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MPLS WG                                                        A. Farrel
Internet Draft                                               P. Brittain
Document: draft-brittain-mpls-ldp-ft-00.txt          Data Connection Ltd
Expiration Date: January 2001
                                                         Philip Matthews
                                                                  Nortel

                                                               Eric Gray
                                                                 Zaffire
                                                               July 2000

                  Fault Tolerance for LDP and CR-LDP


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of
   six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
   documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet- Drafts
   as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in
   progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   NOTE: The new TLV type numbers, bit values for flags specified in
   this draft, and new LDP status code values are preliminary suggested
   values and have yet to be approved by IANA or the MPLS WG.  See the
   section "IANA Considerations" for further details.


Abstract

   MPLS systems will be used in core networks where system downtime
   must be kept to an absolute minimum.  Many MPLS LSRs may, therefore,
   exploit fault tolerant (FT) hardware or software to provide
   high availability of the core networks.

   The details of how FT is achieved for the various components of an FT
   LSR, including LDP, CR-LDP, the switching hardware and TCP, are
   implementation specific.  This document identifies issues in the
   CR-LDP specification [2] and the LDP specification [4] that make it
   difficult to implement an FT LSR using the current LDP and CR-LDP
   protocols, and proposes enhancements to the LDP specification to ease
   such FT LSR implementations.

   The extensions described here are equally applicable to CR-LDP.

P. Brittain                                                     [Page 1]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


Contents


   1. Conventions and Terminology used in this document...............3
   2. Introduction....................................................3
   2.1 Fault Tolerance for MPLS.......................................3
   2.2 Issues with LDP and CR-LDP.....................................4
   3. Overview of LDP FT Enhancements.................................5
   3.1 Establishing an FT LDP Session.................................6
   3.1.1  Interoperation with Non-FT LSRs.............................6
   3.2 TCP Connection Failure.........................................6
   3.3 Data Forwarding During TCP Connection Failure..................7
   3.4 FT LDP Session Reconnection....................................7
   3.5 Operations on FT Labels........................................8
   4. FT Operations...................................................8
   4.1 FT LDP Messages................................................8
   4.1.1 FT Label Messages............................................8
   4.1.1.1 Scope of FT Labels.........................................9
   4.1.2  FT Address Messages.........................................9
   4.2 FT Operation ACKs..............................................9
   4.3 Preservation of FT State......................................10
   4.4 FT Procedure After TCP Failure................................11
   4.4.1 FT LDP Operations During TCP Failure........................12
   4.5 FT Procedure After TCP Re-connection..........................12
   4.5.1 Re-Issuing FT Messages......................................13
   4.5.2 Interaction with CR-LDP LSP Modification....................13
   5. Changes to Existing Messages...................................14
   5.1 LDP Initialization Message....................................14
   5.2 LDP Keepalive Message.........................................14
   5.3 All Other LDP Session Messages................................14
   6. New Fields and Values..........................................15
   6.1 Status Codes..................................................15
   6.2 FT Session TLV................................................16
   6.3 FT Protection TLV.............................................17
   6.4 FT ACK TLV....................................................18
   7. Example Use....................................................19
   8. Security Considerations........................................22
   9. Implementation Notes...........................................22
   9.1 FT Recovery Support on Non-FT LSRs............................22
   9.2 ACK generation logic..........................................23
   10. Acknowledgements..............................................23
   11. Intellectual Property Consideration...........................23
   12. Full Copyright Statement......................................24
   13. IANA Considerations...........................................24
   14. Authors' Addresses............................................26
   15. References....................................................26








P. Brittain                                                     [Page 2]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


1. Conventions and Terminology used in this document

   Definitions of key words and terms applicable to LDP and CR-LDP are
   inherited from [2] and [4].

   The term "FT label" is introduced in this document to
   indicated a label for which fault tolerant operation is used.  A
   "non-FT label" is not fault tolerant and is handled as specified in
   [2] and [4].

   The extensions to LDP specified in this document are collectively
   referred to as the "LDP FT enhancements".

   In the examples quoted, the following notation is used.

   Ln : An LSP. For example L1.
   Pn : An LDP peer. For example P1.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in
   this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC-2119 [3].


2. Introduction

   High Availability (HA) is typically claimed by equipment vendors
   when their hardware achieves availability levels of at least 99.999%
   (five 9s). To implement this, the equipment must be capable of
   recovering from local hardware and software failures through a
   process known as fault tolerance (FT).

   The usual approach to FT involves provisioning backup copies of
   hardware and software. When a primary copy fails, processing is
   switched to the backup copy. This process, called failover, should
   result in minimal disruption to the Data Plane.

   In an FT system, backup resources are sometimes provisioned on a
   one-to-one basis (1:1), sometimes as many-to-one (1:n), and
   occasionally as many-to-many (m:n). Whatever backup provisioning is
   made, the system must switch to the backup automatically on failure
   of the primary, and the software and hardware state in the backup
   must be set to replicate the state in the primary at the point
   of failure.


2.1 Fault Tolerance for MPLS

   MPLS systems will be used in core networks where system downtime must
   be kept to an absolute minimum.  Many MPLS LSRs may, therefore,
   exploit FT hardware or software to provide high availability of core
   networks.



P. Brittain                                                     [Page 3]


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   In order to provide HA, an MPLS system needs to be able to survive
   a variety of faults with minimal disruption to the Data Plane,
   including the following fault types:
   -  failure/hot-swap of a physical connection between LSRs
   -  failure/hot-swap of the switching fabric in the LSR
   -  failure of the TCP or LDP stack in an LSR
   -  software upgrade to the TCP or LDP stacks.

   The first two examples of faults listed above are confined to the
   Data Plane.  Such faults can be handled by providing redundancy in
   the Data Plane which is transparent to LDP operating in the Control
   Plane.  The last two example types of fault require action in
   the Control Plane to recover from the fault without disrupting
   traffic in the Data Plane.  This is possible because many recent
   router architectures separate the Control and Data Planes such that
   forwarding can continue unaffected by recovery action in the Control
   Plane.


2.2 Issues with LDP and CR-LDP

   LDP and CR-LDP use TCP to provide reliable connections between LSRs
   over which to exchange protocol messages to distribute labels and to
   set up LSPs. A pair of LSRs that have such a connection are referred
   to as LDP peers.

   TCP enables LDP and CR-LDP to assume reliable transfer of protocol
   messages. This means that some of the messages do not need to be
   acknowledged (for example, Label Release).

   LDP and CR-LDP are defined such that if the TCP connection fails, the
   LSR should immediately tear down the LSPs associated with the session
   between the LDP peers, and release any labels and resources assigned
   to those LSPs.

   It is notoriously hard to provide a fault tolerant implementation of
   TCP. To do so might involve making copies of all data sent and
   received. This is an issue familiar to implementers of other TCP
   applications such as BGP.

   During failover affecting the TCP or LDP stacks, therefore, the TCP
   connection may be lost.  Recovery from this position is made worse by
   the fact that LDP or CR-LDP control messages may have been lost
   during the connection failure.  Since these messages are unconfirmed,
   it is possible that LSP or label state information will be lost.









P. Brittain                                                     [Page 4]


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   This draft describes a solution which involves
   - negotiation between LDP peers of the intent to support extensions
     to LDP that facilitate recovery from failover without loss of LSPs
   - selection of FT survival on a per LSP/label basis
   - acknowledgement of LDP messages to ensure that a full handshake is
     performed on those messages
   - re-issuing lost messages after failover to ensure that LSP/label
     state is correctly recovered after reconnection of the LDP session.

   Other objectives of this draft are to
   - offer back-compatibility with LSRs that do not implement these
     proposals
   - preserve existing protocol rules described in [2] and [4] for
     handling unexpected duplicate messages and for processing
     unexpected messages referring to unknown LSPs/labels
   - integrate with the LSP modification function described in [5]
   - avoid full state refresh solutions (such as those present in RSVP:
     see [6], [7] and [8]) whether they be full-time, or limited to post-
     failover recovery.

   Note that this draft concentrates on the preservation of label state
   for labels exchanged between a pair of adjacent LSRs when the TCP
   connection between those LSRs is lost.  The is a requirement for fault
   tolerant operation of LSPs, but a full implementation of end-to-end
   protection for LSPs requires that this is combined with other
   techniques that are outside the scope of this draft.

   In particular, this draft does not attempt to describe how to modify
   the routing of an LSP or the resources allocated to a label or LSP,
   which is covered by [5].  This draft also does not address how to
   provide automatic layer 2/3 protection switching for a label or LSP,
   which is a separate area for study.


3. Overview of LDP FT Enhancements

   The LDP FT enhancements consist of the following main elements, which
   are described in more detail in the sections that follow.

   -  The presence of an FT Session TLV on the LDP Initialization
      message indicates that an LSR supports the LDP FT enhancements on
      this session.

   -  An FT Reconnect Flag in the FT Session TLV indicates whether an
      LSR has preserved FT label state across a failure of the TCP
      connection.

   -  An FT Reconnection Timeout, exchanged on the LDP Initialization
      message, that indicates the maximum time peer LSRs will preserve
      FT label state after a failure of the TCP connection.




P. Brittain                                                     [Page 5]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


   -  An FT Protection TLV used to identify operations that affect LDP
      labels.  All LDP messages carrying the FT Protection TLV need to be
      secured (e.g.  to NVRAM) and ACKed to the sending LDP peer in order
      that the state for FT labels can be correctly recovered after LDP
      session reconnection.


3.1 Establishing an FT LDP Session

   In order that the extensions to LDP [4] and CR-LDP [2] described in
   this draft can be used successfully on an LDP session between a pair
   of LDP peers, they MUST negotiate that the LDP FT enhancements
   are to be used on the LDP session.

   This is done on the LDP Initialization message exchange using a new
   FT Session TLV.  Presence of this TLV indicates that the
   peer wants to support the LDP FT enhancements on this LDP session.

   The LDP FT enhancements MUST be used on an LDP session if both
   LDP peers include a FT Session TLV on the LDP Initialization message.

   If either LDP Peer does not include the FT Session TLV on the LDP
   Initialization message, the LDP FT enhancements MUST NOT be
   used on the LDP session.

   An LSR MAY present different FT/non-FT behavior on different TCP
   connections, even if those connections are successive instantiations
   of the LDP session between the same LDP peers.


3.1.1  Interoperation with Non-FT LSRs

   The FT Session TLV on the LDP Initialization message carries the
   U-bit.  If an LSR does not support the LDP FT Enhancements, it will
   ignore this TLV.  Since such partners also do not include the FT
   Session TLV, all LDP sessions to such LSRs will not use the LDP FT
   enhancements.

   The rest of this draft assumes that the LDP sessions under discussion
   are between LSRs that do support the LDP FT Enhancements, except
   where explicitly stated otherwise.


3.2 TCP Connection Failure

   If the LDP FT enhancements are not in use on an LDP session, the
   action of the LDP peers on failure of the TCP connection is as
   specified in [2] and [4].

   All state information and resources associated with non-FT labels
   MUST be released on the failure of the TCP connection, including
   deprogramming the non-FT label from the switching hardware.  This is
   equivalent to the behavior specified in [4].

P. Brittain                                                     [Page 6]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


   If the LDP FT enhancements are in use on an LDP session, both LDP
   peers SHOULD preserve state information and resources associated with
   FT labels exchanged on the LDP session.  Both LDP peers SHOULD use a
   timer to release the preserved state information and resources
   associated with FT-labels if the TCP connection is not restored
   within a reasonable period.  The behavior when this timer expires is
   equivalent to the LDP session failure behavior described in [4].

   The FT Reconnection Timeout each LDP peer intends to apply to the LDP
   session is carried in the FT Session TLV on the LDP Initialization
   messages.  It is RECOMMENDED that both LDP peers use the lower
   timeout value from the LDP Initialization exchange when setting their
   reconnection timer after a TCP connection failure.


3.3 Data Forwarding During TCP Connection Failure

   An LSR that implements the LDP FT enhancements SHOULD preserve the
   programming of the switching hardware across a failover.  This
   ensures that data forwarding is unaffected by the state of the TCP
   connection between LSRs.

   It is an integral part of FT failover processing in some hardware
   configurations that some data packets might be lost. If data loss is
   not acceptable to the applications using the MPLS network, the LDP FT
   enhancements described in this draft SHOULD NOT be used.


3.4 FT LDP Session Reconnection

   When the new TCP connection is established after FT failure, the LDP
   peers MUST re-exchange LDP Initialization messages.

   If an LDP peer includes the FT Session TLV in the LDP Initialization
   message for the new insanitation of the LDP session, it MUST also
   set the FT Reconnect Flag according to whether it has been able to
   preserve label state.  The FT Reconnect Flag is carried in the FT
   Session TLV.

   If an LDP peer has preserved all state information for previous
   instantiations of the LDP session, then it SHOULD set the FT Reconnect
   Flag to 1 in the FT Session TLV. Otherwise, it MUST set the FT
   Reconnect Flag to 0.

   If an LDP peer has preserved all state information for previous
   instantiations of the LDP session, it MUST set the FT Reconnect Flag
   to 1 in the FT Session TLV.







P. Brittain                                                     [Page 7]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


   If either LDP peer sets the FT Reconnect Flag to 0, or omits the FT
   Session TLV, both LDP peers MUST release any state information and
   resources associated with the previous insanitation of the LDP
   session between the same LDP peers, including FT label state and
   Address ranges. This ensures that network resources are not
   permanently lost by one LSR if its LDP peer is forced to undergo a
   cold start.

   If both LDP peers set the FT Reconnect Flag to 1, both LDP peers MUST
   use the FT label operation procedures indicated in this draft to
   complete any label operations on FT labels that were interrupted by
   the LDP session failure.


3.5 Operations on FT Labels

   Label operations on FT labels are made fault tolerant by providing
   acknowledgement of all LDP messages that affect FT labels.
   Acknowledgements are achieved by means of sequence numbers on these
   LDP messages.

   The message exchanges used to achieve acknowledgement of label
   operations and the procedures used to complete interrupted label
   operations are detailed in the section "FT Operations".

   Using these acknowledgements and procedures, it is not necessary for
   LDP peers to perform a complete re-synchronization of state for all
   FT labels, either on re-connection of the LDP session between the LDP
   peers or on a timed basis.


4. FT Operations

   Once an FT LDP session has been established, using the procedures
   described in section "Establishing an FT LDP Session", both LDP peers
   MUST apply the procedures described in this section for FT LDP
   message exchanges.

   If the LDP session has been negotiated to not use the LDP FT
   enhancements, these procedures MUST NOT be used.


4.1 FT LDP Messages

4.1.1 FT Label Messages

   A label is identified as being an FT label if the initial Label
   Request or Label Mapping message relating to that label carries the
   FT Protection TLV.

   If a label is an FT label, all LDP messages affecting that label MUST
   carry the FT Protection TLV in order that the state of the label can
   be recovered after a failure of the LDP session.

P. Brittain                                                     [Page 8]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


4.1.1.1 Scope of FT Labels

   The scope of the FT/non-FT status of a label is limited to the
   LDP message exchanges between a pair of LDP peers.

   In Ordered Control, when the message is forwarded downstream or
   upstream, the TLV may be present or absent according to the
   requirements of the LSR sending the message.


4.1.2  FT Address Messages

   If an LDP session uses the LDP FT enhancements, both LDP peers
   MUST secure Address and Address Withdraw messages using FT Operation
   ACKs, as described below.  This avoids any ambiguity over whether
   an Address range is still valid after the LDP session is reconnected.

   If an LSR determines that an Address message that it sent on a
   previous insanitation of a recovered LDP session is no longer valid,
   it MUST explicitly issue an Address Withdraw for that range when the
   session is reconnected.

   If the FT Reconnect Flag is not set by both LDP peers on reconnection
   of an LDP session (i.e.  state has not been preserved), both LDP
   peers MUST consider all Address ranges to have been withdrawn.  The
   LDP peers SHOULD issue new Address messages for all their valid
   address ranges, as specified in [4].



4.2 FT Operation ACKs

   Handshaking of FT LDP messages is achieved by use of ACKs.
   Correlation between the original message and the ACK is by means of
   the FT Sequence Number contained in the FT Protection TLV, and passed
   back in the FT ACK TLV.  The FT ACK TLV may be carried on any LDP
   message that is sent on the TCP connection between LDP peers.

   A LDP peer maintains a separate FT sequence number for each LDP
   session it participates in.  The FT Sequence number is incremented by
   one for each FT LDP message (i.e.  containing the FT Protection TLV)
   issued by this LSR on the FT LDP session with which the FT sequence
   number is associated.

   When an LDP Peer receives a message containing the FT Protection TLV,
   it MUST take steps to secure this message (or the state information
   derived from processing the message).  Once the message is secured, it
   MUST be ACKed.  However, there is no requirement on the LSR to send
   this ACK immediately.





P. Brittain                                                     [Page 9]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


   ACKs may be accumulated.  For example if a LSR received FT
   LDP messages with sequence numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, it could send a single
   ACK with sequence number 4 to ACK receipt and securing of all these
   messages.

   ACKs MUST NOT be sent out of sequence, as this is incompatible with
   the use of accumulated ACKs to reduce the message flow between LDP
   peers.


4.3 Preservation of FT State

   If the LDP FT enhancements are in use on an LDP session, each LDP
   peer SHOULD NOT release the state information and resources
   associated with FT labels exchanged on that LDP session when the TCP
   connection fails.  This is contrary to [2] and [4], but allows label
   operations on FT labels to be completed after re-connection of the
   TCP connection.

   Both LDP peers on a LDP session that is using the LDP FT enhancements
   SHOULD preserve the state information and resources they hold for
   that LDP session until one of the following occurs:

   -  An upstream LDP peer SHOULD release the resources (in
      particular bandwidth) associated with an FT label when it
      initiates a Label Release or Label Abort message for the label.
      The upstream LDP peer MUST preserve state information for
      the label, even if it releases the resources associated with the
      label, as it may have to reissue the label operation if the
      TCP connection is interrupted.

   -  An upstream LDP peer MUST release the state information
      and resources associated with an FT label when it receives an
      acknowledgement to a Label Release or Label Abort message that it
      sent for the label, or when it sends a Label Release
      message in response to a Label Withdraw message received from the
      downstream LDP peer.

   -  A downstream LDP peer SHOULD NOT release the resources
      associated with an FT label when it sends a Label Withdraw message
      for the label as it has not yet received confirmation that the
      upstream LDP peer has ceased to send data using the label.  The
      downstream LDP peer MUST NOT release the state information it
      holds for the label as it may yet have to reissue the label
      operation if the TCP connection is interrupted.

   -  A downstream LDP peer MUST release the resources and state
      information associated with an FT label when it receives an
      acknowledgement to a Label Withdraw message for the label.





P. Brittain                                                    [Page 10]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


   -  When the FT Reconnection Timeout expires, an LSR SHOULD release
      all state information and resources from previous instantiations
      of the (permanently) failed LDP session.

   -  When an LSR receives a Status TLV with the E-bit set in
      the status code, which causes it to close the TCP connection, the
      LSR MUST release all state information and resources associated
      with the session.  This behaviour is mandated because it is
      impossible for the LSR to predict the precise state and future
      behaviour of the partner LSR that issued the E-bit without
      knowledge of the implementation of that partner LSR.

      Note that the "Temporary Shutdown" status code does not carry the
      E-bit, and MAY be used during maintenance or upgrade operations to
      indicate that the LSR intends to preserve state across a closure
      and re-establishment of the TCP session.

   -  If an LSR determines that it must release state for any FT
      label during a failure of the TCP connection on which that label
      was exchanged, it MUST release all state preserved for the same
      LDP session.

   The release of state information and resources associated with non-FT
   labels is as described in [2] and [4].


4.4 FT Procedure After TCP Failure

   When an LSR discovers or is notified of a TCP connection failure it
   SHOULD start an FT Reconnection Timer to allow a period for
   re-connection of the TCP connection between the LDP peers.

   Once the TCP connection between LDP peers has failed, the active LSR
   SHOULD attempt to re-establish the TCP connection. The mechanisms,
   timers and retry counts to re-establish the TCP connection are an
   implementation choice.  It is RECOMMENDED that any attempt to
   re-establish the connection take account of the failover processing
   necessary on the peer LSR, the nature of the network between the
   LDP peers, and the FT Reconnection Timeout chosen on the previous
   insanitation of the TCP connection (if any).

   If the TCP connection cannot be re-established within the FT
   Reconnection Timeout period, the LSR detecting this timeout SHOULD
   release all state preserved for the failed LDP session.  If the TCP
   connection is subsequently re-established (for example after a
   further Hello exchange to set up a new LDP session), the LSR MUST set
   the FT Reconnect Flag to 0 if it released the preserved state
   information on this timeout event.

   If the TCP connection is successfully re-established within the FT
   Reconnection Timeout, both peers MUST re-issue LDP operations that
   were interrupted by the TCP connection failure.  This procedure is
   described in section "Procedure After TCP Re-connection".

P. Brittain                                                    [Page 11]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000

   The Hold Timer for an FT LDP Session SHOULD be ignored while the FT
   Reconnection Timer is running.  The hold timer SHOULD be restarted
   when the TCP connection is re-established.

4.4.1 FT LDP Operations During TCP Failure

   When the LDP FT enhancements are in use for an LDP session, it is
   possible that an LSR may determine that it needs to send an LDP
   message to a LDP peer but the TCP connection to that peer is
   currently down.  These label operations affect the state of FT labels
   preserved for the failed TCP connection, so it is important that the
   state changes are passed to the LDP peer when the TCP connection is
   restored.

   If an LSR determines that it needs to issue a new FT LDP operation to
   an LDP peer to which the TCP connection has currently failed, it MUST
   pend the operation (e.g.  on a queue) and complete that operation
   with the LDP peer when the TCP connection is restored, unless the
   label operation is overridden by a subsequent additional operation
   during the TCP connection failure (see section "Procedure After TCP
   Re-connection")

   In ordered operation, received FT LDP operations that cannot be
   correctly forwarded because of a TCP connection failure MAY be
   processed immediately (provided sufficient state is kept to forward
   the label operation) or pended for processing when the onward TCP
   connection is restored and the operation can be correctly forwarded
   upstream or downstream.  Operations on existing FT labels SHOULD NOT
   be failed during TCP session failure.

   It is RECOMMENDED that Label Request operations for new FT labels are
   not pended awaiting the re-establishment of TCP connection that is
   awaiting recovery at the time the LSR determines that it needs to
   issue the Label Request message.  Instead, such Label Request
   operations SHOULD be failed and, if necessary, a notification message
   containing the "No LDP Connection" status code sent upstream.

   Label Requests for new non-FT labels MUST be rejected during TCP
   connection failure, as specified in [2] and [4].


4.5 FT Procedure After TCP Re-connection

   The FT operation handshaking described above means that all state
   changes for FT labels and Address messages are confirmed or
   reproducible at each LSR.

   If the TCP connection between LDP peers fails but is re-connected
   within the FT Reconnection Timeout, both LDP peers on the connection
   MUST complete any label operations for FT labels that were
   interrupted by the failure and re-connection of the TCP connection.
   Label operation are completed using the procedure described below.



P. Brittain                                                    [Page 12]


draft-brittain-ldp-ft-00.txt                                   June 2000


4.5.1 Re-Issuing FT Messages

   On restoration of the TCP connection between LDP peers, any FT
   LDP messages that were lost because of the TCP connection
   failure are re-issued. The LDP peer that receives a re-issued message
   processes the message from scratch.

   "Net-zero" combinations of messages need not be re-issued after
   re-establishment of the TCP connection between LDP peers.  This leads
   to the following rules for re-issuing messages that are not ACKed by
   the LDP peer on the LDP Initialization message exchange after
   re-connection of the TCP session.

   -  A Label Request message MUST be re-issued unless a Label Abort
      would be re-issued for the same Label Request or the Label Request
      or if the requested label is no longer required.

   -  A Label Mapping message MUST be re-issued unless a Label Withdraw
      message would be re-issued for the same FT label.

   -  All other messages on the LDP session that carried the FT
      Protection TLV MUST be re-issued if an acknowledgement had not
      previously been received.

   Any FT label operations that were pended (see section "FT Label
   Operations During TCP Failure") during the TCP connection failure
   MUST also be issued on re-establishment of the LDP session, except
   where they form part of a "net-zero" combination of messages
   according to the above rules.

   The determination of "net-zero" FT label operations according to the
   above rules MAY be performed on pended messages prior to the
   re-establishment of the TCP connection in order to optimize the use
   of queue resources.  Messages that were sent to the LDP peer before
   the TCP connection failure, or pended messages that are paired with
   them, MUST NOT be subject to such optimization until an FT ACK TLV is
   received from the LDP peer.  This ACK allows the LSR to identify
   which messages were received by the LDP peer prior to the TCP
   connection failure.


4.5.2 Interaction with CR-LDP LSP Modification

   Re-issuing LDP messages for FT operation is orthogonal to the use of
   duplicate messages marked with the Modify ActFlg, as specified in
   [5].  Each time an LSR uses the modification procedure for an FT LSP
   to issue a new Label Request message, the FT label operation
   procedures MUST be separately applied to the new Label Request
   message.





P. Brittain                                                    [Page 13]


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5. Changes to Existing Messages

5.1 LDP Initialization Message

   The LDP FT enhancements add the following optional parameters to a
   LDP Initialization message

         Optional Parameter    Length       Value

         FT Session TLV        4            See below
         FT ACK TLV            4            See below

   The encoding for these TLVs is found in Section "New Fields and
   Values".

       FT Session
         If present, specifies the FT behavior of the LDP session.

       FT ACK TLV
         If present, specifies the last FT message that the sending LDP
         peer was able to secure prior to the failure of the previous
         insanitation of the LDP session.  This TLV is only present if the
         FT Reconnect flag is set in the FT Session TLV, in which case
         this TLV MUST be present.


5.2 LDP Keepalive Messages

   The LDP FT enhancements add the following optional parameter to a
   LDP Keepalive message

         Optional Parameter    Length       Value

         FT ACK TLV            4            See below

   The encoding for FT ACK TLV is found in Section "FT ACK TLV".

       FT ACK TLV
         If present, specifies the most recent FT message that the
         sending LDP peer has been able to secure.


5.3 All Other LDP Session Messages

   The LDP FT enhancements add the following optional parameters to all
   other message types that flow on an LDP session after the LDP
   Initialization message

         Optional Parameter    Length       Value

         FT Protection TLV     4            See below
         FT ACK TLV            4            See below


P. Brittain                                                    [Page 14]


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   The encoding for these TLVs is found in the section "New Fields and
   Values".

       FT Protection
         If present, specifies FT Sequence Number for the LDP message.

       FT ACK
         If present, identifies the most recent FT LDP message
         ACKed by the sending LDP peer.


6. New Fields and Values

6.1 Status Codes

   The following new status codes are defined to indicate various error
   conditions specific to the LDP FT enhancements.  These status codes
   are carried in the Status TLV of a Notification message.

   The "E" column is the required setting of the Status Code E-bit; the
   "Status Data" column is the value of the 30-bit Status Data field in
   the Status Code TLV.

   Note that the setting of the Status Code F-bit is at the discretion
   of the LSR originating the Status TLV.  However, it is RECOMMENDED
   that the F-bit is not set on Notification messages containing
   status codes 0x00000017 - 0x00000019 because the duplication of
   messages SHOULD be restricted to being a per-hop behavior.

       Status Code                 E   Status Data

       No LDP Session              0   0x00000016
       Zero FT seqnum              1   0x00000017
       Unexpected TLV /            1   0x00000018
          Session Not FT
       Unexpected TLV /            1   0x00000019
          Label Not FT
       Missing FT Protection TLV   1   0x0000001A
       FT ACK sequence error       1   0x0000001B
       Temporary Shutdown          0   0x0000001C
       FT Seq Numbers Exhausted    1   0x0000001D

   The Temporary Shutdown status code SHOULD be used in place of
   the Shutdown status code (which carries the E-bit) if the LSR that is
   shutting down wishes to inform its LDP peer that it expects to be
   able to preserve FT label state and to return to service before the
   FT Reconnection Timer expires.







P. Brittain                                                    [Page 15]


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6.2 FT Session TLV

   LDP peers can negotiate whether the LDP session between them supports
   FT extensions by using a new OPTIONAL parameter, the FT Session
   TLV, on LDP Initialization Messages.


   The FT Session TLV is encoded as follows.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1|0| FT Session TLV (0x0503)   |      Length (= 4)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     FT Flags                  |    FT Reconnection Timeout    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   FT Flags
     FT Flags: A 16 bit field that indicates various attributes the
     FT support on this LDP session.  This fields is formatted as
     follows:


          0                   1
          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
         |R|         Reserved            |
         +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

         R:    FT Reconnect Flag.
               Set to 1 if the sending LSR has preserved state and
               resources for all FT-labels since the previous LDP
               session between the same LDP peers, and set to 0
               otherwise. See the section "FT LDP Session
               Reconnection" for details of how this flag is used.

               If the FT Reconnect Flag is set, the sending LSR must
               include an FT ACK TLV on the LDP Initialization message.

         All other bits in this field are currently reserved and SHOULD
         be set to zero on transmission and ignored on receipt.


   FT Reconnection Timeout
     The period of time the sending LSR will preserve state and
     resources for FT labels exchanged on the previous insanitation of
     an FT LDP session that has currently failed.  The timeout is
     encoded as a 16-bit unsigned integer number of seconds.

     The value of 0 for this field is reserved and MUST NOT be used.

     See the section "LDP Session Failure" for details of how this field
     is used.

P. Brittain                                                    [Page 16]


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6.3 FT Protection TLV

   LDP peers use the FT Protection TLV to indicate that an LDP message
   contains an FT label operation.

   The FT Protection TLV MUST NOT be used in messages flowing on an LDP
   session that does not support the LDP FT enhancements.

   The FT Protection TLV MAY be carried on an LDP message transported on
   the LDP session after the initial exchange of LDP Initialization
   messages.  In particular, this TLV MAY optionally be present on the
   following messages:

   -    Label Request Messages in downstream on-demand distribution mode
   -    Label Mapping messages in downstream unsolicited mode.

   If a label is to be an FT label, then the Protection TLV MUST be
   present:
   -    on the Label Request message in DoD mode
   -    on the Label Mapping message in DU mode
   -    on all subsequent messages concerning this label.

   Here 'subsequent messages concerning this label' means any message
   whose Label TLV specifies this label or whose Label Request Message ID
   TLV specifies the initial Label Request message.

   If a label is not to be an FT label, then the Protection TLV
   MUST NOT be present on any of these messages.

   The FT Protection TLV is encoded as follows.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0| FT Protection (0x0203)    |      Length (= 4)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      FT Sequence Number                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   FT Sequence Number
     The sequence number for this FT label operation.  The
     sequence number is encoded as a 32-bit unsigned integer. The
     initial value for this field on a new LDP session is x00000001 and
     is incremented by one for each FT LDP message issued by the sending
     LSR on this LDP session.  This field may wrap from xFFFFFFFF to
     x00000000.

     This field MUST be reset to x00000001 if either LDP peer does not
     set the FT Reconnect Flag on re-establishment of the TCP
     connection.

     See the section "Use of FT Labels" for details of how this field
     is used.

P. Brittain                                                    [Page 17]


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   If an LSR receives an FT Protection TLV on a session that does not
   support the FT LFP enhancements, it SHOULD send a Notification
   message to its LDP peer containing the "Unexpected TLV, Session Not
   FT" status code.

   If an LSR receives an FT Protection TLV on an operation affecting a
   label that it believes is a non-FT label, it SHOULD send a
   Notification message to its LDP peer containing the "Unexpected TLV,
   Label Not FT" status code.

   If an LSR receives a message affecting a label that it believes is an
   FT label, it SHOULD send a Notification message to its LDP peer
   containing the "Missing FT Protection TLV" status code.

   If an LSR receives a FT Protection TLV containing a zero FT
   Sequence Number, it SHOULD send a Notification message to its LDP
   peer containing the "Zero FT Seqnum" status code.


6.4 FT ACK TLV

   LDP peers use the FT ACK TLV to acknowledge FT
   label operations.

   The FT ACK TLV MUST NOT be used in messages flowing on an
   LDP session that does not support the LDP FT enhancements.

   The FT ACK TLV MAY be present on any LDP message exchanged on an
   LDP session after the initial LDP Initialization messages. It is
   RECOMMENDED that the FT ACK TLV is included on all FT
   Keepalive messages in order to ensure that the LDP peers do not
   build up a large backlog of unacknowledged state information.

   The FT ACK TLV is encoded as follows.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|   FT ACK (0x0504)         |      Length (= 4)             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      FT ACK Sequence Number                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   FT ACK Sequence Number
     The sequence number for this most recent FT label message
     that the sending LDP peer has received from the receiving LDP
     peer and secured against failure of the LDP session.  It is not
     necessary for the sending peer to have fully processed the message
     before ACKing it.  For example, a LSR MAY ACK a Label Request
     message as soon as it has securely recorded the message, without
     waiting until it can send the Label Mapping message in response.



P. Brittain                                                    [Page 18]


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     ACKs are cumulative.  Receipt of a LDP message containing an FT
     ACK TLV with an FT ACK Sequence Number of 12 is treated as the
     acknowledgement of all messages from 1 to 12 inclusive (assuming
     the LDP session started with a sequence number of 1).

     This field MUST be set to 0 if the LSR sending the FT ACK TLV has
     not received any FT label operations on this LDP session.  This
     would apply to LDP sessions to new LDP peers or after an LSR
     determines that it must drop all state for a failed TCP connection.

     See the section "Use of FT Labels" for details of how this field
     is used.


   If an LSR receives an FT ACK TLV on a session that does not
   support the FT LFP enhancements, it SHOULD send a Notification
   message to its LDP peer containing the "Unexpected TLV, Session Not
   FT" status code.

   If an LSR receives an FT ACK TLV that contains an FT ACK Sequence
   Number that is less than the previously received FT ACK Sequence
   Number (remembering to take account of wrapping), it SHOULD send a
   Notification message to its LDP peer containing the "FT ACK
   Sequence Error" status code.


7. Example Use

   Consider two LDP peers, P1 and P2, implementing CR-LDP over a TCP
   connection that connects them, and the message flow shown below.

   The parameters shown on each message shown below are as follows:

     message (label, senders FT sequence #, FT ACK #)

     A "-" for FT ACK # means that the FT ACK TLV is not included on
     that message.  "n/a" means that the parameter in question is not
     applicable to that type of message.

   In the diagram below, time flows from top to bottom.  The relative
   position of each message shows when it is transmitted.  See the notes
   for a description of when each message is received, secured for FT or
   processed.











P. Brittain                                                    [Page 19]


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   notes         P1                         P2
   =====         ==                         ==
   (1)           Label Request(L1,27,-)
                 --------------------------->
                 Label Request(L2,28,-)
                 --------------------------->
   (2)                Label Request(L3,93,27)
                 <---------------------------
   (3)                                      Label Request(L1,123,-)
                                            -------------------------->
                                            Label Request(L2,124,-)
                                            -------------------------->
   (4)                                           Label Mapping(L1,57,-)
                                            <--------------------------
                      Label Mapping(L1,94,28)
                 <---------------------------
   (5)                                           Label Mapping(L2,58,-)
                                            <--------------------------
                       Label Mapping(L2,95,-)
                 <---------------------------
   (6)           Address(n/a,29,-)
                 --------------------------->
   (7)           Label Request(L4,30,-)
                 --------------------------->
   (8)           Keepalive(n/a,na/,94)
                 --------------------------->
   (9)                   Label Abort(L3,96,-)
                 <---------------------------
   (10)          ===== TCP Session lost =====

   (11)                                         Label Withdraw(L1,59,-)
                                            <--------------------------

   (12)          === TCP Session restored ===

                 LDP Init(n/a,n/a,95)
                 --------------------------->
                         LDP Init(n/a,n/a,29)
                 <---------------------------
   (13)          Label Request(L4,30,-)
                 --------------------------->
   (14)                Label Mapping(L2,95,-)
                 <---------------------------
                        Label Abort(L3,96,30)
                 <---------------------------
   (15)               Label Withdraw(L1,97,-)
                 <---------------------------







P. Brittain                                                    [Page 20]


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   Notes:
   ======

   (1)  Assume that the LDP session has already been initialized.
        P1 issues 2 new Label Requests using the next sequence numbers.

   (2)  P2 issues a third Label request to P1.  At the time of sending
        this request, P2 has secured the receipt of the label request
        for L1 from P1, so it includes an ACK for that message.

   (3)  P2 Processes the Label Requests for L1 and L2 and forwards them
        downstream.  Details of downstream processing are not shown in
        the diagram above.

   (4)  P2 receives a Label Mapping from downstream for L1, which it
        forwards to P1.  It includes an ACK to the Label Request for L2,
        as that message has now been secured and processed.

   (5)  P2 receives the Label Mapping for L2, which it forwards to P1.
        This time it does not include an ACK as it has not received any
        further messages from P1.

   (6)  Meanwhile, P1 sends a new Address Message to P2 .

   (7)  P1 also sends a fourth Label Request to P2

   (8)  P1 sends a Keepalive message to P2, on which it includes an ACK
        for the Label Mapping for L1, which is the latest message P1 has
        received and secured at the time the Keepalive is sent.

   (9)  P2 issues a Label Abort for L3.

   (10) At this point, the TCP session goes down.

   (11) While the TCP session is down, P2 receives a Label Withdraw
        Message for L1, which it queues.

   (12) The TCP session is reconnected and P1 and P2 exchange LDP
        Initialization messages on the recovered session, which include
        ACKS for the last message each peer received and secured prior
        to the failure.

   (13) From the LDP Init exchange, P1 determines that it needs to
         re-issue the Label request for L4.

   (14) Similarly, P2 determines that it needs to re-issue the Label
        Mapping for L2 and the Label Abort.

   (15) P2 issues the queued Label Withdraw to P1.





P. Brittain                                                    [Page 21]


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8. Security Considerations

   The LDP FT enhancements inherit similar security considerations to
   those discussed in [2] and [4].

   The LDP FT enhancements allow the re-establishment of a TCP
   connection between LDP peers without a full re-exchange of the
   attributes of established labels, which renders LSRs that implement
   the extensions specified in this draft vulnerable to additional
   denial-of-service attacks as follows:

   -  An intruder may impersonate an LDP peer in order to force a
      failure and reconnection of the TCP connection, but where the
      intruder does not set the FT Reconnect Flag on re-connection.
      This forces all FT labels to be released.

   -  Similarly, an intruder could set the FT Reconnect Flag on
      re-establishment of the TCP session without preserving the state
      and resources for FT labels.

   -  An intruder could intercept the traffic between LDP peers and
      override the setting of the FT Label Flag to be set to 0 for
      all labels.

   All of these attacks may be countered by use of an authentication
   scheme between LDP peers, such as the MD5-based scheme outlined in
   [4].


   Alternative authentication schemes for LDP peers are outside the
   scope of this draft, but could be deployed to provide enhanced
   security to implementations of LDP, CR-LDP and the LDP FT
   enhancements.


9. Implementation Notes

9.1 FT Recovery Support on Non-FT LSRs

   In order to take full advantage of the FT capabilities of LSRs in the
   network, it may be that an LSR that does not itself contain the
   ability to recover from local hardware or software faults still needs
   to support the LDP FT enhancements described in this draft.

   Consider an LSR, P1, that is an LDP peer of a fully fault tolerant
   LSR, P2.  If P2 experiences a fault in the hardware or software that
   serves an LDP session between P1 and P2, it may fail the TCP
   connection between the peers.  When the connection is recovered, the
   LSPs/labels between P1 and P2 can only be recovered if both LSRs were
   applying the FT recovery procedures to the LDP session.




P. Brittain                                                    [Page 22]


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9.2 ACK generation logic

   FT ACKs SHOULD be returned to the sending LSR as soon as is
   practicable in order to avoid building up a large quantity of
   unacknowledged state changes at the LSR. However, immediate
   one-for-one acknowledgements would waste bandwidth unnecessarily.

   A possible implementation strategy for sending ACKs to FT LDP
   messages is as follows:
   -  A LSR secures received messages in order and tracks the sequence
      number of the most recently secured message, Sr.
   -  On each LDP KeepAlive that the LSR sends, it attaches an FT ACK
      TLV listing Sr
   -  Optionally, the LSR may attach an FT ACK TLV to any other LDP
      message sent between Keepalive messages if, for example, Sr has
      increased by more than a threshold value since the last ACK sent.

   This implementation combines the bandwidth benefits of accumulating
   ACKs while still providing timely ACKs.


10. Acknowledgments

   The work in this draft is based on the LDP and CR-LDP ideas
   expressed by the authors of [2] and [4].

   The ACK scheme used in this draft was inspired by the proposal by
   David Ward and John Scudder for restarting BGP sessions [9].

   The authors would also like to acknowledge the careful review and
   comments of Nick Weeds, Piers Finlayson, Tim Harrison and Duncan
   Archer at Data Connection Ltd, and Peter Ashwood-Smith of Nortel.


11. Intellectual Property Consideration

   The IETF has been notified of intellectual property rights claimed in
   regard to some or all of the specification contained in this
   document.  For more information, consult the online list of claimed
   rights.














P. Brittain                                                    [Page 23]


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12. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (c) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved. This
   document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
   are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


13. IANA Considerations

   This draft requires the use of a number of new TLVs and status codes
   from the number spaces within the LDP protocol.  This section
   explains the logic used by the authors to choose the most appropriate
   number space for each new entity, and is intended to assist in the
   determination of any final values assigned by IANA or the MPLS WG in
   the event that the MPLS WG chooses to advance this draft on the
   standards track.

   This section will be removed when the TLV and status code values have
   been agreed with IANA.


13.1 FT Session TLV

   The FT Session TLV carries attributes that affect the entire LDP
   session between LDP peers.  It is suggested that the type for this
   TLV should be chosen from the 0x05xx range for TLVs that is used in
   [4] by other TLVs carrying session-wide attributes.  At the time of
   this writing, the next available number in this range is 0x0503.





P. Brittain                                                    [Page 24]


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13.2 FT Protection TLV

   The FT Protection TLV carries attributes that affect a single label
   exchanged between LDP peers.  It is suggested that the type for this
   TLV should be chosen from the 0x02xx range for TLVs that is used in
   [4] by other TLVs carrying label attributes.  At the time of this
   writing, the next available number in this range is 0x0203.

   Consideration was given to using the message number field instead of
   a new FT Sequence Number field.  However, the authors felt this
   placed unacceptable implementation constraints on the use of message
   number (e.g. it could no longer be used to reference a control
   block).


13.3 FT ACK TLV

   The FT Protection TLV may ACK many label operations at once
   if cumulative ACKS are used.  It is suggested that the type for this
   TLV should be chosen from the 0x05xx range for TLVs that is used in
   [4] by other TLVs carrying session-wide attributes.  At the time of
   this writing, the next available number in this range is 0x0504.

   Consideration was given to carrying the FT ACK Number in the FT
   Protection TLV, but the authors felt this would be inappropriate as
   many implementations may wish to carry the ACKs on Keepalive
   messages.


13.4 Status Codes

   The authors' current understanding is that MPLS status codes are not
   sub-divided into specific ranges for different types of error.
   Hence, the numeric status code values suggested in this draft are
   simply the next available values at the time of writing and may be
   substituted for other numeric values.

   See section "Status Codes" for details of the status codes defined in
   this draft.















P. Brittain                                                    [Page 25]


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14. Authors' Addresses

   Adrian Farrel                           Paul Brittain (editor)
   Data Connection Ltd.                    Data Connection Ltd.
   Windsor House                           Windsor House
   Pepper Street                           Pepper Street
   Chester                                 Chester
   Cheshire                                Cheshire
   CH1 1DF                                 CH1 1DF
   UK                                      UK
   Phone: +44-(0)-1244-313440              Phone: +44-(0)-1244-313440
   Fax:   +44-(0)-1244-312422              Fax:   +44-(0)-1244-312422
   Email: af@datcon.co.uk                  Email: pjb@datcon.co.uk


   Philip Matthews                         Eric Gray
   Nortel Networks Corp.                   Zaffire, Inc.
   P.O. Box 3511 Station C,                2630 Orchard Parkway,
   Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7                      San Jose, CA - 95134-2020
   Canada                                  Phone: (408) 894-7362
   Phone: +1 613-768-3262                  egray@zaffire.com
   philipma@nortelnetworks.com



15. References

   1  Bradner, S., "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 3", BCP
      9, RFC 2026, October 1996.

   2  Jamoussi, B., et. al., Constraint-Based LSP Setup using LDP,
      draft-ietf-mpls-cr-ldp-03.txt, September 1999,(work in progress).

   3  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
      Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   4  Andersson, L., et. al., LDP Specification, draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-
      06.txt, October 1999 (work in progress).

   5  Ash, G., et al., LSP Modification Using CR-LDP, draft-ietf-mpls-
      crlsp-modify-01.txt, February 1000 (work in progress).

   6  Braden, R., et al., Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) --
      Version 1, Functional Specification, RFC 2205, September 1997.

   7  Berger, L., et al., RSVP Refresh Reduction Extensions, draft-
      ietf-rsvp-refresh-reduct-04.txt, April 2000 (work in progress).

   8  Swallow, G., et al,. Extensions to RSVP for LSP Tunnels, draft-
      ietf-mpls-rsvp-lsp-tunnel-04.txt, September 1999 (work in
      progress).



P. Brittain                                                    [Page 26]


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   9  Ward, D, et al., BGP Notification Cease: I'll Be Back,
      draft-ward-bgp4-ibb-00.txt, June 1999 (work in progress)

   10 Stewart, R, et al., Simple Control Transmission Protocol,
      draft-ietf-sigtran-sctp-07.txt, March 2000 (work in progress)

















































P. Brittain                                                    [Page 27]


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