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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-thubert-6lo-rpl-nhc

6lo working group                                             C. Bormann
Internet-Draft                                   Universitaet Bremen TZI
Intended status: Standards Track                         August 14, 2014
Expires: February 15, 2015


                       6lo RPL Information Header
                     draft-bormann-6lo-rpl-mesh-01

Abstract

   This short draft provides a straw man for the RPL Information Header,
   a method to compress RPL Option [RFC6553] information within 6lowpan-
   style ("6lo") adaptation layers.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 15, 2015.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Background  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  IANA considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

1.  Introduction

   [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl] defines a way to compress
   information from the [RFC6553] RPL Option, for inclusion in an IPv6
   flow label.  The present draft shows how to carry the same
   information in a RPL Information Header, in a potentially slightly
   more efficient way.

   The RPL Information Header is added to the 6lo adaptation layer
   framework ([RFC4944], [RFC6282]) as a small number of additional
   dispatch codes.

   (More background information in Section 5.)

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Encoding

   (Insert definitions from [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl] here.)

   Where [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl] would carry the [RFC6553]
   information in a flow label:

          0                   1                   2
          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                 | |O|R|F|  SenderRank   | RPLInstanceID |
                 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   the RPL Information header carries it in a RFC 4944 header.
   Depending on whether Rank and Inst both fit into 4 bits (S=0) or not
   (S=1), this header is structured as shown in Figure 1.

                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 1 0 0 0 1|0|U| Rank  | Inst  |  (continuation)...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0 1 0 0 0 1|1|U|     Rank      |     Inst      | (continuation)...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

             Figure 1: RPL Mesh Header: Short and Long Version

   The U bit controls whether an [RFC6282] IPHC dispatch follows (U=0,
   Figure 2) or an [RFC4944] FRAG1 fragment header (U=1, Figure 3).  In
   both cases, the first three bits of the dispatch are replaced by the
   O, R, and F bits from [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl].

     0                                       1
     0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   0   1   2   3   4   5
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
   | O | R | F |  TF   |NH | HLIM  |CID|SAC|  SAM  | M |DAC|  DAM  |
   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+

                      Figure 2: continuation for U=0

                        1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |O R F 0 0|    datagram_size    |         datagram_tag          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Figure 3: continuation for U=1

   Note that, for U=1, continuation bytes of the form XXXnnXXX, where nn
   is not 00, are available for future updates of this header (they do
   not necessarily imply a Frag1 header).

3.  Operation

   A 6lo compressor that is about to create either an RFC 6282 IPHC
   header [RFC6282] or a Frag1 header [RFC4944] and finds a Hop-by-Hop




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   Options header [RFC2460] with a single RPL Option [RFC6553] in it,
   performs the following checks:

   1.  Does the compression scheme in
       [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl] apply?  I.e.:

       A.  is no sub-tlv present in the RPL Option?

       B.  is SenderRank < 256?

   2.  Does the additional compression for S=0 apply?  I.e.:

       A.  is SenderRank < 16?

       B.  is RPLInstanceID < 16?

   If check 1 succeeds, the compressor removes the Hop-by-Hop Options
   header (replacing the zero-valued next header field in the IPv6
   header with the value of the next header field of the Hop-by-Hop
   Options header), and, depending on the outcome of check 2, generates
   an RPL Information Header with S=0 or S=1 from the payload
   information in the RPL Option.  It then continues generating the RFC
   6282 IPHC or RFC 4944 Frag1 header, filling in the continuation of
   the RPL Information header as defined in Section 2.

   A 6lo decompressor that encounters a RPL Information header reverses
   this process, creating a Hop-by-Hop Options header with a single RPL
   Option carrying the information in the RPL Information header.

4.  Discussion

   (This section to be removed by the RFC editor.)

   Compared to [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl], the 6lo-based
   approach used here has the following advantages:

   o  more efficient (in size) encoding possible

   o  avoids any entanglement with flow label from RFC 6437

   o  avoids any issues with undetected changes to flow label field,
      which might be:

      *  because the IPv6 header is not covered by a checksum

      *  because nodes that happen to become on-path use the flow label
         for something else




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   o  nodes outside 6lo that do not need the compression do not have to
      deal with an alternate representations of the RFC 6553 information

   Compared to [I-D.toutain-6lo-local-extensions], RPL Information
   Header proposal is entirely focused on RFC 6553 (with some extension
   bits left to possibly eventually cover RFC 6554).  So it may be
   possible to complete this focused draft much faster than a general
   approach.  Also, the result is likely to be more efficient.  Finally,
   this draft can be ignored by implementations not implementing RPL.

5.  Background

   Some more historical background about compression and RPL: (This
   section to be removed by the RFC editor.)

   The ROLL WG has a routing protocol, RPL [RFC6550], that requires some
   data to be shipped around together with IP packets.  [RFC6553] and
   [RFC6554] define ways to do this that are consistent with the IP
   architecture: The RPL Option defined in [RFC6553] is a hop-by-hop
   option that provides RPL rank and instance-id, as well as a few
   flags; the Routing Header defined in [RFC6554] provides the source
   routing needed for downward-routed packets in RPL's dominant non-
   storing mode.

   Unfortunately, the overhead (signal-to-fluff ratio) for both
   representations is relatively high, and in a constrained environment,
   that matters.

   An obvious next step would have been looking at ways to do header
   compression.  Compressing RPL was extensively discussed, but mostly
   with a view to compressing the (control plane) ROLL messages carried
   in ICMPv6, not so much about the RPL information carried with the
   (data plane) IP packets themselves.  GHC [I-D.ietf-6lo-ghc] is trying
   to be a reasonably useful, but also reasonably general way to
   compress the control plane messages.

   For the data packets, the flow label (and its now predominant non-
   use) provides an attractive place in the IPv6 packets to ship around
   the [RFC6553] information, but not the potentially more substantial
   [RFC6554] information.  In 6lo networks, normally [RFC6282]
   compresses away empty flow labels, but it is cheap to put them in, so
   a flow label really only costs 3 bytes (instead of the 8 bytes a RPL
   Option [RFC6553] costs).  The most useful information from [RFC6553]
   can be stuffed into 19 bits, as demonstrated by
   [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl].

   [RFC6282] has extension points (GHC uses one of them), but not really
   useful ones for the ROLL data plane.  So it appears it never occurred



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   to us that the best way to handle these 19 bits is to actually
   sidestep [RFC6282], and use the existing extension points of
   [RFC4944].  Until Laurent Toutain showed one way of doing this
   [I-D.toutain-6lo-local-extensions].  The present draft just went from
   there and used Laurent's idea for compressing the [RFC6553] option,
   in a way that is as efficient as (or, in most cases, actually more
   efficient than) using the flow label opportunity.

   This means the present draft intends to replace the flow label bit
   allocation of [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl].  It does not
   cover the "license-to-drop" the flow label that
   [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl] implies (and that is denied by
   [RFC6437]).  It also does not cover the compression of [RFC6554]
   source routing information, but does provide an extension point for
   adding that later.

6.  IANA considerations

   This draft requests IANA to assign the following four dispatch types
   in the "IPv6 Low Power Personal Area Network Parameters" registry:

   01 0001SU

7.  Security considerations

   The security considerations of [RFC4944], [RFC6282], and [RFC6553]
   apply.

8.  Acknowledgments

   This document is based on the ideas in the specification
   [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl].  Its use of the RFC 4944
   framework was inspired by [I-D.toutain-6lo-local-extensions].  Ralph
   Droms supplied a number of helpful comments on the -00 draft.  The
   discussion in the 6man and roll working groups also was helpful.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.






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   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007.

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              September 2011.

   [RFC6553]  Hui, J. and JP. Vasseur, "The Routing Protocol for Low-
              Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) Option for Carrying RPL
              Information in Data-Plane Datagrams", RFC 6553, March
              2012.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-6lo-ghc]
              Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN Generic Compression of Headers and
              Header-like Payloads", draft-ietf-6lo-ghc-03 (work in
              progress), July 2014.

   [I-D.thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl]
              Thubert, P., "The IPv6 Flow Label within a RPL domain",
              draft-thubert-6man-flow-label-for-rpl-04 (work in
              progress), August 2014.

   [I-D.toutain-6lo-local-extensions]
              Toutain, L., "6LoWPAN Local Extensions", draft-toutain-
              6lo-local-extensions-00 (work in progress), June 2014.

   [RFC6437]  Amante, S., Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and J. Rajahalme,
              "IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6437, November 2011.

   [RFC6550]  Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R.,
              Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., and R.
              Alexander, "RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and
              Lossy Networks", RFC 6550, March 2012.

   [RFC6554]  Hui, J., Vasseur, JP., Culler, D., and V. Manral, "An IPv6
              Routing Header for Source Routes with the Routing Protocol
              for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)", RFC 6554, March
              2012.

Author's Address








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   Carsten Bormann
   Universitaet Bremen TZI
   Postfach 330440
   Bremen  D-28359
   Germany

   Phone: +49-421-218-63921
   Email: cabo@tzi.org











































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