

   Directory administrators may deploy a password policy that causes
   passwords to expire after a given amount of time - thus forcing
   users to change their passwords periodically.

   As a side effect, there needs to be a way in which users are made
   aware of this need to change their password before actually being
   locked out of their accounts. One or both of the following methods
   handle this:

   -  The user is sent a warning sometime before his password is due to
      expire. If the user fails to heed this warning before the
      expiration time, his account will be locked.

   -  The user may bind to the directory a preset number of times after
      her password has expired. If she fails to change her password
      during one of her 'grace' binds, her account will be locked.

3.2.2. Password History

   When the Password Expiration policy is used, an additional mechanism
   may be employed to prevent users from simply re-using a previous
   password (as this would effectively circumvent the expiration
   policy).




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   In order to do this; a history of used passwords is kept. The
   directory administrator sets the number of passwords to be stored at
   any given time. Passwords are stored in this history whenever the
   password is changed. Users aren't allowed to specify any passwords
   that are in the history list while changing passwords.

3.2.3. Password Minimum Age

   Users may circumvent the Password History mechanism by quickly
   performing a series of password changes. If they change their
   password enough times, their 'favorite' password will be pushed out
   of the history list.

   This process may be made less attractive to users by employing a
   minimum age for passwords. If users are forced to wait 24 hours
   between password changes, they may be less likely to cycle through a
   history of 10 passwords.

3.2.4. Password Quality and Minimum length

   In order to prevent users from creating or updating passwords that
   are easy to guess, a password quality policy may be employed. This
   policy consists of two general mechanisms - ensuring that passwords
   conform to a defined quality criteria and ensuring that they are of
   a minimum length.

   Forcing a password to comply with the quality policy may imply a
   variety of things including:

   -  Disallowing trivial or well-known words make up the password.

   -  Forcing a certain number of digits be used.

   -  Disallowing anagrams of the user's name.

   The implementation of this policy meets with the following problems:

   -  If the password to be added or updated is encrypted by the client
      before being sent, the server has no way of enforcing this
      policy. Therefore, the onus of enforcing this policy falls upon
      client implementations.

   -  There are no specific definitions of what 'quality checking'
      means. This can lead to unexpected behavior in a heterogeneous
      environment.

3.2.5. User Defined Passwords




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   In some cases, it is desirable to disallow users from adding and
   updating their own passwords. This policy makes this functionality
   possible.

   This implies that certain other policy, such as password expiration
   is not enforced.

3.2.6. Password Change After Reset

   This policy forces the user to update her password after it has been
   set for the first time, or has been reset by the directory
   administrator.

   This is needed in scenarios where a directory administrator has set
   or reset the password to a well-known value.

3.2.7. Safe modification

   As directories become more commonly used, it will not be unusual for
   clients to connect to a directory and leave the connection open for
   an extended period. This opens up the possibility for an intruder to
   make modifications to a user's password while that user's computer
   is connected but unattended.

   This policy forces the user to prove his identity by specifying the
   old password during a password modify operation.

3.3. Restriction of the Password Policy

   The password policy defined in this document can apply to any
   attribute containing a password. Password policy state information
   is held in the user's entry, and applies to a password attribute,
   not a particular password attribute value. Thus the server SHOULD
   enforce that the password attribute subject to password policy,
   contains one and only one password value.


4. Schema used for Password Policy

   The schema elements defined here fall into two general categories. A
   password policy object class is defined which contains a set of
   administrative password policy attributes, and a set of operational
   attributes are defined that hold general password policy state
   information for each user.

4.1. The pwdPolicy Object Class

   This object class contains the attributes defining a password policy
   in effect for a set of users. Section 8 describes the administration


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   of this object, and the relationship between it and particular
   objects.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.2.1
      NAME 'pwdPolicy'
      SUP top
      AUXILIARY
      MUST ( pwdAttribute )
      MAY ( pwdMinAge $ pwdMaxAge $ pwdInHistory $ pwdCheckQuality $
      pwdMinLength $ pwdExpireWarning $ pwdGraceLoginLimit $ pwdLockout
      $ pwdLockoutDuration $ pwdMaxFailure $ pwdFailureCountInterval $
      pwdMustChange $ pwdAllowUserChange $ pwdSafeModify ) )

4.2. Attribute Types used in the pwdPolicy ObjectClass

   Following are the attribute types used by the pwdPolicy object
   class.

4.2.1. pwdAttribute

   This holds the name of the attribute to which the password policy is
   applied. For example, the password policy may be applied to the
   userPassword attribute.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.1
      NAME 'pwdAttribute'
      EQUALITY objectIdentifierMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.38 )

4.2.2. pwdMinAge

   This attribute holds the number of seconds that must elapse between
   modifications to the password. If this attribute is not present, 0
   seconds is assumed.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.2
      NAME 'pwdMinAge'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.3. pwdMaxAge

   This attribute holds the number of seconds after which a modified
   password will expire.

   If this attribute is not present, or if the value is 0 the password
   does not expire. If not 0, the value must be greater than or equal
   to the value of the pwdMinAge.


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   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.3
      NAME 'pwdMaxAge'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.4. pwdInHistory

   This attribute specifies the maximum number of used passwords stored
   in the pwdHistory attribute.

   If this attribute is not present, or if the value is 0, used
   passwords are not stored in the pwdHistory attribute and thus may be
   reused.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.4
      NAME 'pwdInHistory'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.5. pwdCheckQuality

   This attribute indicates how the password quality will be verified
   while being modified or added. If this attribute is not present, or
   if the value is '0', quality checking will not be enforced. A value
   of '1' indicates that the server will check the quality, and if the
   server is unable to check it (due to a hashed password or other
   reasons) it will be accepted. A value of '2' indicates that the
   server will check the quality, and if the server is unable to verify
   it, it will return an error refusing the password.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.5
      NAME 'pwdCheckQuality'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.6. pwdMinLength

   When quality checking is enabled, this attribute holds the minimum
   number of characters that must be used in a password. If this
   attribute is not present, no minimum password length will be
   enforced. If the server is unable to check the length (due to a
   hashed password or otherwise), the server will, depending on the
   value of the pwdCheckQuality attribute, either accept the password
   without checking it ('0' or '1') or refuse it ('2').



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   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.6
      NAME 'pwdMinLength'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.7. pwdExpireWarning

   This attribute specifies the maximum number of seconds before a
   password is due to expire that expiration warning messages will be
   returned to an authenticating user. If this attribute is not
   present, or if the value is 0 no warnings will be sent. If not 0,
   the value must be smaller than the value of the pwdMaxAge attribute.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.7
      NAME 'pwdExpireWarning'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.8. pwdGraceLoginLimit

   This attribute specifies the number of times an expired password can
   be used to authenticate. If this attribute is not present or if the
   value is 0, authentication will fail.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.8
      NAME 'pwdGraceLoginLimit'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.9. pwdLockout

   This attribute indicates, when its value is "TRUE", that the
   password may not be used to authenticate after a specified number of
   consecutive failed bind attempts. The maximum number of consecutive
   failed bind attempts is specified in pwdMaxFailure.

   If this attribute is not present, or if the value is "FALSE", the
   password may be used to authenticate when the number of failed bind
   attempts has been reached.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.9
      NAME 'pwdLockout'
      EQUALITY booleanMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
      SINGLE-VALUE )



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4.2.10. pwdLockoutDuration

   This attribute holds the number of seconds that the password cannot
   be used to authenticate due to too many failed bind attempts. If
   this attribute is not present, or if the value is 0 the password
   cannot be used to authenticate until reset by an administrator.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.10
      NAME 'pwdLockoutDuration'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.11. pwdMaxFailure

   This attribute specifies the number of consecutive failed bind
   attempts after which the password may not be used to authenticate.
   If this attribute is not present, or if the value is 0, this policy
   is not checked, and the value of pwdLockout will be ignored.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.11
      NAME 'pwdMaxFailure'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.12. pwdFailureCountInterval

   This attribute holds the number of seconds after which the password
   failures are purged from the failure counter, even though no
   successful authentication occurred.

   If this attribute is not present, or if its value is 0, the failure
   counter is only reset by a successful authentication.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.12
      NAME 'pwdFailureCountInterval'
      EQUALITY integerMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.27
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.13. pwdMustChange

   This attribute specifies with a value of "TRUE" that users must
   change their passwords when they first bind to the directory after a
   password is set or reset by the administrator. If this attribute is
   not present, or if the value is "FALSE", users are not required to
   change their password upon binding after the administrator sets or
   resets the password.


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   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.13
      NAME 'pwdMustChange'
      EQUALITY booleanMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.14. pwdAllowUserChange

   This attribute indicates whether users can change their own
   passwords, although the change operation is still subject to access
   control. If this attribute is not present, a value of "TRUE" is
   assumed.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.14
      NAME 'pwdAllowUserChange'
      EQUALITY booleanMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.2.15. pwdSafeModify

   This attribute specifies whether or not the existing password must
   be sent when changing a password. If this attribute is not present,
   a "FALSE" value is assumed.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.15
      NAME 'pwdSafeModify'
      EQUALITY booleanMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
      SINGLE-VALUE )

4.3. Attribute Types for Password Policy State Information

   Password policy state information must be maintained for each user.
   The information is located in each user entry as a set of
   operational attributes. These operational attributes are:
   pwdChangedTime, pwdAccountLockedTime, pwdExpirationWarned,
   pwdFailureTime, pwdHistory, pwdGraceUseTime, pwdReset,
   pwdPolicySubEntry.

4.3.1. Password Policy State Attribute Option

   Since the password policy could apply to several attributes used to
   store passwords, each of the above operational attributes must have
   an option to specify which pwdAttribute is applies to.
   The password policy option is defined as the following:
        pwd-<passwordAttribute>



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        where passwordAttribute a string following the OID syntax
        (1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.38). The attribute type descriptor
        (short name) MUST be used.

   For example, if the pwdPolicy object has for pwdAttribute
   "userPassword" then the pwdChangedTime operational attribute, in a
   user entry, will be:
   pwdChangedTime;pwd-userPassword: 20000103121520Z

   This attribute option follows sub-typing semantics. If a client
   requests a password policy state attribute to be returned in a
   search operation, and does not specify an option, all subtypes of
   that policy state attribute are returned.


4.3.2. pwdChangedTime

   This attribute specifies the last time the entry's password was
   changed. This is used by the password expiration policy. If this
   attribute does not exist, the password will never expire.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.16
      NAME 'pwdChangedTime'
      DESC 'The time the password was last changed'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
      EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
      ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
      SINGLE-VALUE
      USAGE directoryOperation)

4.3.3. pwdAccountLockedTime

   This attribute holds the time that the user's account was locked. A
   locked account means that the password may no longer be used to
   authenticate. A 0 value means that the account has been locked
   permanently, and that only an administrator can unlock the account.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.17
      NAME 'pwdAccountLockedTime'
      DESC 'The time an user account was locked'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
      EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
      ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
      SINGLE-VALUE
      USAGE directoryOperation)

4.3.4. pwdExpirationWarned




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   This attribute contains the time when the password expiration
   warning was first sent to the client. The password will expire in
   the pwdExpireWarning time.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.18
      NAME 'pwdExpirationWarned'
      DESC 'The time the user was first warned about the coming
              expiration of the password'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
      EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
      ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
      SINGLE-VALUE
      USAGE directoryOperation )

4.3.5. pwdFailureTime

   This attribute holds the timestamps of the consecutive
   authentication failures.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.19
      NAME 'pwdFailureTime'
      DESC 'The timestamps of the last consecutive authentication
              failures'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
      EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
      ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch
      USAGE directoryOperation )


4.3.6. pwdHistory

   This attribute holds a history of previously used passwords.

   Values of this attribute are transmitted in string format as given
   by the following ABNF:

   pwdHistory = time "#" syntaxOID "#" length "#" data

   time         = <generalizedTimeString as specified in 6.14 of
                  [RFC2252]>

   syntaxOID    = numericoid     ; the string representation of the
                                 ; dotted-decimal OID that defines the
                                 ; syntax used to store the password.
                                 ; numericoid is described in 4.1 of
                                 ; [RFC2252].

   length       = numericstring  ; the number of octets in data.
                                 ; numericstring is described in 4.1 of


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                                 ; [RFC2252].

   data         = <octets representing the password in the format
                specified by syntaxOID>.

   This format allows the server to store, and transmit a history of
   passwords that have been used. In order for equality matching to
   function properly, the time field needs to adhere to a consistent
   format. For this purpose, the time field MUST be in GMT format.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.20
      NAME 'pwdHistory'
      DESC 'The history of user s passwords'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.40
      EQUALITY octetStringMatch
      USAGE directoryOperation)

4.3.7. pwdGraceUseTime

   This attribute holds the timestamps of grace login once a password
   has expired.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.21
      NAME 'pwdGraceUseTime'
      DESC 'The timestamps of the grace login once the password has
      expired'
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.24
      EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch

      USAGE directoryOperation)

4.3.8. pwdReset

   This attribute holds a flag to indicate (when TRUE) that the
   password has been reset and therefore must be changed by the user on
   first authentication.

   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.22
      NAME 'pwdReset'
      DESC 'The indication that the password has been reset'
      EQUALITY booleanMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.7
      SINGLE-VALUE
      USAGE directoryOperation)

4.3.9. pwdPolicySubentry

   This attribute points to the pwdPolicy subentry in effect for this
   object.


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   (  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.1.23
      NAME 'pwdPolicySubentry'
      DESC 'The pwdPolicy subentry in effect for this object'
      EQUALITY distinguishedNameMatch
      SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.12
      SINGLE-VALUE
      USAGE directoryOperation)

5. Controls used for Password Policy

   This section details the controls used while enforcing password
   policy. A request control is defined that is sent by a client with a
   request operation in order to elicit a response control. The
   response control contains various warnings and errors associated
   with password policy.

5.1. Request Control

   This control MAY be sent with any LDAP request message in order to
   convey to the server that this client is aware of, and can process
   the response control described in this document. When a server
   receives this control, it will return the response control when
   appropriate and with the proper data.

   The controlType is 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1 and the criticality
   MUST be FALSE. There is no controlValue.

   passwordPolicyRequest

   controlType: 1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1
   criticality: FALSE
   controlValue:                 None

5.2. Response Control

   If the client has sent a passwordPolicyRequest control, the server
   sends this control with the following operation responses:
   bindResponse, modifyResponse, addResponse, compareResponse and
   possibly extendedResponse, to inform of various conditions, and MAY
   be sent with other operations (in the case of the changeAfterReset
   error).

   passwordPolicyResponse

   controlType:  1.3.6.1.4.1.42.2.27.8.5.1
   criticality: FALSE
   controlValue:                 an OCTET STRING, whose value is the BER encoding of the
                following type:


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   PasswordPolicyResponseValue ::= SEQUENCE {
      warning   [0] CHOICE {
          timeBeforeExpiration  [0] INTEGER (0 .. maxInt),
          graceLoginsRemaining  [1] INTEGER (0 .. maxInt) } OPTIONAL
      error     [1] ENUMERATED {
          passwordExpired               (0),
          accountLocked         (1),
          changeAfterReset              (2),
          passwordModNotAllowed (3),
          mustSupplyOldPassword (4),
          insufficientPasswordQuality   (5),
          passwordTooShort              (6),
          passwordTooYoung              (7),
          passwordInHistory             (8) } OPTIONAL }

   The timeBeforeExpiration warning specifies the number of seconds
   before a password will expire. The graceLoginsRemaining warning
   specifies the remaining number of times a user will be allowed to
   authenticate with an expired password. The passwordExpired error
   signifies that the password has expired and must be reset. The
   changeAfterReset error signifies that the password must be changed
   before the user will be allowed to perform any operation other than
   bind and modify. The passwordModNotAllowed error is set when a user
   is restricted from changing her password. The
   insufficientPasswordQuality error is set when a password doesn't
   pass quality checking. The passwordTooYoung error is set if the age
   of the password to be modified is not yet old enough.

   Typically, only either a warning or an error will be encoded though
   there may be exceptions. For example, if the user is required to
   change a password after the administrator set it, and the password
   will expire in a short amount of time, the control may include the
   timeBeforeExpiration warning and the changeAfterReset error.


6. Server Implementation by LDAP operation

   The following sections contain detailed instructions that refer to
   attributes of the pwdPolicy object class. When doing so, the
   attribute of the pwdPolicy object that governs the entry being
   discussed is implied.

   The server SHOULD enforce that the password attribute subject to a
   password policy as defined in this document, contains one and only
   one password value.

   The scenarios in the following operations assume that the client has
   attached a passwordPolicyRequest control to the request message of


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   the operation. In the event that the passwordPolicyRequest control
   was not sent, no passwordPolicyRequest control is returned. All
   other instructions remain the same.


6.1. Bind Operation

   When processing a bind request, the server MUST perform the
   following steps:

   1. Check for a locked account:

      If the value of the pwdAccountLockedTime attribute is 0, or if
      the current time is less than the value of the
      pwdAccountLockedTime attribute added to the value of the
      pwdLockoutDuration, the account is locked.

      If the account is locked, the server MUST send a bindResponse to
      the client with the resultCode: unwillingToPerform (53), and MUST
      include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
      bindResponse message with the error: accountLocked (1).

      If the account is not locked, the server MUST proceed with the
      bind operation.

   2. Check the result of the bind operation:

      If the bind operation succeeds with authentication, the server
      MUST do the following:

      A.  Delete the pwdFailureTime attribute.

             B.  Check whether the password must be changed now.

          If the pwdMustChange attribute is set to TRUE, and if the
          pwdReset attribute is set to TRUE, the password must be
          changed now.

          If the password must be changed now, the server MUST send a
          bindResponse to the client with the resultCode: success (0),
          and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls
          field of the bindResponse message with the warning:
          changeAfterReset specified.
          The server MUST then disallow all operations issued by this
          user except modify password, bind, unbind, abandon and
          StartTLS extended operation.

          If the password does not need to be changed now, the operation
          proceeds.


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      C.  Check for password expiration

          The password has expired when either of the following
          conditions is met:

          -  If the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute is 0, the
             server subtracts the current time from the time stored in
             pwdChangedTime to arrive at the password's age. If the age
             is greater than the value in the pwdMaxAge attribute, the
             password has expired.

          -  If the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute is non-
             zero, and the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is present and
             has a time value, the server subtracts the current time
             from the time stored in the pwdExpirationWarned to arrive
             at the first warning age. If the age is greater than the
             value in the pwdExpireWarning attribute, the password has
             expired.

          If the password has expired, the server MUST check for
          remaining grace logins.

                       If the pwdGraceUseTime attribute is present, the server
             MUST count the number of values in that attribute and
             subtract it from the pwdGraceLoginLimit. A positive result
             specifies the number of remaining grace logins.

                       If there are remaining grace logins, the server MUST add a
             new value with the current time in pwdGraceUseTime. Then
             it MUST send a bindResponse with the resultCode: success
             (0), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the
             controls field of the bindResponse message with the
             warning: graceLoginsRemaining choice set to the number of
             grace logins left.

                       If there are no remaining grace logins, the server MUST
             send a bindResponse with the resultCode:
             invalidCredentials (49), and MUST include the
             passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
             bindResponse message with the error: passwordExpired (0)
             set.

          If the password has not expired, execution continues.

      D.  Calculates whether the time before expiration warning should
          be sent.




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          If the pwdExpireWarning attribute is present and contains a
          value, the server MUST perform the following steps.

                    If the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is present and has a
             time value, the warning time is the value of the
             pwdExpirationWarned attribute plus the value of the
             pwdExpireWarning attribute minus the current time.

                    If the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is not present, the
             server MUST subtract the current time from the time stored
             in pwdChangedTime to arrive at the password's age. If the
             age is greater than the value of the pwdMaxAge attribute
             minus the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute, the
             server MUST set the current time as the value of the
             pwdExpirationWarned attribute, and the warning time is the
             value of pwdMaxAge minus the password's age.

                    If the warning time is a positive number, the server MUST
             send a bindResponse with the resultCode: success (0), and
             MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls
             field of the bindResponse message with the warning:
             timeBeforeExiration set to the value as described above.

                    If the warning time is zero, or wasn't calculated, the
             server MUST send a bindResponse with the resultCode:
             success (0), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse
             with nothing in the SEQUENCE.

          If the pwdExpireWarning attribute is not present, the server
          MUST send a bindResponse with the resultCode: success (0),
          and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse with nothing in
          the SEQUENCE.

             If the bind operation fails authentication due to invalid
      credentials, the server MUST do the following:

      A.  Add the current time as a value of the pwdFailureTime
          attribute.

      B.  If the pwdLockout attribute is TRUE, the server MUST also do
          the following:

                    Count the number of values in the pwdFailureTime attribute
             that are younger than pwdFailureCountInterval.

                    If the number of these failures is greater or equal to the
             pwdMaxFailure attribute, the server MUST lock the account
             by setting the value of the pwdAccountLockedTime attribute
             to the current time. After locking the account, the server


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             MUST send a bindResponse to the client with the
             resultCode: unwillingToPerform (53), and MUST include the
             passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
             bindResponse message with the error: accountLocked (1).

             If the number of failures is less than the pwdMaxFailure
             attribute, operation proceeds.

      C.  Failure times that are old by more than
          pwdFailureCountInterval are purged from the pwdFailureTime
          attribute.



6.2. Modify Password Operation

   Because the password is stored in an attribute, the modify operation
   may be used to create or update a password. But some alternate
   mechanisms have been defined or may be defined, such as the LDAP
   Password Modify Extended Operation [RFC-3062].




   While processing a password modification, the server MUST perform
   the following steps:

   1. Check the pwdSafeModify attribute. If set to TRUE, the server
      MUST ensure that the modify password operation included the
      user's existing password. When the LDAP modify operation is used
      to modify a password, this is done by specifying both a delete
      action and an add or replace action, where the delete action is
      first, and specifies the existing password, and the add or
      replace action specifies the new password. Other password modify
      operations SHOULD employ a similar mechanism. Otherwise this
      policy will fail.

      If the existing password is not specified, the server MUST NOT
      process the operation and MUST send the appropriate response
      message to the client with the resultCode: unwillingToPerform
      (53), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls
      field of the response message with the error:
      mustSupplyOldPassword (4).


   2. Check the value of the pwdMustChange attribute. If TRUE, the
      server MUST check the pwdReset attribute in the user's entry, to
      see if a directory administrator has reset the password. If so,
      it MUST ensure that the modify password operation contains no


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      modifications other than the modification of the password
      attribute. If other modifications exist, the server MUST send a
      response message to the client with the resultCode:
      unwillingToPerform (53), and MUST include the
      passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the response
      message with the error: changeAfterReset (2).

   3. Check to see whether the bound identity has sufficient rights to
      modify the password. If the bound identity is a user changing its
      own password, this MAY be done by checking the pwdAllowUserChange
      attribute or using an access control mechanism. The determination
      of this is implementation specific. If the user is not allowed to
      change her password, the server MUST send a response message to
      the client with the resultCode: unwillingToPerform (53), and MUST
      include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
      response message with the error: passwordModNotAllowed (3).

   4. Check the value of the pwdMinAge attribute. If it is set to a
      non-zero value, the server MUST subtract the current time from
      the value of the pwdChangedTime attribute to arrive at the
      password's age. If the password's age is less than the value of
      the pwdMinAge attribute, the password is too young to modify. In
      this case, the server MUST send a response message to the client
      with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST include
      the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the response
      message with the error: passwordTooYoung (7).

   5. Check the value of the pwdCheckQuality attribute.

      If the value is non-zero, The server:

      A.  MUST ensure that the password meets the quality criteria
          enforced by the server. This enforcement is implementation
          specific.

          If the server is unable to check the quality (due to a hashed
          password or otherwise), the value of pwdCheckQuality is
          evaluated. If the value is 1, operation MUST continue. If the
          value is 2, the server MUST send a response message to the
          client with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the response message with the error:
          insufficientPasswordQuality (5).

          If the server is able to check the password quality, and the
          check fails, the server MUST send a response message to the
          client with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of



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          the response message with the error:
          insufficientPasswordQuality (5).

      B.  MUST check the value of the pwdMinLength attribute. If the
          value is non-zero, it MUST ensure that the new password is of
          at least the minimum length.

          If the server is unable to check the length (due to a hashed
          password or otherwise), the value of pwdCheckQuality is
          evaluated. If the value is 1, operation MUST continue. If the
          value is 2, the server MUST send a response message to the
          client with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the response message with the error: passwordTooShort (6).

          If the server is able to check the password length, and the
          check fails, the server MUST send a response message to the
          client with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the response message with the error: passwordTooShort (6).

   6. Check the value of the pwdInHistory attribute. If the value is
      non-zero, the server MUST check whether this password exists in
      the entry's pwdHistory attribute or in the current password
      attribute. If the password does exist in the pwdHistory attribute
      or in the current password attribute, the server MUST send a
      response message to the client with the resultCode:
      constraintViolation (19), and MUST include the
      passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the response
      message with the error: passwordInHistory (8).

   If the steps have completed without causing an error condition, the
   server MUST follow the following steps in order to update the
   necessary password policy state attributes:

   7. Check the value of the pwdMaxAge attribute. If the value is non-
      zero, or if the value of the pwdMinAge attribute is non-zero, the
      server MUST update the pwdChangedTime attribute on the entry to
      the current time.

   8. If the value of the pwdInHistory attribute is non-zero, the
      server MUST add the previous password to the pwdHistory
      attribute. If the number of attributes held in the pwdHistory
      attribute exceeds the value of pwdInHistory, the server MUST
      remove the oldest excess passwords.

   9. Remove the pwdFailureTime, pwdReset, pwdGraceUseTime and
      pwdExpirationWarned attributes from the user's entry if they



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      exist.

   The server MUST then apply the modify password operation.

6.3. Add Operation

   The password MAY be set during an Add operation. If it is, the
   server MUST perform the following steps while processing the add
   operation. Note that these are essentially duplicates of steps 3, 5
   and 7 from Section 6.2 with the exception that pwdAllowUserChange is
   not checked.

   1. Check to see whether the bound identity has sufficient rights to
      modify the password. This MAY be done by the use of an access
      control mechanism. If the user is not allowed to add this
      password, the server MUST send an addResponse to the client with
      the resultCode: unwillingToPerform (53), and MUST include the
      passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the addResponse
      message with the error: passwordModNotAllowed (3).

   2. Check the value of the pwdCheckQuality attribute.

      If the value is non-zero, The server:

      A.  MUST ensure that the password meets the quality criteria
          enforced by the server. This enforcement is implementation
          specific.

          If the server is unable to check the quality (due to a hashed
          password or otherwise), the value of pwdCheckQuality MUST be
          evaluated. If the value is 1, operation MUST continue. If the
          value is 2, the server MUST send an addResponse to the client
          with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the addResponse message with the error:
          insufficientPasswordQuality (5).

          If the server is able to check the password quality, and the
          check fails, the server MUST send an addResponse to the client
          with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the addResponse message with the error:
          insufficientPasswordQuality (5).

      B.  MUST check the value of the pwdMinLength attribute. If the
          value is non-zero, it MUST ensure that the new password is of
          at least the minimum length.




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          If the server is unable to check the length (due to a hashed
          password or otherwise), the value of pwdCheckQuality MUST be
          evaluated. If the value is 1, operation MUST continue. If the
          value is 2, the server MUST send an addResponse to the client
          with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the addResponse message with the error: passwordTooShort (6).

          If the server is able to check the password length, and the
          check fails, the server MUST send an addResponse to the client
          with the resultCode: constraintViolation (19), and MUST
          include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of
          the addResponse message with the error: passwordTooShort (6).

   If the steps above have completed without causing an error
   condition, the server MUST follow the steps below in order to update
   the necessary password policy state attributes.

   3. Check the value of the pwdMaxAge attribute. If the value is non-
      zero, or if the value of the pwdMinAge attribute is non-zero, the
      server MUST update the pwdChangedTime attribute on the entry to
      the current time.

6.4. Compare Operation

   The compare operation MAY be used to compare a password. This might
   be performed when a client wishes to verify that user's supplied
   password is correct. An example of this is an LDAP HTTP
   authentication redirector. It may be desirable to use this rather
   than performing a bind operation in order to reduce possible
   overhead involved in performing a bind. Access Controls SHOULD be
   used to restrict this comparison from being made.

   If a server supports this behavior, it MUST comply with the
   following. Otherwise the password policy described in this document
   may be circumvented.

   While comparing password attributes, the server MUST perform the
   following steps:

   1. Check for a locked account:

      If the value of the pwdAccountLockedTime attribute is 0, or if
      the current time is less than the value of the
      pwdAccountLockedTime attribute added to the value of the
      pwdLockoutDuration, the account is locked.

      If the account is locked, the server MUST send a compareResponse
      to the client with the resultCode: compareFalse (5), and MUST


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      include the passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
      compareResponse message with the error: accountLocked (1).

      If the account is not locked, the server MUST proceed with the
      compare operation.

   2. If Access Controls permit, the server MUST proceed with compare
      operation and MUST check the result.

      If the result of the compare operation is true, the server MUST
      do the following:

      A.  Delete the pwdFailureTime attribute.

      B.  Check for password expiration

          The password has expired when either of the following
          conditions is met:

          -  If the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute is 0, the
             server MUST subtract the current time from the time stored
             in pwdChangedTime to arrive at the password's age. If the
             age is greater than the value in the pwdMaxAge attribute,
             the password has expired.

          -  If the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute is non-
             zero, and the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is present and
             has a time value, the server MUST subtract the current
             time from the time stored in the pwdExpirationWarned to
             arrive at the first warning age. If the age is greater
             than the value in the pwdExpireWarning attribute, the
             password has expired.

          If the password has expired, the server MUST check for
          remaining grace logins.

                       If the pwdGraceUseTime attribute is present, the server
             MUST count the number of values in that attribute and MUST
             subtract it from the pwdGraceLoginLimit. A positive result
             specifies the number of remaining grace logins.

                       If there are remaining grace logins, the server MUST add a
             new value with the current time in pwdGraceUseTime. Then
             it MUST send a compareResponse with the resultCode:
             compareTrue (6), and MUST include the
             passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
             compareResponse message with the warning:
             graceLoginsRemaining choice set to the number of grace
             logins left.


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                       If there are no remaining grace logins, the server MUST
             send a compareResponse with the resultCode: compareFalse
             (5), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the
             controls field of the compareResponse message with the
             error: passwordExpired (0) set.

          If the password has not expired, execution MUST continue.

      C.  Calculate whether the time before expiration warning should be
          sent.

          If the pwdExpireWarning attribute is present and contains a
          value, the server MUST perform the following steps.

                    If the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is present and has a
             time value, the warning time is the value of the
             pwdExpirationWarned attribute plus the value of the
             pwdExpireWarning attribute minus the current time.

                    If the pwdExpirationWarned attribute is not present, the
             server MUST subtract the current time from the time stored
             in pwdChangedTime to arrive at the password's age. If the
             age is greater than the value of the pwdMaxAge attribute
             minus the value of the pwdExpireWarning attribute, the
             server MUST set the current time as the value of the
             pwdExpirationWarned attribute, and the warning time is the
             value of pwdMaxAge minus the password's age.

                    If the warning time is a positive number, the server MUST
             send a compareResponse with the resultCode: compareTrue
             (6), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse in the
             controls field of the compareResponse message with the
             warning: timeBeforeExiration set to the value as described
             above.

                    If the warning time is zero, or wasn't calculated, the
             server MUST send a compareResponse with the resultCode:
             compareTrue (6), and MUST include the
             passwordPolicyResponse with nothing in the SEQUENCE.

          If the pwdExpireWarning attribute is not present, the server
          MUST send a compareResponse with the resultCode: compareTrue
          (6), and MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse with nothing
          in the SEQUENCE.

      If the result of the compare operation is false, the server MUST
      do the following:



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          A. Add the current time as a value of the pwdFailureTime
             attribute.

          B. If the pwdLockout attribute is TRUE, the server MUST do
             the following:

                Count the number of values in the pwdFailureTime
                attribute that are younger than
                pwdFailureCountInterval.

                If the number of these failures is greater or equal to
                the pwdMaxFailure attribute, the server MUST lock the
                account by setting the value of the
                pwdAccountLockedTime attribute to the current time.
                After locking the account, the server MUST send a
                compareResponse to the client with the resultCode:
                compareFalse (5), and MUST include the
                passwordPolicyResponse in the controls field of the
                compareResponse message with the error: accountLocked
                (1).

                If the number of failures is less than the
                pwdMaxFailure attribute, operation MUST proceed.

             If the pwdLockout attribute is FALSE, operation MUST
          continue.

          C. Failure times that are old by more than
             pwdFailureCountInterval, MUST be purged from the
             pwdFailureTime attribute.

          D. If no errors were returned, the server MUST send a
             compareResponse with the resultCode: compareTrue (6), and
             MUST include the passwordPolicyResponse with nothing in
             the SEQUENCE.

7. Client Implementation by LDAP operation

   These sections illustrate possible scenarios for each LDAP operation
   and define the types of responses that identify those scenarios.

   The scenarios in the following operations assume that the client
   attached a passwordPolicyRequest control to the request message of
   the operation, and thus MAY receive a passwordPolicyResponse control
   in the response message. In the event that the passwordPolicyRequest
   control was not sent, no passwordPolicyRequest control is returned.
   All other instructions remain the same.

7.1. Bind Operation


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   For every bind response received, the client MUST check the
   resultCode of the bindResponse and MUST check for a
   passwordPolicyResponse to determine if any of the following
   conditions are true and MAY prompt the user accordingly.

   1. The password failure limit has been reached and the account is
      locked.  The user needs to retry later or contact the directory
      administrator to reset the password.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: accountLocked (1)

   2. The user is binding for the first time after the directory
      administrator set the password. In this scenario, the client
      SHOULD prompt the user to change his password immediately.

      resultCode:               success (0)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: changeAfterReset (2)

   3. The password has expired but there are remaining grace logins.
      The user needs to change it.

      resultCode:               success (0)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           warning: graceLoginsRemaining

   4. The password has expired and there are no more grace logins.  The
      user MUST contact the directory administrator in order to have
      its password reset.

      resultCode:               invalidCredentials (49)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordExpired (0)

   5. The user's password will expire in n number of seconds.

      resultCode:               success (0)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           warning: timeBeforeExpiration

7.2. Modify Operations

7.2.1. Modify Request

   If the application or client encrypts the password prior to sending
   it in a password modification operation (whether done through
   modifyRequest or another password modification mechanism), it SHOULD
   check the values of the pwdMinLength, and pwdCheckQuality attributes
   and SHOULD enforce these policies.

7.2.2. Modify Response


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   If the modifyRequest operation was used to change the password, or
   if another mechanism is used --such as an extendedRequest-- the
   modifyResponse or other appropriate response MAY contain information
   pertinent to password policy. The client MUST check the resultCode
   of the response and MUST check for a passwordPolicyResponse to
   determine if any of the following conditions are true and optionally
   notify the user of the condition.

   1. The user attempted to change her password without specifying the
      old password but the password policy requires this.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: mustSupplyOldPassword (4)

   2. The user MUST change her password before submitting any other
      LDAP requests.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: changeAfterReset (2)

   3. The user doesn't have sufficient rights to change his password.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordModNotAllowed (3)

   4. It is too soon after the last password modification to change the
      password.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordTooYoung (7)

   5. The password failed quality checking.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error:
      insufficientPasswordQuality (5)

   6. The length of the password is too short.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordTooShort (6)

   7. The password has already been used; the user MUST choose a
      different one.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordInHistory (8)



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7.3. Add Operation

   If a password is specified in an addRequest, the client MUST check
   the resultCode of the addResponse and MUST check for a
   passwordPolicyResponse to determine if any of the following
   conditions are true and may prompt the user accordingly.

   1. The user doesn't have sufficient rights to add this password.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordModNotAllowed (3)

   2. The password failed quality checking.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error:
      insufficientPasswordQuality (5)

   3. The length of the password is too short.

      resultCode:               constraintViolation (19)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordTooShort (6)


7.4. Compare Operation

   When a compare operation is used to compare a password, the client
   MUST check the resultCode of the compareResponse and MUST check for
   a passwordPolicyResponse to determine if any of the following
   conditions are true and MAY prompt the user accordingly. These
   conditions assume that the result of the comparison was true.

   1. The password failure limit has been reached and the account is
      locked.  The user needs to retry later or contact the directory
      administrator to reset the password.

      resultCode:               compareFalse (5)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: accountLocked (1)

   2. The password has expired but there are remaining grace logins.
      The user needs to change it.

      resultCode:               compareTrue (6)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           warning: graceLoginsRemaining

   3. The password has expired and there are no more grace logins.  The
      user MUST contact the directory administrator to reset the
      password.


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      resultCode:               compareFalse (5)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: passwordExpired (0)

   4. The user's password will expire in n number of seconds.

      resultCode:               compareTrue (6)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           warning: timeBeforeExpiration


7.5. Other Operations

   For operations other than bind, unbind, abandon, search or StartTLS,
   the client MUST check the following result code and control to
   determine if the user needs to change the password immediately.

   1. The user needs to change password. The user SHOULD be prompted to
      change the password immediately.

      resultCode:               unwillingToPerform (53)
      passwordPolicyResponse:           error: changeAfterReset (2)

8. Administration of a Password Policy


   A password policy MUST be defined for a particular subtree of the
   DIT by adding to an LDAP subentry whose immediate superior is the
   root of the subtree, the pwdPolicy auxiliary object class.
   The scope of the password policy is defined by the
   SubtreeSpecification attribute of the LDAP subentry as specified in
   RFC 3672 [RFC-3672].

   It is possible to define password policies for different password
   attributes within the same pwdPolicy entry, by specifying multiple
   values of the pwdAttribute. But password policies could also be in
   separate sub entries as long as they are contained under the same
   LDAP subentry.

   Modifying the password policy MUST not result in any change in
   users' entries to which the policy applies.

   It SHOULD be possible to overwrite the password policy for one user
   by defining a new policy in a subentry of the user entry.

   Each object that is controlled by password policy SHALL advertise
   the subentry that is being used to control its policy in its
   pwdPolicySubentry attribute. Clients wishing to examine or manage
   password policy for an object, MUST interrogate the



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   pwdPolicySubentry for that object in order to arrive at the proper
   pwdPolicy subentry.

9. Password Policy and Replication

   The pwdPolicy object defines the password policy for a portion of
   the DIT and MUST be replicated on all the replicas of this subtree,
   as any subentry would be, in order to have a consistent policy among
   all replicated servers.

   The elements of the password policy that are related to the users
   are stored in the entry themselves as operational attributes.
   As these attributes are subject to modifications even on a read-only
   replica, replicating them must be carefully considered.

   The pwdChangedTime attribute MUST be replicated on all replicas, to
   allow expiration of the password.

   The pwdReset attribute MUST be replicated on all replicas, to deny
   access to operations other than bind and modify password.

   The pwdHistory attribute MUST be replicated to writable replicas. It
   doesn't have to be replicated to a read-only replica, since the
   password will never be directly modified on this server.

   The pwdAccountLockedTime, pwdExpirationWarned, pwdFailureTime and
   pwdGraceUseTime attributes MUST be replicated to writable replicas,
   making the password policy global for all servers.
   When the user entry is replicated to a read-only replica, these
   attributes SHOULD NOT be replicated. This means that the number of
   failures, of grace logins and the locking will take place on each
   replicated server. For example, the effective number of failed
   attempts on a user password will be N x M (where N is the number of
   servers and M the value of pwdMaxFailure attribute).
   Replicating these attributes to a read-only replica MAY reduce the
   number of tries globally but MAY also introduce some inconstancies
   in the way the password policy is applied.


10. Security Considerations

   This document defines a set of rules to implement in an LDAP server,
   in order to mitigate some of the security risks associated with the
   use of passwords and to make it difficult for password cracking
   programs to break into directories.

   Authentication with a password MUST follow the recommendations made
   in RFC 2829 [RFC-2829].



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   Modifications of passwords SHOULD only occur when the connection is
   protected with confidentiality and secure authentication.

   Access controls SHOULD be used to restrict access to the password
   policy attributes. Especially all the attributes defined to maintain
   the Password Policy state information SHOULD not be modifiable by
   anyone but the Administrator of the directory server.

   As it is possible to define a password policy for one specific user
   by adding a subentry immediately under the user's entry, Access
   Controls SHOULD be used to restrict the use of the pwdPolicy object
   class or the LDAP subentry object class.

   When a password policy is put in place, the LDAP directory is
   subject to a denial of service attack. A malicious user could
   deliberately lock out one specific user's account (or all of them)
   by sending bind requests with wrong passwords. There is no way to
   protect against this kind of attack. The LDAP directory server
   SHOULD log as much information as it can (such as client IP address)
   whenever an account is locked, in order to be able to identify the
   origin of the attack. Denying anonymous access to the LDAP directory
   is also a way to restrict this kind of attacks.


11. Acknowledgement

   This document is based in part on prior work done by Valerie Chu
   from Netscape Communications Corp, published as draft-vchu-ldap-pwd-
   policy-00.txt (December 1998).


12. Normative References

   [RFC-2119] S. Bradner, "Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate
   Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC-2195] J. Klensin, R. Catoe, P. Krumviede, "IMAP/POP AUTHorize
   Extension for Simple Challenge/Response", RFC 2195, September 1997.

   [RFC-2222] J. Myers, "Simple Authentication and Security Layer
   (SASL)", RFC 2222, October 1997.

   [RFC-2251] Wahl, M., Howes, T., Kille, S., "Lightweight Directory
   Access Protocol (v3)", RFC 2251, August 1997.

   [RFC-2252] Wahl, M., Coulbeck, A., Howes, T., Kille, S.,
   "Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3): Attribute Syntax
   Definitions", RFC 2252, December 1997.



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   [RFC-Digest] Paul J. Leach, Chris Newman, "Using Digest
   Authentication as a SASL Mechanism", RFC 2831, May 2000.

   [RFC-3062] K. Zeilenga, "LDAP Password Modify Extended Operation",
   RFC 3062, February 2001.

   [RFC-3672] K. Zeilenga, S. Legg, "Subentries in the Lightweight
   Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)", RFC 3672, December.


13. Authors' Addresses

   Prasanta Behera
   18366 Chelmsford Dr.
   Cupertino, CA 95014
   USA
   prasantabehera@yahoo.com

   Ludovic Poitou
   Sun Microsystems Inc.
   180, Avenue de l'Europe
   Zirst de Montbonnot
   38334 Saint Ismier cedex
   France
   +33 476 188 212
   ludovic.poitou@sun.com

   Jim Sermersheim
   Novell, Inc.
   1800 South Novell Place
   Provo, Utah 84606, USA
   +1 801 861-3088
   jimse@novell.com

14. Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights
   Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
   are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for


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   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE."






































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