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Versions: 00 01

Network Working Group                                  M. Boucadair, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                             J-L. Grimault
Intended status: Standards Track                          France Telecom
Expires: May 3, 2009                                            P. Levis
                                                         A. Villefranque
                                              France Telecom-Orange Labs
                                                        October 30, 2008


 DHCP Options for Conveying Port Mask and Port Range Router IP Address
                   draft-boucadair-dhc-port-range-01

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 3, 2009.

Abstract

   This draft defines two new DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol,
   [RFC2131]) Options to be used in the context of Provider-Provisioned
   CPE solution (a.k.a.  Port Range solution or Fractional Address).
   The first option is used to convey a Port Mask and the second one may
   be used to convey a list of Port Range Router IP addresses.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",



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   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Mask Port Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2.  Purpose and Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.3.  Illustration Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.3.1.  One continuous Port Range  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.3.2.  Non Continous Port Range: Single Mask Port, 128
               Port Ranges  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       2.3.3.  Two Long Port Ranges: Single Port Mask, two Port
               Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       2.3.4.  Single Mask Port, 64 Port Ranges . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3.  Port Range Router IP address DHCP Option (PRR IP Adress
       DHCP Option) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.1.  Purpose and Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.2.  Illustration Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Appendix A.  Enhanced Port Range DHCP Option . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     A.1.  Two continuous Port Ranges of different sizes  . . . . . . 12
     A.2.  Two Port Ranges with some ports excluded from the
           first range  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Appendix B.  Changes since 00 version  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 15

















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1.  Introduction

   Recently, in the context of IPv4 address depletion, several solutions
   have been disseminated within IETF to propose viable alternative
   solutions to Carrier Grade NAT (CG-NAT).  [ID.boucadair] is an
   example of these solutions which propose to share the same IP address
   among several devices and to constraint the values used as port
   sources to a limited set of values.  As described in [ID.boucadair],
   a new DHCP is required to notify remote devices about the allowed
   port values.  This is mainly achieved owing to the Port Mask DHCP
   Option.

   This proposal tackles the issue of assigning Port Ranges in a
   different way than that of [ID.bajko].  The proposed DHCP option only
   applies to the allocation of ports and not of IP addresses.
   Therefore the allocation of IP addresses and the allocation of ports
   are decorrelated from a DHCP point of view.  Consequently, this draft
   does not introduce a conflict to manage existing DHCP options and the
   new ones (especially with those options including a "requested
   address" defined in [RFC2132]).  In addition, the proposed option
   allows the definition of Port Ranges in a very flexible way; non
   contiguous values are possible, which prevents for instance to
   allocate all well-known ports to the same customer.

   This draft defines the notion of Port Mask which is generic and
   flexible.  Several allocation schemes may be implemented owing to a
   Port Mask.  This draft proposes a basic mechanism allowing to
   allocate a unique Port Mask.  The Annex describes a variant
   permitting a more sophisticated allocation of ports such as: allocate
   a Port Range except some values (e.g.  All well-known port values
   except 80 and 8080), allocate only a set of discrete values together
   with a Port Range (e.g. 3000 to 32000 and port 80), etc.

   According to [ID.dhcpguide], the formats of the herein proposed DHCP
   options are similar to the ones defined in [RFC2132].

   IP exhaustion is only provided as an example of usage of the DHCP
   options defined in this draft.  Other usages may be considered.


2.  Mask Port Option

   This section defines the Port Mask DHCP Option.

2.1.  Definition

   For making the distinction between a Port Range containing a
   continuous span of port numbers and a Port Range with non continuous



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   port numbers, the following denominations are used:

      - Continuous Port Range: a set of port values which form a
      continuous sequence.

      - Non Continuous Port Range: a set of ports values which does not
      form a continuous sequence.

   Moreover, unless explicitly mentioned, Port Mask refers to the couple
   (Port Mask, Port Locator).

2.2.  Purpose and Usage

   This option is used to notify a remote DHCP client about the Port
   Mask to be applied when selecting a port value as a source port.  The
   Port Mask option is used to infer a set of allowed port values.

   A Port Mask defines a set of ports that all have in common a subset
   of pre-positioned bits.  This ports set is also called Port Range.

   Two port numbers are said to belong to the same Port Range if and
   only if, they have the same Port Mask.  In the rest, for easing the
   denomination, we will call CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) the
   equipment which applies the port restriction when communicating.  But
   it could be any other kind of equipment (e.g. a terminal).

   The code for this DHCP option is to be assigned by IANA.  The minimum
   length of this option is 4, and the length MUST be a multiple of 4.

   The format of Port Mask DHCP option is illustrated in the figure
   hereafter:

       Code   Len  Port Mask 1 Mask Locator 1
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
      | TBA |  n  |    MP1    |    ML1    |
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+


   TBA means to be assigned by IANA.

   Port Mask indicates the value of the mask to be applied and Mask
   Locator indicates the position of the bits which are used to build
   the mask.

   Port Mask and Mask Locator are encoded as 16 bits.

   The "1" values in the Mask Locator indicate by their position the
   significant bits of the Port Mask (the pattern of the Port Mask).



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   For example,

   o  a Mask Locator equal to 1000000000000000 indicates that the first
      bit (the most significant one) is used as a pattern of the Port
      Mask;

   o  a Mask Locator equal to 0000101000000000 indicates that the 5th
      and the 7th most significant bits are used as a pattern of the
      Port Mask.

   The pattern of the Port Mask is all the fixed bits in the Port Mask.
   All the ports the CPE is allowed to use as source ports must have
   their number in accordance with the pattern.

   The Port Mask is coded as follows:

      - The pattern bits of the Port Mask are those where "1" values are
      set in the Mask Locator.  These bits may take a value of 0 or 1.

      - All the other bits are set to "0".

2.3.  Illustration Examples

   This section provides a set of examples to illustrate the usage of
   the Port Mask DHCP Option:

   1.  Single Port Mask to assign one Continuous Port Range to a given
       device;

   2.  Single Port Mask used to assign 128 Port Ranges with two Port
       Ranges within the well-known Port Range to a given device;.

   3.  Single Port Mask to assign two long Port Ranges to a given
       device;

   4.  Single Port Mask to allocate to a given device 64 Port Ranges
       with a Port Range within the well-known Port Range.

2.3.1.  One continuous Port Range

   This section provides an example of a Port Mask used to assign a
   unique Continuous Port Range to a given customer's device.

   For illustration purposes, the following Mask Locator and Port Mask
   are conveyed using DHCP to assign a Port Range (from 2048 to 4095) to
   a given device:





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      - Port Mask : 0000100000000000 (2048)

      - Mask Locator : 1111100000000000 (63488)

   In this example, 2^5 customers can share the same IP address.

2.3.2.  Non Continous Port Range: Single Mask Port, 128 Port Ranges

   Unlike the previous example, this one illustrates the case where a
   non Continuous Port Range is assigned to a given customer's device.

   In this example, the Port Mask defines 128 Continuous Port Ranges,
   each one with a length of 16 port values.  Note that the two first
   Port Ranges are both in the well-known ports span (i.e. 0-1023) but
   these two ranges are not adjacent.

   The following Mask Locator and Port Mask are conveyed in DHCP
   messages:

      - Port Mask : 0000000001010000 (80)

      - Mask Locator : 0000000111110000 (496)

   This means that the 128 following Continuous Port Ranges are assigned
   to the same customer's device:

      - from 80 to 95

      - from 592 to 607

      - ...

      - ...

      - from 65104 to 65119

2.3.3.  Two Long Port Ranges: Single Port Mask, two Port Ranges

   In this example, the Port Mask defines two Continuous Port Ranges,
   each one being 1024 ports long:

      - Port Mask : 0000000000000000 (0)

      - Mask Locator : 1111010000000000 (62464)

   This means that the two following Continuous Port Ranges are assigned
   to the same device:




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      - from 0 to 1023, and

      - from 2048 to 3071

2.3.4.  Single Mask Port, 64 Port Ranges

   This example shows the flexibility of allocating allowed port values
   using a Port Mask.  In the following example, 64 Continuous Port
   Ranges are allocated to each CPE (among a set of 4 CPEs sharing the
   same IPv4 address).

   Among the 64 continuous Port Ranges to each CPE, there is always one
   within the span of the first 1024 well-known port values.  Hereafter
   is provided the Port Mask and Port Locator assigned to 2 CPEs:

   1.  CPE#0

          - Port Mask: 0000000000000000 (0)

          - Mask Locator: 0000001100000000 (768)

       The CPE#0 has therefore the 64 following Continuous Port Ranges:

          - 1st range: 0-255

          - ...

          - 64th range: 64512-64767

   2.  CPE#2

          - Port Mask: 0000001100000000 (768)

          - Mask Locator: 0000001100000000 (768)

       The CPE#2 has therefore the 64 following Continuous Port Ranges:

          - 1st range: 768-1023

          - ...

          - 64th range: 65280-65535


3.  Port Range Router IP address DHCP Option (PRR IP Adress DHCP Option)

   This section defines the Port Range Router IP Address DHCP Option.




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3.1.  Purpose and Usage

   The PRR IP Address DHCP option specifies a list of routers
   (represented as IPv4 addresses) which maintains a binding table as
   defined in [ID.boucadair].  Routers SHOULD be listed in order of
   preference.

   The code for the PRR IP Address DHCP option is to be assigned by
   IANA.  The minimum length for this option is 4 octets, and the length
   MUST always be a multiple of 4.

   The format of the PRR IP Address DHCP option is depicted in the
   following figure:

       Code   Len         Address 1               Address 2
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--
      | TBA |  n  |  a1 |  a2 |  a3 |  a4 |  a1 |  a2 |  ...
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+--


   This format assumes that an IPv4 address is encoded as a1.a2.a3.a4.

   This option can be used for instance when a CPE-Provisioned PRR model
   is adopted (Refer to [ID.boucadair] for more details about this
   mode).

   Once this option is received by a given customer's device
   (particularly embedded DHCP Client), an appropriate message is sent
   to the IP address conveyed in this option.  This message aims at
   notifying the remote Port Range Router about the assigned Port Mask
   and IP address.  An entry is consequently instantiated in the binding
   table maintained by that PRR.

   As stated above, this option encloses at least one IP address, which
   represents the PRR.  If several IP addresses are conveyed, these PRR
   are contacted in a priority-based scheme.  Thus, if no acknowledgment
   message is received for the issued message, the next PRR in the list
   is contacted, etc.

3.2.  Illustration Example

   This section provides an example of the configuration data conveyed
   in a Port Range Router DHCP Option.








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   Let's suppose that the configuration data is retrieved by a CPE using
   DHCP.  This configuration contains a Port Range Router Option
   illustrated in the following figure:

       Code   Len         Address 1
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
      | TBA |  4  |  21 |  15 |  52 |  55 |
      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+


   Within this example, this option carries one single IP address:
   21.15.52.55.

   Once this data is received by the CPE, the following call flow is
   experienced:

   +-----+                         +-----+
   | CPE |                         | PRR |
   +-----+                         +-----+
      |                           21.15.52.55
      |         (1) BIND()            |
      |------------------------------>|
      |                               |
      |                               |
      |           (2) ACK             |
      |<------------------------------|
      |                               |


   As a result, PRR (21.21.52.55) is aware about the required
   information to route unambiguously all received IP packets to that
   CPE.  This process is achieved each time DHCP configuration data
   change.


4.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests the assignment of two DHCP Options:

      - Port Mask Option;

      - Port Range Router IP Address Option.


5.  Security Considerations

   This document does not introduce any security issue.




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6.  Acknowledgements

   TBC


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, March 1997.

   [RFC2132]  Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor
              Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.

7.2.  Informative References

   [ID.bajko]
              Bajko, G. and T. Savolainen , "Dynamic Host Configuration
              Protocol (DHCP) Options for Port Restricted IP Address
              Assignment", September 2008.

   [ID.boucadair]
              Boucadair, M., "Provider-Provisioned CPE: IPv4
              Connectivity Access in the context of IPv4 address
              exhaustion", October 2008.

   [ID.dhcpguide]
              Hankins, D., "Guidelines for Creating New DHCP Options",
              October 2008.


Appendix A.  Enhanced Port Range DHCP Option

   This appendix defines a variant which allows a more sophisticated
   allocation of ports.

   The format of the Port Mask DHCP Option is slightly more complicated
   than the basic one defined above.









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   The format of the enhanced Port Mask DHCP Option is illustrated in
   the figure hereafter:

          Code   Len    OP      Port Mask 1     Mask Locator 1
         +-----+-----+-----+--------+--------+--------+--------+
         | TBA |  n  | op1 |       MP1       |       ML1       |
         +-----+-----+-----|--------+--------+--------+--------+

           OP   Port Mask 2      Mask Locator 2
         +-----+--------+--------+--------+--------+---
         | op2 |       MP2       |       ML2       |...
         +-----+--------+--------+--------+--------+---



   As shown above, several Port Masks may be enclosed in the Port Mask
   DHCP Option.

   The minimum length of this option is 5, and the length MUST be a
   multiple of 5.

   As shown above, several Port Masks and Mask Locators may be enclosed
   in a single option.

   The OP (Operand) field encodes in one octet the way the Port Mask is
   to be applied.  Two values are defined in this draft:

      - OP = 0: This means that the Port Mask and Mask Locator which
      follow define a set of ports which can be used by the CPE.  This
      is exactly the working of the basic mechanism described in the
      core of this memo.

      - OP = 1: This means that the Port Mask and Mask Locator which
      follow define a set of ports which must NOT be used by the CPE.
      Therefore OP = 1 excludes ports specified by the associated Port
      Mask.

   The set of excluded ports defined by a sequence (OP=1, Port Mask_y,
   Mask Locator_y) has the precedence over any sequence (OP=0, Port
   Mask_x, Mask Locator_x) within the Port Mask DHCP Option.  That means
   that the final ports set defined by the Port Mask DHCP option is :

   union of the sets defined by all the sequences (OP=0, Port Mask_x,
   Mask Locator_x) minus all the sets defined by the sequences (OP=1,
   Port Mask_y, Mask Locator_y).

   The order of sequence (OP, Port Mask, Mask Locator) within the Port
   Mask DHCP Option is not important.  OP=0 sequences can precede OP=1



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   sequences or the contrary.  OP=0 sequences can be mixed with OP=1
   sequences.

   Two examples are provided hereafter.

A.1.  Two continuous Port Ranges of different sizes

   One could notice from the examples given for the basic mechanism (see
   Section 2.3.  Illustration Examples) that with a single Port Mask it
   is not possible to allocated several Continuous Port Ranges of
   different sizes.  In the scope of this present variant this is
   feasible.

   The use case can be, for example, a CPE to which has been already
   allocated a Continuous Port Range (e.g. 2048 ports from 16384 to
   18431) outside the well-known port values span (0-1023).  If at a
   later stage, the customer wishes to enable some servers behind its
   CPE and then uses a well-known ports (i.e. a values within 0 to 1023
   ranges) and if this Port Range (0-1023) is not yet allocated to
   another CPE, it can be allocated to that CPE owing to a second Port
   Mask.

   Therefore, the Port Mask DHCP Option would contain two (OP, Port
   Mask, Mask Locator) sequences as shown below:

      - First (OP, Port Mask, Mask Locator):

      *  OP = 0

      *  Port Mask: 0100000000000000 (16384)

      *  Mask Locator : 1111100000000000 (63488)

      This yields the following 2048 long Continuous Port Range: from
      16384 to 18431

      - Second (OP, Port Mask, Mask Locator):

      *  OP = 0

      *  Port Mask: 0000000000000000 (0)

      *  Mask Locator : 1111110000000000 (64512)

      This yields the following Continuous Port Range: from 0 to 1023






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A.2.  Two Port Ranges with some ports excluded from the first range

   This example is the same as the previous one but the port 80 is not
   allocated to the CPE.

   There are three (OP, Port Mask, Mask Locator) sequences.  The first
   two ones are the same ones as in the previous example.

   The third sequence is as follows:

      - OP = 1

      - Port Mask: 0000000001010000 (80)

      - Mask Locator : 1111111111111111 (65535)

   This third (OP, Port Mask, Mask Locator) sequence excludes port 80
   from the allowed port values to that device.


Appendix B.  Changes since 00 version

   1.  Some editorial changes

   2.  Correct the example provided in Section 2.3.3


Authors' Addresses

   Mohamed Boucadair (editor)
   France Telecom
   42 rue des Coutures
   BP 6243
   Caen Cedex 4  14066
   France

   Email: mohamed.boucadair@orange-ftgroup.com


   Jean-Luc Grimault
   France Telecom

   Email: jeanluc.grimault@orange-ftgroup.com








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   Pierre Levis
   France Telecom-Orange Labs

   Email: pierre.levis@orange-ftgroup.com


   Alain Villefranque
   France Telecom-Orange Labs

   Fax:
   Email: alain.villefranque@orange-ftgroup.com








































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Full Copyright Statement

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