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Versions: 00 01 02 03 draft-boucadair-64-multicast-address-format

BEHAVE WG                                                   M. Boucadair
Internet-Draft                                            France Telecom
Updates: 4291 (if approved)                                       J. Qin
Intended status: Standards Track                                     ZTE
Expires: April 28, 2012                                           Y. Lee
                                                                 Comcast
                                                               S. Venaas
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                                   X. Li
                                                  CERNET Center/Tsinghua
                                                              University
                                                                   M. Xu
                                                     Tsinghua University
                                                        October 26, 2011


              IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format
         draft-boucadair-behave-64-multicast-address-format-03

Abstract

   This document specifies an extension to the IPv6 multicast addressing
   architecture to be used in the context of IPv4-IPv6 interconnection.
   In particular, this document defines an address format for IPv4-
   embedded IPv6 multicast addresses.  This address format can be used
   for IPv4-IPv6 translation or encapsulation schemes.

   This document updates RFC4291.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference



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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 28, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

































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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Scope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: ASM Mode  . . . .  5
   4.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: SSM Mode  . . . .  6
   5.  Textual Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   6.  Multicast PREFIX64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   7.  Source IPv4 Address in the IPv6 Ream . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   9.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   Appendix A.  Design Choices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.1.  Why Identifying an IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast
           Address is Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.2.  Why an Address Format is Needed for Multicast
           IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     A.3.  Location of the IPv4 Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     A.4.  Location of the M-bit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     A.5.  Encapsulation vs. Translation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


























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1.  Introduction

   Recently various solutions (e.g.,
   [I-D.venaas-behave-v4v6mc-framework],
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-mesh-multicast],
   [I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast],
   [I-D.sarikaya-behave-netext-nat64-pmip] or
   [I-D.sarikaya-behave-mext-nat64-dsmip]) have been proposed to allow
   access to IPv4 multicast content from hosts attached to IPv6-enabled
   domains.

   Even if these solutions have distinct applicability scopes
   (translation vs. encapsulation) and target different use cases, they
   all make use of specific IPv6 multicast addresses to embed an IPv4
   multicast address.  Particularly, the IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast
   address is used as a destination IPv6 address of multicast flows
   received from an IPv4-enabled domain and injected by the IPv4-IPv6
   Interconnection Function into an IPv6-enabled domain.  It is also
   used to build an IPv6 multicast state (*, G6) or (S6, G6)
   corresponding to their (*, G4) or (S4, G4) IPv4 counter parts by the
   IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection Function.

   This document aims at harmonizing the definition of an IPv4-embedded
   IPv6 address format.  It specifies an extension to the multicast IPv6
   addressing architecture [RFC4291].  This extension is used for
   building IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast addresses.

   This specification can be used in conjunction with other extensions
   such as building unicast prefix-based multicast IPv6 address
   [RFC3306] or embedding the rendezvous point [RFC3956].

   This document is a companion document to [RFC6052] which focuses
   exclusively on IPv4-embedded IPv6 unicast addresses.

   More discussion about issues related to IPv4/IPv6 multicast can be
   found at [I-D.jaclee-behave-v4v6-mcast-ps].

   Details about design choices are documented in Appendix A.

1.1.  Scope

   The address format defined in this document applies for both IPv4-
   IPv6 translation and encapsulation schemes.

   It is out of scope of this document to define the overall procedure
   for the delivery of IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast to the requesting
   receivers.  Practical details about the procedure is defined in
   specific documents such as [I-D.venaas-behave-v4v6mc-framework] and



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   [I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast].


2.  Terminology

   This document makes use of the following terms:
   o  IPv4-embedded IPv6 multicast address: denotes a multicast IPv6
      address which includes in 32 bits an IPv4 address.  Two types of
      IPv6 addresses are defined that carry an IPv4 address in the low-
      order 32 bits of the address.  The format to build such addresses
      is defined in Section 3 for ASM mode and Section 4 for SSM mode.
   o  IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection Function: refers to a function which is
      enabled in a node interconnecting an IPv4-enabled domain with an
      IPv6-enabled one.
   o  Multicast Prefix64 (or MPREFIX64 for short) refers to an IPv6
      multicast prefix to be used to construct IPv4-embedded IPv6
      multicast addresses.
   o  ASM_MPREFIX64: denotes a multicast Prefix64 used in ASM mode.  It
      follows the format described in Section 3.
   o  SSM_MPREFIX64: denotes a multicast Prefix64 used in SSM mode.  It
      follows the format described in Section 4.


3.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: ASM Mode

   To meet the requirements listed in Appendix A.4, the following
   address format is defined to enclose an IPv4 multicast address when
   ASM mode is used:

    |   8    |  4 |  4 |  4 |             76               |    32    |
    +--------+----+----+----+------------------------------+----------+
    |11111111|flgs|scop|64IX|         sub-group-id         |v4 address|
    +--------+----+----+----+-----------------------------------------+
                                                  +-+-+-+-+
    IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection bits (64IX):        |M|r|r|r|
                                                  +-+-+-+-+

      Figure 1: IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: ASM Mode

   The description of the fields is as follows:
   o  "flgs" and "scop" fields are defined in [RFC4291].
   o  64IX field (IPv4-IPv6 interconnection bits): The first bit is the
      M-bit.  When "M-bit" is set to 1, it indicates that an multicast
      IPv4 address is embedded in the low-order 32 bits of the multicast
      IPv6 address.  All the remaining bits are reserved and MUST be set
      to 0.





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   o  sub-group-id: This field is configurable according to local
      policies of the entity managing the IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection
      Function.  This field must follow the recommendations specified in
      [RFC3306] if unicast-based prefix is used or the recommendations
      specified in [RFC3956] if embedded-RP is used.  The default value
      is all zeros.
   o  The low-order 32 bits MUST include an IPv4 multicast address when
      the M-bit is set to 1.  The enclosed IPv4 multicast address SHOULD
      NOT be in 232/8 range.
         [[DISCUSSION NOTE: Restrict an IPv6 ASM address to embed only
         an ASM IPv4 address or relax it?]]


4.  IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: SSM Mode

   As mentioned above, any IPv4-embedded IPv6 address used in SSM mode
   MUST be part of ff3x::/32 [RFC4607].  Figure 2 describes the format
   of the IPv6 multicast address to be used to enclose an IPv4 multicast
   address.

    |   8    |  4 |  4 |    16     |  4 |       60         |    32    |
    +--------+----+----+-----------+----+------------------+----------+
    |11111111|0011|scop|00.......00|64IX|   sub-group-id   |v4 address|
    +--------+----+----+-----------+----+------------------+----------+
                                                  +-+-+-+-+
    IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection bits (64IX):        |M|r|r|r|
                                                  +-+-+-+-+

      Figure 2: IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address Format: SSM Mode

   The description of the fields is as follows:

   o  Flags must be set to 0011.
   o  "scop" is defined in [RFC4291].
   o  64IX field (IPv4-IPv6 interconnection bits): Same meaning as
      Section 3.
   o  sub-group-id: The default value is all zeros.
   o  The low-order 32 bits MUST include an IPv4 multicast address when
      the M-bit is set to 1.  The embedded IPv4 address SHOULD be in the
      232/8 range [RFC4607]. 232.0.0.1-232.0.0.255 range is being
      reserved to IANA.
         [[DISCUSSION NOTE: Restrict an IPv6 SSM address to embed only
         an SSM IPv4 address?]]


5.  Textual Representation

   The embedded IPv4 address in an IPv6 multicast address is included in



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   the last 32 bits; therefore dotted decimal notation can be used.


6.  Multicast PREFIX64

   For the delivery of the IPv4-IPv6 multicast interconnection services,
   a dedicated multicast prefix denoted as MPREFIX64 should be
   provisioned to any function requiring to build an IPv4-embedded IPv6
   multicast address based on an IPv4 multicast address.  MPREFIX64 can
   be of ASM or SSM type.  When both modes are used, two prefixes are
   required to be provisioned.

   The structure of the MPREFIX64 follows the guidelines specified in
   Section 3 for the ASM mode and Section 4 when SSM mode is used.

   MPREFIX64 MAY be of any length from /32 to /96; /96 being the
   RECOMMENDED prefix length as shown in Figure 3).

   The format of the MPREFIX64 should be compatible with what is
   specified in [RFC3306] and [RFC3956] if corresponding mechanisms are
   used.






























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    ASM Mode:

    |   8    |  4 |  4 |  4 |             76               |    32    |
    +--------+----+----+----+------------------------------+----------+
    |11111111|flgs|scop|64IX|         sub-group-id         |v4 address|
    +--------+----+----+----+------------------------------+----------+
    |                                                      |          |
    v                                                      v          v
    +------------------------------------------------------+----------+
    |                ASM_MPREFIX64                         |v4 address|
    +------------------------------------------------------+----------+

    SSM Mode:

    |   8    |  4 |  4 |    16     |  4 |       60         |    32    |
    +--------+----+----+-----------+----+------------------+----------+
    |11111111|0011|scop|00.......00|64IX|   sub-group-id   |v4 address|
    +--------+----+----+-----------+----+------------------+----------+
    |                                                      |          |
    v                                                      v          v
    +------------------------------------------------------+----------+
    |                SSM_MPREFIX64                         |v4 address|
    +------------------------------------------------------+----------+


                            Figure 3: MPREFIX64


7.  Source IPv4 Address in the IPv6 Ream

   An IPv4 source is represented in the IPv6 realm with its IPv4-
   converted IPv6 address [RFC6052].


8.  IANA Considerations

   TBC.


9.  Security Considerations

   This document defined an address format to embed an IPv4 multicast
   address in an IPv6 multicast address.  The same security
   considerations as those discussed in [RFC6052] are to be taken into
   consideration.






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10.  Acknowledgements

   Many thanks to B. Sarikaya, P. Savola and T. Tsou for their comments.


11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3306]  Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
              Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.

   [RFC3376]  Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B., and A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002.

   [RFC3810]  Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery
              Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, June 2004.

   [RFC3956]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
              Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
              RFC 3956, November 2004.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4566]  Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
              Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.

   [RFC4601]  Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., and I. Kouvelas,
              "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM):
              Protocol Specification (Revised)", RFC 4601, August 2006.

   [RFC4607]  Holbrook, H. and B. Cain, "Source-Specific Multicast for
              IP", RFC 4607, August 2006.

   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
              Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
              October 2010.

11.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.boucadair-mmusic-altc]
              Boucadair, M., Kaplan, H., Gilman, R., and S.
              Veikkolainen, "Session Description Protocol (SDP)



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              Alternate Connectivity (ALTC) Attribute",
              draft-boucadair-mmusic-altc-03 (work in progress),
              September 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-learn-analysis]
              Korhonen, J. and T. Savolainen, "Analysis of solution
              proposals for hosts to learn NAT64 prefix",
              draft-ietf-behave-nat64-learn-analysis-01 (work in
              progress), October 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast]
              Wang, Q., Qin, J., Boucadair, M., Jacquenet, C., and Y.
              Lee, "Multicast Extensions to DS-Lite Technique in
              Broadband Deployments",
              draft-ietf-softwire-dslite-multicast-00 (work in
              progress), September 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-softwire-mesh-multicast]
              Xu, M., Cui, Y., Yang, S., Wu, J., Metz, C., and G.
              Shepherd, "Softwire Mesh Multicast",
              draft-ietf-softwire-mesh-multicast-00 (work in progress),
              September 2011.

   [I-D.jaclee-behave-v4v6-mcast-ps]
              Jacquenet, C., Boucadair, M., Lee, Y., Qin, J., and T.
              ZOU), "IPv4-IPv6 Multicast: Problem Statement and Use
              Cases", draft-jaclee-behave-v4v6-mcast-ps-02 (work in
              progress), June 2011.

   [I-D.sarikaya-behave-mext-nat64-dsmip]
              Sarikaya, B. and F. Xia, "NAT64 for Dual Stack Mobile
              IPv6", draft-sarikaya-behave-mext-nat64-dsmip-02 (work in
              progress), January 2011.

   [I-D.sarikaya-behave-netext-nat64-pmip]
              Sarikaya, B. and F. Xia, "NAT64 for Proxy Mobile IPv6",
              draft-sarikaya-behave-netext-nat64-pmip-01 (work in
              progress), January 2011.

   [I-D.venaas-behave-v4v6mc-framework]
              Venaas, S., Li, X., and C. Bao, "Framework for IPv4/IPv6
              Multicast Translation",
              draft-venaas-behave-v4v6mc-framework-03 (work in
              progress), June 2011.







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Appendix A.  Design Choices

A.1.  Why Identifying an IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Multicast Address is
      Required?

   Reserving an M-bit in the IPv6 multicast address (which is equivalent
   to reserving a dedicated multicast block for IPv4-IPv6
   interconnection purposes) is a means to guide the address selection
   process at the receiver side; in particular it assists the receiver
   to select the appropriate IP multicast address while avoiding to
   involve an IPv4-IPv6 interconnection function in the path.

   Two use cases to illustrate this behavior are provided below:
   1.  An ALG is required to help an IPv6 receiver to select the
       appropriate IP address when only the IPv4 address is advertised
       (e.g., using SDP); otherwise the access to the IPv4 multicast
       content can not be offered to the IPv6 receiver.  The ALG may be
       located downstream the receiver.  As such, the ALG does not know
       in advance whether the receiver is dual-stack or IPv6-only.  The
       ALG may be tuned to insert both the original IPv4 address and
       corresponding IPv6 multicast address using for instance the ALTC
       SDP attribute [I-D.boucadair-mmusic-altc].  If the M-bit is not
       used, a dual-stack receiver may prefer to use the IPv6 address to
       receive the multicast content.  This address selection would
       require multicast flows to cross an IPv4-IPv6 interconnection
       function.
   2.  In order to avoid involving an ALG in the path, an IPv4-only
       source can advertise both its IPv4 address and IPv4-embedded IPv6
       multicast address using for instance the ALTC SDP attribute.  If
       the M-bit is not used, a dual-stack receiver may prefer to use
       the IPv6 address to receive the multicast content.  This address
       selection would require multicast flows to cross an IPv4-IPv6
       interconnection function.
   Reserving an M-bit in the IPv6 multicast address for IPv4-IPv6
   interconnection purposes mitigates the issues discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-behave-nat64-learn-analysis] in a multicast context.

A.2.  Why an Address Format is Needed for Multicast IPv4-IPv6
      Interconnection?

   Arguments why an IPv6 address format is needed to embed multicast
   IPv4 address are quite similar to those of [RFC6052].  Concretely,
   the definition of a multicast address format embedding a multicast
   IPv4 address allows:

   o  Stateless IPv4-IPv6 header translation of multicast flows;





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   o  Stateless IPv4-IPv6 PIM interworking function;
   o  Stateless IGMP-MLD interworking function (e.g., required for an
      IPv4 receiver to access to IPv4 multicast content via an IPv6
      network);
   o  Stateless (local) synthesis of IPv6 address when IPv4 multicast
      address are embedded in application payload (e.g., SDP [RFC4566]);
   o  Except the provisioning of the same MPREFIX64, no coordination is
      required between IPv4-IPv6 PIM interworking function, IGMP-MLD
      interworking function, IPv4-IPv6 Interconnection Function and any
      ALG (Application Level Gateway) in the path;
   o  Minimal operational constraints on the multicast address
      management: IPv6 multicast addresses can be constructed using what
      has been deployed for IPv4 delivery mode.

A.3.  Location of the IPv4 Address

   There is no strong argument to allow for flexible options to encode
   the IPv4 address inside the multicast IPv6 address.  The option
   retained by the authors is to encode the multicast IPv4 address in
   the low-order 32 bits of the IPv6 address.

   This choice is also motivated by the need to be compliant with
   [RFC3306] and [RFC3956].

A.4.  Location of the M-bit

   Figure 4 is a reminder of the IPv6 multicast address format as
   defined in [RFC4291]:

      |   8    |  4 |  4 |                  112 bits                   |
      +------ -+----+----+---------------------------------------------+
      |11111111|flgs|scop|                  group ID                   |
      +--------+----+----+---------------------------------------------+
                                       +-+-+-+-+
         flgs is a set of 4 flags:     |0|R|P|T|
                                       +-+-+-+-+
      *  "T-bit" is defined in [RFC4291];
      *  "P-bit" is defined in [RFC3306]
      *  "R-bit" is defined in [RFC3956]

       Figure 4: IPv6 Multicast address format as defined in RFC4291

   It was tempting to use the remaining flag to indicate whether an IPv6
   address embeds an IPv4 address or not.  This choice has been
   abandoned by the authors for various reasons:
   o  ff3x::/32 is defined as SSM.  Defining a new flag would require
      standards and implementations to also treat ffbx::/32 as SSM.




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   o  Prefixes starting with ff7x are defined as embedded-RP, but not
      prefixes starting with fffx.  Blow is provided an excerpt from
      [RFC3956]:
         " ...the encoding and the protocol mode used when the two high-
         order bits in "flgs" are set to 11 ("fff0::/12") is
         intentionally unspecified until such time that the highest-
         order bit is defined.  Without further IETF specification,
         implementations SHOULD NOT treat the fff0::/12 range as
         Embedded-RP."
         as such defining a new flag would require implementations to
         also treat ff7x::/12 as embedded-RP prefix.
   o  This is the last remaining flag and at this stage we are not sure
      whether there is other usage scenarios of the flag.

   As a conclusion, the remaining flag is not used to indicate an IPv6
   multicast address embeds an IPv4 multicast address.  However the
   following constraints should be met:

      (1) Belong to ff3x::/32 and be compatible with unicast-based
      prefix [RFC3306] for SSM.  Note that [RFC3306] suggests to set
      "plen" to 0 and "network-prefix" to 0.
      (2) Be compatible with embedded-RP [RFC3956] and unicast-based
      prefix [RFC3306] for ASM;
      (3) Avoid ff3x::4000:0001-ff3x::7fff:ffff which is reserved for
      IANA.
   Meeting (1) and (2) with the same location of the M-bit is not
   feasible without modifying embedded-RP and unicast-based prefix
   specifications; this option is avoided.

   As a consequence, two multicast blocks are proposed to be used when
   embedding IPv4 address: one block for ASM (Section 3 ) and another
   one for the SSM (Section 4).

A.5.  Encapsulation vs. Translation

   IPv4-IPv6 encapsulator and translator may be embedded in the same
   device or even implemented with the same software module.  In order
   to help the function whether an encapsulated IPv6 multicast packets
   or translated IPv6 ones are to be transferred.  It was tempting to
   define an S-bit for that purpose but this choice has been abandoned
   in favor of the recommendation to use distinct MPREFIX64 for each
   scheme.

   As such, there is no need to reserve a bit in the IPv6 multicast
   address to separate between the translation and the encapsulation
   schemes.





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Authors' Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair
   France Telecom
   Rennes,   35000
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange.com


   Jacni Qin
   ZTE
   Shanghai
   China

   Email: jacniq@gmail.com


   Yiu L. Lee
   Comcast
   U.S.A

   Email: yiu_lee@cable.comcast.com


   Stig Venaas
   Cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: stig@cisco.com


   Xing Li
   CERNET Center/Tsinghua University
   Room 225, Main Building, Tsinghua University
   Beijing,   100084
   P.R. China

   Phone: +86 10-62785983
   Email: xing@cernet.edu.cn









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Internet-Draft         64 Multicast Address Format          October 2011


   Mingwei Xu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing,   100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6278-5822
   Email: xmw@cernet.edu.cn











































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