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DNS Privacy (dprive) Working Group                         S. Bortzmeyer
Internet-Draft                                                     AFNIC
Intended status: Standards Track                           July 18, 2016
Expires: January 19, 2017


              Next step for DPRIVE: resolver-to-auth link
                   draft-bortzmeyer-dprive-step-2-00

Abstract

   This document examines the possible future work for the DPRIVE (DNS
   privacy) working group, specially in securing the resolver-to-
   authoritative name server link with TLS under DNS.

   It is not intended to be published as a RFC.

   REMOVE BEFORE PUBLICATION: this document should be discussed in the
   IETF DPRIVE group, through its mailing list.  The source of the
   document, as well as a list of open issues, is currently kept at
   Github [1].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 19, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Possible solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Encode key in name  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Key in DNS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.3.  PKIX  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.4.  Lax security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     7.3.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6

1.  Introduction and background

   To improve the privacy of the DNS user ([RFC7626]), the standard
   solution is to encrypt the requests with TLS ([RFC7858]).  Just
   encrypting, without authenticating the remote server, leaves the
   user's privacy vulnerable to active man-in-the-middle attacks.
   [RFC7858] and [I-D.ietf-dprive-dtls-and-tls-profiles] describe how to
   authenticate the DNS resolver, in the stub-to-resolver link.  We have
   currently no standard way to authenticate the authoritative name
   server, in the resolver-to-auth link.

   The two cases are quite different: a stub resolver has only a few
   resolvers, and there is typically a pre-existing relationship.  But a
   resolver speaks to many authoritative name servers, without any prior
   relationship.  This means that, for instance, having a static key for
   the resolver makes sense while it would be clearly unrealistic for
   the authoritative server.

   Another difference is that resolvers are typically known by IP
   address (obtained by DHCP or manual configuration) while
   authoritative name servers are known by name (obtained from zone
   delegation).  This makes things easier for techniques similar to
   DANE: the manager of the ns1.example.net name server can always add a




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   TLSA record under example.net while she may have problems modifying
   the zone under in-addr.arpa or ip6.arpa.

   The original charter of the DPRIVE working group, in force at the
   time of this draft, says "The primary focus of this Working Group is
   to develop mechanisms that provide confidentiality between DNS
   Clients and Iterative Resolvers" and adds "but it may also later
   consider mechanisms that provide confidentiality between Iterative
   Resolvers and Authoritative Servers".  This document is here for this
   second step, "between Iterative Resolvers and Authoritative Servers".
   It will probably require a rechartering of the group.

2.  Possible solutions

   We can express the problem this way: if we want to use TLS-over-DNS
   to secure the link between the resolver and the authoritative server,
   it would be important to have a standard way to authenticate the
   authoritative server.  Basically, the client will get the public key
   of the server in the TLS session, how will it know that this key is
   the right one?

   Here is a comprehensive list of the four possible solutions to this
   problem.  First, the two where the key (or a hash of it) is available
   somewhere else than in the TLS session.

2.1.  Encode key in name

   We could encode the key in the authoritative server name (as in
   DNScurve [dnscurve] [I-D.dempsky-dnscurve]).  Here is an example of a
   domain using DNScurve: the names of the authoritative name servers
   are a Base-32 encoded form of the server's Curve25519 public key.

   % dig +short NS yp.to
   uz5dz39x8xk8wyq3dzn7vpt670qmvzx0zd9zg4ldwldkv6kx9ft090.ns.yp.to.
   uz5hjgptn63q5qlch6xlrw63tf6vhvvu6mjwn0s31buw1lhmlk14kd.ns.yp.to.
   uz5uu2c7j228ujjccp3ustnfmr4pgcg5ylvt16kmd0qzw7bbjgd5xq.ns.yp.to.

   Securely transmitting the key would therefore be a by-product of
   delegation.  Among the limits of this solution, the length of these
   names limit the number of possible name servers, if we want to keep
   the delegation short.  Also, it requires a cryptographic algorithm
   where keys are short (which means no RSA).

2.2.  Key in DNS

   We could publish keys in the DNS, secured with DNSSEC (as in DANE
   [RFC6698]).  This raises an interesting bootstrap problem: we need to




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   have an "unsecure" mode to retrieve the initial key material.  A
   possible algorithm is:

      (0)The resolver remembers the keys of the authoritative name
      servers (in the same way it remembers the lowest RTT among a NS
      RRset),

      (1)When the resolver needs to talk to a server (say
      ns1.example.net) for which it does not know the key, it does a
      TLSA request for _953._tcp.ns1.example.net,

      (2)If the resolution of this request requires to talk to the very
      server we search the key for, the resolver connects to this server
      with TLS to port 953, does not authenticate, and sends the query.
      This step offers no authentication.

   The real algorithm will need to be more complicated since there are
   several servers per zone.  A resolver may use the knowledge of TLS
   authentication it has to choose an authoritative name server among a
   NS RRset.

2.3.  PKIX

   We could use the X.509 security model [RFC5280]).  The certificates
   for authoritative name servers would be signed by regular CAs, with
   the name of the server in the Subject Alternative Name.

   One of the problems is that resolvers will probably have different
   sets of trusted CA so an authoritative name server will not know in
   advance what percentage of the resolvers may authenticate it.

2.4.  Lax security

   Finally, we could simply not check the keys at all, accepting
   anything.  This would break privacy promises, when there is an active
   attacker, able to pose as the authoritative name server.  But it is
   still better, privacy-wise, than the current situation where DNS
   requests are sent in clear text.

3.  Miscellaneous

   A resolver may use a combination of these solutions.  For instance,
   trying PKIX authentication (it does not require an extra lookup,
   except may be OCSP), if it fails, search a TLSA record, if there is
   none, depending on the resolver's policy, accept anyway.

   All these solutions can be improved by things like automatic key
   pinning ([RFC6797]).



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   An authoritative name server cannot know if the resolver authentified
   it, and how.  In the future, it may be interesting to have a EDNS
   option to signal a successful authentication, or a failure, but this
   is out of scope currently.

4.  IANA Considerations

   There is currently nothing to do for IANA.  The future chosen
   solution may require some IANA action, such as a registry.

5.  Security Considerations

   For the time being, refer to each subsection under Section 2 to have
   an analysis of its security.

6.  Acknowledgments

   Nobody yet :-)

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC7858]  Hu, Z., Zhu, L., Heidemann, J., Mankin, A., Wessels, D.,
              and P. Hoffman, "Specification for DNS over Transport
              Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7858, DOI 10.17487/RFC7858, May
              2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7858>.

   [I-D.ietf-dprive-dtls-and-tls-profiles]
              Dickinson, S., Gillmor, D., and T. Reddy, "Authentication
              and (D)TLS Profile for DNS-over-(D)TLS", draft-ietf-
              dprive-dtls-and-tls-profiles-03 (work in progress), July
              2016.

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.





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   [RFC6797]  Hodges, J., Jackson, C., and A. Barth, "HTTP Strict
              Transport Security (HSTS)", RFC 6797,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6797, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6797>.

   [RFC7626]  Bortzmeyer, S., "DNS Privacy Considerations", RFC 7626,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7626, August 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7626>.

   [I-D.dempsky-dnscurve]
              Dempsky, M., "DNSCurve: Link-Level Security for the Domain
              Name System", draft-dempsky-dnscurve-01 (work in
              progress), February 2010.

   [dnscurve]
              Bernstein, D., "DNSCurve: Usable security for DNS", June
              2009, <http://dnscurve.org/>.

7.3.  URIs

   [1] https://github.com/bortzmeyer/ietf-dprive-step-2

Author's Address

   Stephane Bortzmeyer
   AFNIC
   1, rue Stephenson
   Montigny-le-Bretonneux  78180
   France

   Phone: +33 1 39 30 83 46
   Email: bortzmeyer+ietf@nic.fr
   URI:   http://www.afnic.fr/


















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