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Web Authorization Protocol                                   V. Bertocci
Internet-Draft                                                 auth0.com
Intended status: Standards Track                             B. Campbell
Expires: 16 August 2021                                    Ping Identity
                                                        12 February 2021


      Token Mediating and session Information Backend For Frontend
                    draft-bertocci-oauth2-tmi-bff-00

Abstract

   This document describes how a JavaScript frontend can delegate access
   token acquisition to a backend component.  In so doing, the frontend
   can access resource servers directly without taking on the burden of
   communicating with the authorization server, persisting tokens, and
   performing operations that are fraught with security challenges when
   executed in a user agent, but are safe and well proven when executed
   by a confidential client running on a backend.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 16 August 2021.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.










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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text
   as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Topology and Roles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.2.  Protocol Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  Endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  The bff-token Endpoint  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  The bff-sessioninfo Endpoint  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Requesting Access Tokens to the Backend . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.1.  Access Token Request  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Access Token Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  Errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.3.1.  No valid session found  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.2.  Backend cannot perform a request to the authorization
               server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.3.3.  The backend request to the authorization server
               fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Requesting Session Information from the Backend . . . . . . .  11
     5.1.  Session Information Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.2.  Session Information Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.3.  Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.1.  Frontend should not persist access tokens in local
           storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.2.  Mismatch between security characteristics of token
           requestor and API caller  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.3.  Mismatch between scopes in a request vs cached tokens . .  14
     6.4.  Resource server colocated with the backend  . . . . . . .  14
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Appendix B.  Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16







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1.  Introduction

   A large portion of today's development stacks, practices and tools
   for the web target the user agent itself as execution environment,
   leveraging local resources to offer a rich, responsive user
   experience that rivals native applications.

   An important aspect of apps running in the user agent is their
   reliance on HTTP APIs, served from the app's own backend component or
   from third party providers on disparate domains.  Whenever those API
   are secured according to the OAuth2 Bearer Token Usage [RFC6750], the
   user agent app needs to obtain suitable access tokens: however, the
   task of implementing an OAuth2 [RFC6749] client executing in a user
   agent is complicated by the many security challenges inherent in the
   browser platform.  The original OAuth2 [RFC6749] provided guidance
   dedicated to user agent apps in section 4.2, via the implicit grant.
   The approach proved to suffer from too many challenges, however,
   leading subsequent documents (such as the OAuth2 security BCP
   [I-D.ietf-oauth-security-topics] and OAuth 2.1 [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-1])
   to recommend a more secure approach based on the authorization code
   grant with PKCE [RFC7636], and relying on additional security
   measures such as refresh token rotation and sender constraint.

   Even the new guidance doesn't entirely eliminate some of the inherent
   risks of implementing an OAuth2 client in a user agent.  For example,
   offering an acceptable experience for continuous use of the app
   typically requires to persist tokens in local storage or to use
   development patterns that are too complex for the average developer
   to implement effectively.

   In the attempt to avoid those limitations, developers are
   increasingly pursuing approaches where their backend components (when
   available) play a more active role.  For example, there are many
   solutions where the backend takes care of obtaining tokens from the
   authorization server, using classic confidential client grants, and
   provides a facade for every API the frontend needs to invoke: in that
   way, the frontend can simply call the API via facade, securing
   communications with its backend using mainstream methods such as any
   cookie based web sign on technology.

   That approach is not always viable, as in the absence of reverse
   proxy deployments the creation and maintenance of a facade for
   multiple APIs can be expensive.  As a result, is is increasingly
   common practice to use a simpler solution: rely on the backend
   component for obtaining tokens from the authorization server, and
   sending back to the frontend the resulting access tokens for direct
   frontend to API communication.  As long as the mechanism used for
   transmitting tokens from the backend to the frontend is secure, the



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   approach is viable: however leaving the details of its implementation
   to every application and stack developer results in the impossibility
   to have frontend and backend development stacks to interoperate out
   of the box.  Furthermore, there are a number of security
   considerations that, if disregarded in the implementation of the
   pattern, might lead to elevation of privilege attacks and other
   challenges.

   This documents provides detailed guidance on how to implement the
   pattern in which a frontend component can delegate token acquisition
   to its backend component.  By offering precise guidance on details
   such as endpoints and messages format for each operation, this
   specification will allow developers to create and consume off-the-
   shelf components that will easily interoperate and allow mixing and
   matching different frontend and backend SDKs, making it possible to
   author single page apps consuming APIs on arbitrary domains without
   suffering many of the security compromises normally associated to a
   frontend-only approach.

   Given that the pattern described here does not provide any artifact
   that the frontend can use to obtain session information such as user
   attributes, something traditional approaches to user agent apps
   development do afford, this document also provides a mechanism for
   the frontend to obtain session information from the backend.

1.1.  Topology and Roles

   This document describes how a single page application featuring a
   backend can obtain tokens from an OAuth2 authorization server to
   access a resource server, while minimizing reliance on browser
   features known to suffer from security challenges.  For what the
   protocol flow is concerned, the topology can be broken down into four
   roles:

   Frontend:  This represents the application code executing in the user
      agent, controlling presentation and invoking one or more resource
      servers.

   Backend:  The backed represents code executing on a server, in
      particular on the same domain from where the frontend code has
      been served.  Backend and frontend are both under the control of
      the same developer.

   Resource Server:  This represents a classic OAuth2 resource server as
      described in Section 1.1 of OAuth2 [RFC6749], exposing the API the
      frontend needs to invoke.  See Section 6 for more details applying
      to notable cases.




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   Authorization Server:  This represents a classic OAuth2 authorization
      server as described in Section 1.1 of OAuth2 [RFC6749], handling
      authorization for the API the frontend needs to invoke.  This
      document does not introduce any changes in the standard
      authorization server behavior, however see Section 6 for some
      security considerations that might influence the policies of
      individual servers.

1.2.  Protocol Flow

   This section provides a high level description of the way in which
   the frontend can obtain and use access tokens with the help of its
   backend.  As a prerequisite for the flow described below, the backend
   MUST have established a secure session with the user agent, so that
   all requests from that user agent toward the backend occur over HTTPS
   and carry a valid session artifact (such as a cookie) that the
   backend can validate.  This document does not mandate any specific
   mechanism to establish and maintain that session.

































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                   [[ TODO SVG maybe someday... ]]


                                              +---------------+
                                              |               |
                                              | Authorization |
                                              |     Server    |
                                              |               |
                                              +---------------+
                                                ^          |
                                                |
                                                           |
                                      (B) Token |
                                       request             | (C) Token
                                                |              response
                                                           |
                                                |          v
    +-------------+                           +---------------+
    |             |                           |               |
    |             |---(A) bff-token request-->|               |
    |  Frontend   |                           |    Backend    |
    |             |<--(D) bff-token response--|               |
    |             |                           |               |
    +-------------+                           +---------------+
        ^    |
        |    |
        |    |
        |    |                                      +---------------+
        |    |                                      |               |
        |    ----(E) Protected resource request---->|   Resource    |
        |                                           |    Server     |
        ------(F) Protected resource response-------|               |
                                                    |               |
                                                    +---------------+

      Figure 1: An abstract diagram of the flow followed to obtain an
                access token and access a protected resource

   *  (A) The frontend presents to the backend a request for an access
      token for a given resource server

   *  (B) If the backend does not already have a suitable access token
      obtained in previous flows and cached, it requests to the
      authorization server a new access token with the required
      characteristics, using any artifacts previousy obtained (eg
      refresh token) and grants that will allow the authorization server
      to issue the requested token without requiring user interaction.




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   *  (C) The authorization server returns the requested token and any
      additional information according to the grant used (eg validity,
      actual scopes granted, etc)

   *  (D) The backend returns the requested access token to the frontend

   *  (E) The frontend presents the access token to the resource server

   *  (F) the resource server validates the incoming token and returns
      the protected resource

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Endpoints

   This specification introduces "bff-token" and "bff-sessioninfo", two
   specialized endpoints that the backend exposes to support the
   frontend in acquiring tokens and user session information.  For the
   purpose of facilitating the implementation of the pattern with
   minimal configuration requirements, these endpoints are published at
   a ".well-known" location according to RFC 5785 [RFC5785].  Both
   endpoint are meant to be used by the applications' frontend, and the
   frontend only.  As such, the backend MUST verify the the call is
   occurring in the context of a secure session (e.g., by mandating the
   presence of a valid session cookie received via HTTPS).

3.1.  The bff-token Endpoint

   The "bff-token" endpoint is exposed by the backend to allow the
   frontend to request access tokens.  By default, it is exposed at the
   well-known relative URI "/.well-known/bff-token".  The "bff-token"
   endpoint URI MUST use the "https" scheme.  The backend MUST support
   the use of the HTTP "GET" method for the "bff-token" endpoint and MAY
   support the use of the "POST" method as well.  The backend MUST
   ignore unrecognized request parameters.  See Section 4 for more
   details on how to use the "bff-token" endpoint.









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3.2.  The bff-sessioninfo Endpoint

   The "bff-sessioninfo" endpoint is exposed by the backend to allow the
   frontend to obtain information about the current user, so that it can
   be accessed my the presentation code.
   By default, it is exposed at the well-known relative URI "/.well-
   known/bff-sessioninfo".  The backend MUST support the use of the HTTP
   "GET" method for the "bff-sessioninfo" endpoint.  The backend MUST
   ignore unrecognized request parameters.  See Section 5 for more
   details on how to use the "bff-sessioninfo" endpoint.

4.  Requesting Access Tokens to the Backend

   To obtain an access token, the frontend makes a request to the
   backend at the "bff-token" endpoint URI.  The flow includes the
   following steps, as shown in Figure 1.

   [[ TODO more granular error refs ]]

   1.  The frontend generates the request and sends it to the "bff-
       token" endpoint as described in Section 4.1 (leg A in Figure 1).

   2.  The backend examines the request, validating whether it includes
       a valid user session: if it doesn't, it rejects the request as
       described in Section 4.3.1.

   3.  The backend extracts user information from the session, using
       whatever mechanism it deems suitable, and verifies whether it
       already has in storage a suitable access token satisfying the
       request (see Section 6 for more details).  If it does, it returns
       it as described in (5).

   4.  If there is no suitable access token stored, the backend verifies
       whether it has the necessary artifacts to request it to the
       authorization server without requiring user interaction- for
       example, by using a refresh token previously stored for the
       current user.  If it does, the backed contacts the authorization
       server with a token request using the grant of choice (leg B in
       Figure 1).  In the absence of a suitable artifact required to
       perform a request toward the authorization server, the backend
       returns an error to the frontend as described in Section 4.3.2.

   5.  If the authorization server returns the requested token as
       expected (leg C in Figure 1), the backend returns it to the
       frontend, as shown in Leg D of Figure 1 and described in
       Section 4.2.  If the authorization server denies the request, the
       backend returns an error to the frontend as described in
       Section 4.3.3.



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   The following sections provide more details for each of the messages
   described.

4.1.  Access Token Request

   The frontend requests an access token from the backend by specifying
   the requirements the resulting token must meet.  To do so, the
   following parameters may be added to to the query component (or
   request payload in the case of 'POST') of the "/.well-known/bff-
   token" request URI using the "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"
   format with a character encoding of UTF-8 as described in Appendix B
   of [RFC6749].

   "resource" :  The identifier of the desired resource server, as
      defined in [RFC8707].  This parameter is OPTIONAL.

   "scope" :  The scope of the access request resulting in the desired
      access token.  This parameter follows the syntax described in
      section 3.3 of [RFC6749].  This parameter is OPTIONAL.

   Both parameters MAY be absent from the request.  Given that the
   frontend and the backend are components of the same application, it
   is possible in some scenarios for the backend to determine what token
   to return to the frontend without any specific requirement.  For
   example, the application might be consuming only one resource, with a
   fixed set of scopes: that would make specifying that information in
   the request from the frontend unnecessary.

   The following is an example of request where both resource and scopes
   are specified.

   GET /.well-known/bff-token?scope=buy+sell
     &resource=https%3A%2F%2Fapi.example.org%2Fstocks HTTP/1.1
   Host: myapp.example.com

   Note that the request does not need to specify any client attributes,
   as those are all handled by the backend- and the presence of a pre-
   existing session provides the context necessary for the backend to
   select the right settings when crafting requests for the
   authorization server.

4.2.  Access Token Response

   If the backend successfully obtains a suitable token, or has one
   already cached, it returns it to the frontend in a message featuring
   the following parameters.

   "access_token" :  The requested access token.  This parameter is



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      REQUIRED.

   "expires_in" :  The lifetime in seconds of the access token, as
      defined in section 5.1 of [RFC6749].  This parameter is REQUIRED,
      if the information was made available from the authorization
      server that originally issued the access token.

   "scope" :  The scope of the access token being returned as list of
      space-delimited, case-sensitive strings, as defined in Section 3.3
      of [RFC6749].  If the request contained a scope parameter, and the
      scope of resulting token is different from the requested value,
      this parameter is REQUIRED.  In all other cases, the presence of
      scope in the response is OPTIONAL.

   The following is an example of access token response.

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/json
   Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store

   {
     "access_token":"4bWc0ESC9aCc77LTC8EjR1pCfE4WxfNg",
     "expires_in":3596,
     "scope":"buy sell"
   }

   Note that if the backend elects to cache tokens, to serve future
   requests from the frontend without contacting the authorization
   server if still within the useful lifetime, it must also cache
   expiration information and scopes in accordance to the requirements
   expressed in this section.

4.3.  Errors

   When the backend fails to deliver to the frontend the requested
   token, it responds with an HTTP 400 (Bad Request) status code and
   includes the following parameters with the response:

   "error" :  An ASCII error code identifying the circumstances of the
      error.  See the next sections for details.  This parameter is
      REQUIRED.

   "error_description" :  OPTIONAL.  A human-readable message describing
      the error for troubleshooting purposes.







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4.3.1.  No valid session found

   All requests to the backend MUST be performed in the context of a
   valid authenticated session, typically by presenting a session cookie
   over a TLS channel.  If the backend cannot find or validate a
   session, it must reject the request and return a message as described
   in Section 4.3, with an error parameter value of "invalid_session".

4.3.2.  Backend cannot perform a request to the authorization server

   If the backend doesn't have the necessary artifacts (e.g., a refresh
   token for the current user and/or requested resource) to request a
   suitable access token to the authorization server without requiring
   user interaction, it will reject the request and return a message as
   described in Section 4.3, with an error parameter value of
   "backend_not_ready".

4.3.3.  The backend request to the authorization server fails

   If the backend request to the authorization server fails, the backend
   will return to the frontend a message as described in Section 4.3,
   with as error parameter value the error parameter received in the
   authorization server response (as described by section 5.2 of
   [RFC6749] and, if present in the authorizations server response, will
   include the error_description parameter with the same parameter value
   as received by the authorization server. [[ TODO wow this sentence is
   ugly. ]]

5.  Requesting Session Information from the Backend

   Application developers will often need to obtain information about
   the current session (such as user attributes, session expiration,
   etc) to display it to the end user, drive application behavior and
   any other operation it would perform if the frontend would be in
   charge of obtaining tokens directly.  In the topology described in
   this specification, most of the user experience is driven by the
   frontend: however, the session information is inaccessible to the
   user agent, as it is either kept in artifacts that the user agent
   cannot inspect (opaque sessions cookies) or on the backend side.  The
   "/.well-known/bff-sessioninfo" endpoint is meant to restore the
   developer's ability to access the session information they need,
   without compromising the security of the solution.  At any time, the
   frontend can leverage the current secure session to send to the "bff-
   sessioninfo" endpoint a request, and receive the needed session
   information.  The following sections provide details on request and
   response messages.





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5.1.  Session Information Request

   The frontend sends a request for session information via an HTTP GET,
   using the "https" scheme in the context of a secure session.  The
   request has no parameters.  The following is an example of session
   information request.

   GET /.well-known/bff-sessioninfo HTTP/1.1
   Host: myapp.example.com

5.2.  Session Information Response

   If the request is executed in the context of a secure session, the
   backend returns a JSON object containing any information it deems
   appropriate to share with the frontend about the content of the
   session.  For example, if the session was established via OpenID
   Connect [OIDC] the response might contain the session and user
   attribute claims as defined in sections 2 and 5.1 of [OIDC].  The
   following is a non-normative example of such a session information
   response.

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/json
   Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store

   {
       "iss": "https://as.example.com",
       "sub": "24400320",
       "exp": 1311281970,
       "auth_time": 1311280969,
       "preferred_username": "johnny",
       "email_verified: "johnny@foo.com",
       "given_name": "Jonathan",
       "family_name" : "Swift"
   }

   It is worth noting that the backend isn't bound to any specific rule
   and is free to return any information it deems necessary in this
   message in the context of the application (frontend and backend) own
   requirements.

5.3.  Error

   In case the frontend sends a request to bff-sessioninfo in the
   absence of a valid secure session, the backend will return an error
   as described in Section 4.3.2.  For any other error situation, the
   backend is free to determine what to signal to the frontend. [[ TODO
   seems a bit weak... maybe a generic error? ]]



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6.  Security Considerations

   The simplicity of the described pattern notwithstanding, there are a
   number of important considerations that frontend, backend and SDK
   implementers should keep in mind while implementing this approach.

6.1.  Frontend should not persist access tokens in local storage

   Part of the reason for which the pattern herein described was devised
   is to help application developers to limit the attack surface of
   their code executing in the user agent.  Access tokens SHOULD NOT be
   saved in local storage: they SHOULD be kept in memory, and retrieved
   anew when necessary from the backend following Section 4.

6.2.  Mismatch between security characteristics of token requestor and
      API caller

   Some authorization servers might express in their access tokens
   whether the client obtaining it authenticated itself, or it behaved
   as a public client.  Resource servers might rely on that information
   to infer the nature and security characteristics of the application
   presenting the access token to them, and use that to drive
   authorization decisions (e.g., only allow certain operations if the
   caller is a confidential client).  The pattern described here obtains
   an access token through the backend, a confidential client, but the
   access token is ultimately used by code executing in a far less
   secure environment.  Resource servers knowing that their clients will
   use this pattern SHOULD refrain from using the client authentication
   type as a factor in authorization decision, or, whenever possible,
   should use whatever extensions the authorization server of choice
   offers to signal that the requested access tokens will not be used by
   a confidential client.  As there are no standards to express in an
   access token the nature of the client authentication used in
   obtaining the token itself, this document does not provide a specific
   mechanism to influence the authorization server and leaves the task,
   in the rare cases it might be necessary, to individual
   implementations.














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6.3.  Mismatch between scopes in a request vs cached tokens

   The backend will likely cache token responses from the authorization
   server, so that the backend can promptly serve equivalent requests
   from the frontend without further roundtrips toward the authorization
   server.  That is a powerful optimization, but it presents scopes
   elevation risks if applied indiscriminately.  If the token cached by
   the authorization server features a superset of the scopes requested
   by the frontend, the backend SHOULD NOT return it to the frontend and
   perform a new request with the smaller scopes set to the
   authorization server.

6.4.  Resource server colocated with the backend

   If the only API invoked by the frontend happens to be colocated with
   the backend, the frontend doesn't need to obtain access tokens to it:
   it can simply use the same secure session leveraged to protect
   requests to the token endpoints described here.  The "bff-token"
   isn't necessary in that scenario, although "bff-sessioninfo" retains
   its usefulness to surface session and user information to the user
   agent code.  Also note that the presence of the "bff-token" endpoint
   makes it possible to easily accommodate possible future evolutions
   where the frontend needs to invoke APIs protected by resource servers
   hosted elsewhere, without engendering changes in the security
   property of the application.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This specification requests registration of the following two well-
   known URIs in the IANA "Well-Known URIs" registry [IANA.well-known]
   established by [RFC5785].

   The bff-token Endpoint

   *  URI suffix: bff-token

   *  Change Controller: IESG

   *  Specification Document: Section 3.1 [[ of this specification ]]

   *  Related information: (none)

   The bff-sessioninfo Endpoint

   *  URI suffix: bff-sessioninfo

   *  Change Controller: IESG




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   *  Specification Document: Section 3.2 [[ of this specification ]]

   *  Related information: (none)

   # Miscellaneous

   [[ TODO Should we say something about: Requests could be more
   complicated than just scopes (think RAR) and the frontend might need
   to tell more than scopes to the backend.  In that case, just add
   custom params and stir. ]]

   [[ TODO We mentioned another thing, but I can't remember now. ]]

8.  Normative References

   [RFC5785]  Nottingham, M. and E. Hammer-Lahav, "Defining Well-Known
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5785, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5785>.

   [RFC6750]  Jones, M. and D. Hardt, "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization
              Framework: Bearer Token Usage", RFC 6750,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6750, October 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6750>.

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>.

9.  Informative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [OIDC]     Sakimura, N., Bradley, J., Jones, M., de Medeiros, B., and
              C. Mortimore, "OpenID Connect Core 1.0 incorporating
              errata set 1", 8 November 2014,
              <http://openid.net/specs/openid-connect-core-1_0.html>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8707]  Campbell, B., Bradley, J., and H. Tschofenig, "Resource
              Indicators for OAuth 2.0", RFC 8707, DOI 10.17487/RFC8707,
              February 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8707>.



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   [IANA.well-known]
              IANA, "Well-Known URIs",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/well-known-uris>.

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-security-topics]
              Lodderstedt, T., Bradley, J., Labunets, A., and D. Fett,
              "OAuth 2.0 Security Best Current Practice", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-oauth-security-
              topics-16, 5 October 2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/
              draft-ietf-oauth-security-topics-16>.

   [I-D.ietf-oauth-v2-1]
              Hardt, D., Parecki, A., and T. Lodderstedt, "The OAuth 2.1
              Authorization Framework", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-oauth-v2-1-00, 30 July 2020,
              <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-oauth-v2-1-00>.

   [RFC7636]  Sakimura, N., Ed., Bradley, J., and N. Agarwal, "Proof Key
              for Code Exchange by OAuth Public Clients", RFC 7636,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7636, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7636>.

Appendix A.  Acknowledgements

   I wanted to thank the Academy, the viewers at home, etc..

Appendix B.  Document History

   [[ To be removed from the final specification ]]

   -00

   *  Literally willed into existence by a long haired gentleman from
      the Seattle area

Authors' Addresses

   Vittorio Bertocci
   auth0.com

   Email: vittorio@auth0.com


   Brian Campbell
   Ping Identity

   Email: bcampbell@pingidentity.com




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