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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-data

ippm                                                        F. Brockners
Internet-Draft                                               S. Bhandari
Intended status: Experimental                               C. Pignataro
Expires: November 30, 2017                                         Cisco
                                                              H. Gredler
                                                            RtBrick Inc.
                                                                J. Leddy
                                                                 Comcast
                                                               S. Youell
                                                                    JPMC
                                                              T. Mizrahi
                                                                 Marvell
                                                                D. Mozes
                                              Mellanox Technologies Ltd.
                                                             P. Lapukhov
                                                                Facebook
                                                                R. Chang
                                                       Barefoot Networks
                                                              D. Bernier
                                                             Bell Canada
                                                            May 29, 2017


                      Data Fields for In-situ OAM
                   draft-brockners-inband-oam-data-05

Abstract

   In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM) records
   operational and telemetry information in the packet while the packet
   traverses a path between two points in the network.  This document
   discusses the data fields and associated data types for in-situ OAM.
   In-situ OAM data fields can be embedded into a variety of transports
   such as NSH, Segment Routing, Geneve, native IPv6 (via extension
   header), or IPv4.  In-situ OAM can be used to complement OAM
   mechanisms based on e.g.  ICMP or other types of probe packets.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.





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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 30, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Scope, Applicability, and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  In-situ OAM Data Types and Formats  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  In-situ OAM Tracing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.1.1.  Pre-allocated Trace Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       4.1.2.  Incremental Trace Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.1.3.  In-situ OAM node data fields and associated formats .  13
       4.1.4.  Examples of In-situ OAM node data . . . . . . . . . .  17
     4.2.  In-situ OAM Proof of Transit Option . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     4.3.  In-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   5.  In-situ OAM Data Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   7.  Manageability Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24







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1.  Introduction

   This document defines data fields for "in-situ" Operations,
   Administration, and Maintenance (OAM).  In-situ OAM records OAM
   information within the packet while the packet traverses a particular
   network domain.  The term "in-situ" refers to the fact that the OAM
   data is added to the data packets rather than is being sent within
   packets specifically dedicated to OAM.  A discussion of the
   motivation and requirements for in-situ OAM can be found in
   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements].  In-situ OAM is to
   complement mechanisms such as Ping or Traceroute, or more recent
   active probing mechanisms as described in
   [I-D.lapukhov-dataplane-probe].  In terms of "active" or "passive"
   OAM, "in-situ" OAM can be considered a hybrid OAM type.  While no
   extra packets are sent, in-situ OAM adds information to the packets
   therefore cannot be considered passive.  In terms of the
   classification given in [RFC7799] in-situ OAM could be portrayed as
   "hybrid OAM, type 1".  "In-situ" mechanisms do not require extra
   packets to be sent and hence don't change the packet traffic mix
   within the network.  In-situ OAM mechanisms can be leveraged where
   mechanisms using e.g.  ICMP do not apply or do not offer the desired
   results, such as proving that a certain traffic flow takes a pre-
   defined path, SLA verification for the live data traffic, detailed
   statistics on traffic distribution paths in networks that distribute
   traffic across multiple paths, or scenarios in which probe traffic is
   potentially handled differently from regular data traffic by the
   network devices.

2.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   Abbreviations used in this document:

   Geneve:    Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation
              [I-D.ietf-nvo3-geneve]

   IOAM:      In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   MTU:       Maximum Transmit Unit

   NSH:       Network Service Header [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh]

   OAM:       Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   SFC:       Service Function Chain



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   SID:       Segment Identifier

   SR:        Segment Routing

   VXLAN-GPE: Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network, Generic Protocol
              Extension [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe]

3.  Scope, Applicability, and Assumptions

   In-situ OAM deployment assumes a set of constraints, requirements,
   and guiding principles which are described in this section.

   Scope: This document defines the data fields and associated data
   types for in-situ OAM.  The in-situ OAM data field can be transported
   by a variety of transport protocols, including NSH, Segment Routing,
   Geneve, IPv6, or IPv4.  Encapsulation details for these different
   transport protocols are outside the scope of this document.

   Deployment domain (or scope) of in-situ OAM deployment: IOAM is a
   network domain focused feature, with "network domain" being a set of
   network devices or entities within a single administration.  For
   example, a network domain can include an enterprise campus using
   physical connections between devices or an overlay network using
   virtual connections / tunnels for connectivity between said devices.
   A network domain is defined by its perimeter or edge.  Designers of
   carrier protocols for IOAM must specify mechanisms to ensure that in-
   situ OAM data stays within an IOAM domain.  In addition, the operator
   of such a domain is expected to put provisions in place to ensure
   that IOAM data does not leak beyond the edge of an IOAM domain, e.g.
   using for example packet filtering methods.  The operator should
   consider potential operational impact of IOAM to mechanisms such as
   ECMP processing (e.g. load-balancing schemes based on packet length
   could be impacted by the increased packet size due to IOAM), path MTU
   (i.e. ensure that the MTU of all links within a domain is
   sufficiently large to support the increased packet size due to IOAM)
   and ICMP message handling (i.e. in case of a native IPv6 transport,
   IOAM support for ICMPv6 Echo Request/Reply could desired which would
   translate into ICMPv6 extensions to enable IOAM data fields to be
   copied from an Echo Request message to an Echo Reply message).

   In-situ OAM control points: IOAM data fields are added to or removed
   from the live user traffic by the devices which form the edge of a
   domain.  Devices within an IOAM domain can update and/or add IOAM
   data-fields.  Domain edge devices can be hosts or network devices.

   Traffic-sets that in-situ OAM is applied to: IOAM can be deployed on
   all or only on subsets of the live user traffic.  It SHOULD be
   possible to enable in-situ OAM on a selected set of traffic (e.g.,



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   per interface, based on an access control list or flow specification
   defining a specific set of traffic, etc.)  The selected set of
   traffic can also be all traffic.

   Encapsulation independence: Data formats for in-situ OAM SHOULD be
   defined in a transport-independent manner.  In-situ OAM applies to a
   variety of encapsulating protocols.  A definition of how IOAM data
   fields are carried by different transport protocols is outside the
   scope of this document.

   Layering: If several encapsulation protocols (e.g., in case of
   tunneling) are stacked on top of each other, in-situ OAM data-records
   could be present at every layer.  The behavior follows the ships-in-
   the-night model.

   Combination with active OAM mechanisms: In-situ OAM should be usable
   for active network probing, enabling for example a customized version
   of traceroute.  Decapsulating in-situ OAM nodes may have an ability
   to send the in-situ OAM information retrieved from the packet back to
   the source address of the packet or to the encapsulating node.

   In-situ OAM implementation: The IOAM data-field definitions take the
   specifics of devices with hardware data-plane and software data-plane
   into account.

4.  In-situ OAM Data Types and Formats

   This section defines in-situ OAM data types and data fields and
   associated data types required for in-situ OAM.  The different uses
   of in-situ OAM require the definition of different types of data.
   The in-situ OAM data fields for the data being carried corresponds to
   the three main categories of in-situ OAM data defined in
   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements], which are: edge-to-edge, per
   node, and for selected nodes only.

   Transport options for in-situ OAM data are outside the scope of this
   memo, and are discussed in [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-transport].  In-
   situ OAM data fields are fixed length data fields.  A bit field
   determines the set of OAM data fields embedded in a packet.
   Depending on the type of the encapsulation, a counter field indicates
   how many data fields are included in a particular packet.

   In-situ OAM is expected to be deployed in a specific domain rather
   than on the overall Internet.  The part of the network which employs
   in- situ OAM is referred to as the "in-situ OAM-domain".  In-situ OAM
   data is added to a packet upon entering the in-situ OAM-domain and is
   removed from the packet when exiting the domain.  Within the in-situ
   OAM-domain, the in-situ OAM data may be updated by network nodes that



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   the packet traverses.  The device which adds an in-situ OAM data
   container to the packet to capture in-situ OAM data is called the
   "in-situ OAM encapsulating node", whereas the device which removes
   the in-situ OAM data container is referred to as the "in-situ OAM
   decapsulating node".  Nodes within the domain which are aware of in-
   situ OAM data and read and/or write or process the in-situ OAM data
   are called "in-situ OAM transit nodes".  Note that not every node in
   an in-situ OAM domain needs to be an in-situ OAM transit node.  For
   example, a Segment Routing deployment might require the segment
   routing path to be verified.  In that case, only the SR nodes would
   also be in-situ OAM transit nodes rather than all nodes.

4.1.  In-situ OAM Tracing Options

   "In-situ OAM tracing data" is expected to be collected at every node
   that a packet traverses, i.e., in a typical deployment all nodes in
   an in-situ OAM-domain would participate in in-situ OAM and thus be
   in-situ OAM transit nodes, in-situ OAM encapsulating or in-situ OAM
   decapsulating nodes.  The maximum number of hops and the minimum path
   MTU of the in-situ OAM domain is assumed to be known.

   To optimize hardware and software implementations tracing is defined
   as two separate options.  Any deployment MAY choose to configure and
   support one or both of the following options.  An implementation of
   the transport protocol that carries these in-situ OAM data MAY choose
   to support only one of the options.  In the event that both options
   are utilized at the same time, the Incremental Trace Option MUST be
   placed before the Pre-allocated Trace Option.

   Pre-allocated Trace Option:  This trace option is defined as a
      container of node data fields with pre-allocated space for each
      node to populate its information.  This option is useful for
      software implementations where it is efficient to allocate the
      space once and index into the array to populate the data during
      transit.  The in-situ OAM encapsulating node allocates the option
      header and sets the fields in the option header.  The in situ OAM
      encapsulating node allocates an array which is used to store
      operational data retrieved from every node while the packet
      traverses the domain.  In-situ OAM transit nodes update the
      content of the array.  A pointer which is part of the in-situ OAM
      trace data points to the next empty slot in the array, which is
      where the next in-situ OAM transit node fills in its data.

   Incremental Trace Option:  This trace option is defined as a
      container of node data fields where each node allocates and pushes
      its node data immediately following the option header.  The number
      of node data fields recorded and maximum number of node data that
      can be recorded are written into the option header.  This type of



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      trace recording is useful for some of the hardware implementations
      as this eliminates the need for the transit network elements to
      read the full array in the option and allows for arbitrarily long
      packets as the MTU allows.  The in-situ OAM encapsulating node
      allocates the option header.  The in-situ OAM encapsulating node
      based on operational state and configuration sets the fields in
      the header to control how large the node data list can grow.  In-
      situ OAM transit nodes push their node data to the node data list
      and increment the number of node data fields in the header.

   Every node data entry is to hold information for a particular in-situ
   OAM transit node that is traversed by a packet.  The in-situ OAM
   decapsulating node removes the in-situ OAM data and processes and/or
   exports the metadata.  In-situ OAM data uses its own name-space for
   information such as node identifier or interface identifier.  This
   allows for a domain-specific definition and interpretation.  For
   example: In one case an interface-id could point to a physical
   interface (e.g., to understand which physical interface of an
   aggregated link is used when receiving or transmitting a packet)
   whereas in another case it could refer to a logical interface (e.g.,
   in case of tunnels).

   The following in-situ OAM data is defined for in-situ OAM tracing:

   o  Identification of the in-situ OAM node.  An in-situ OAM node
      identifier can match to a device identifier or a particular
      control point or subsystem within a device.

   o  Identification of the interface that a packet was received on.

   o  Identification of the interface that a packet was sent out on.

   o  Time of day when the packet was processed by the node.  Different
      definitions of processing time are feasible and expected, though
      it is important that all devices of an in-situ OAM domain follow
      the same definition.

   o  Generic data: Format-free information where syntax and semantic of
      the information is defined by the operator in a specific
      deployment.  For a specific deployment, all in-situ OAM nodes
      should interpret the generic data the same way.  Examples for
      generic in-situ OAM data include geo-location information
      (location of the node at the time the packet was processed),
      buffer queue fill level or cache fill level at the time the packet
      was processed, or even a battery charge level.






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   o  A mechanism to detect whether in-situ OAM trace data was added at
      every hop or whether certain hops in the domain weren't in-situ
      OAM transit nodes.

   The "node data list" array in the packet is populated iteratively as
   the packet traverses the network, starting with the last entry of the
   array, i.e., "node data list [n]" is the first entry to be populated,
   "node data list [n-1]" is the second one, etc.

4.1.1.  Pre-allocated Trace Option

   In-situ OAM Pre-allocated Trace Option:

   Pre-allocated Trace Option header:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |         IOAM-Trace-Type       |  Octets-left  |     Flags     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Pre-allocated Trace Option Data MUST be 4-byte aligned:
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
   |                                                               |  |
   |                        node data list [0]                     |  |
   |                                                               |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  D
   |                                                               |  a
   |                        node data list [1]                     |  t
   |                                                               |  a
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                             ...                               ~  S
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  p
   |                                                               |  a
   |                        node data list [n-1]                   |  c
   |                                                               |  e
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                                                               |  |
   |                        node data list [n]                     |  |
   |                                                               |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+



   IOAM-Trace-Type:  A 16-bit identifier which specifies which data
      types are used in this node data list.





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      The IOAM-Trace-Type value is a bit field.  The following bit
      fields are defined in this document, with details on each field
      described in the Section 4.1.3.  The order of packing the data
      fields in each node data element follows the bit order of the
      IOAM-Trace-Type field, as follows:

      Bit 0    (Least significant bit) When set indicates presence of
               Hop_Lim and node_id in the node data.

      Bit 1    When set indicates presence of ingress_if_id and
               egress_if_id (short format) in the node data.

      Bit 2    When set indicates presence of timestamp seconds in the
               node data

      Bit 3    When set indicates presence of timestamp nanoseconds in
               the node data.

      Bit 4    When set indicates presence of transit delay in the node
               data.

      Bit 5    When set indicates presence of app_data (short format) in
               the node data.

      Bit 6    When set indicates presence of queue depth in the node
               data.

      Bit 7    When set indicates presence of variable length Opaque
               State Snapshot field.

      Bit 8    When set indicates presence of Hop_Lim and node_id in
               wide format in the node data.

      Bit 9    When set indicates presence of ingress_if_id and
               egress_if_id in wide format in the node data.

      Bit 10   When set indicates presence of app_data wide in the node
               data.

      Bit 11-15  Undefined in this draft.

      Section 4.1.4 describes the in-situ OAM data types and their
      formats.  Within an in-situ OAM domain possible combinations of
      these bits making the IOAM-Trace-Type can be restricted by
      configuration knobs.






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   Octets-left:  8-bit unsigned integer.  It is the data space in octets
      remaining for recording the node data.  This is used as an offset
      in octets in data space to record node data element.

   Flags  8-bit field.  The following flags are defined:

      Bit 0  "Overflow" (O-bit) (most significant bit).  This bit is set
         by the network element if there is not enough number of bytes
         left to record node data, no field is added and the overflow
         "O-bit" must be set to "1" in the header.  This is useful for
         transit nodes to ignore further processing of the option.

      Bit 1  "Loopback" (L-bit).  Loopback mode is used to send a copy
         of a packet back towards the source.  Loopback mode assumes
         that a return path from transit nodes and destination nodes
         towards the source exists.  The encapsulating node decides
         (e.g. using a filter) which packets loopback mode is enabled
         for by setting the loopback bit.  The encapsulating node also
         needs to ensure that sufficient space is available in the IOAM
         header for loopback operation.  The loopback bit when set
         indicates to the transit nodes processing this option to create
         a copy of the packet received and send this copy of the packet
         back to the source of the packet while it continues to forward
         the original packet towards the destination.  The source
         address of the original packet is used as destination address
         in the copied packet.  The address of the node performing the
         copy operation is used as the source address.  The L-bit MUST
         be cleared in the copy of the packet a nodes sends it back
         towards the source.  On its way back towards the source, the
         packet is processed like a regular packet with IOAM
         information.  Once the return packet reaches the IOAM domain
         boundary IOAM decapsulation occurs as with any other packet
         containing IOAM information.

   Node data List [n]:  Variable-length field.  The type of which is
      determined by the IOAM-Trace-Type representing the n-th node data
      in the node data list.  The node data list is encoded starting
      from the last node data of the path.  The first element of the
      node data list (node data list [0]) contains the last node of the
      path while the last node data of the node data list (node data
      list[n]) contains the first node data of the path traced.  The
      index contained in "Octets-left" identifies the offset for current
      active node data to be populated.








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4.1.2.  Incremental Trace Option

   In-situ OAM Incremental Trace Option: '

   In-situ OAM Incremental Trace Option Header:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        IOAM-Trace-Type        | Maximum Length|    Flags      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   In-situ OAM Incremental Trace Option Data MUST be 4-byte aligned:

   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        node data list [0]                     |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        node data list [1]                     |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                             ...                               ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        node data list [n-1]                   |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                        node data list [n]                     |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



   IOAM-trace-type:  A 16-bit identifier which specifies which data
      types are used in this node data list.

      The IOAM-Trace-Type value is a bit field.  The following bit
      fields are defined in this document, with details on each field
      described in the Section 4.1.3.  The order of packing the data
      fields in each node data element follows the bit order of the
      IOAM-Trace-Type field, as follows:

      Bit 0    When set indicates presence of Hop_Lim and node_id in the
               node data.




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      Bit 1    When set indicates presence of ingress_if_id and
               egress_if_id in the node data.

      Bit 2    When set indicates presence of timestamp seconds in the
               node data.

      Bit 3    When set indicates presence of timestamp nanoseconds in
               the node data.

      Bit 4    When set indicates presence of transit delay in the node
               data.

      Bit 5    When set indicates presence of app_data in the node data.

      Bit 6    When set indicates presence of queue depth in the node
               data.

      Bit 7    When set indicates presence of variable length Opaque
               State Snapshot field.

      Bit 8    When set indicates presence of Hop_Lim and node_id wide
               in the node data.

      Bit 9    When set indicates presence of ingress_if_id and
               egress_if_id wide in the node data.

      Bit 10   When set indicates presence of app_data wide in the node
               data.

      Bit 11-15  Undefined in this draft.

      Section 4.1.4 describes the in-situ OAM data types and their
      formats.

   Maximum Length:  8-bit unsigned integer.  This field specifies the
      maximum length of the node data list in octets.  Given that the
      sender knows the minimum path MTU, the sender can set the maximum
      of node data bytes allowed before exceeding the MTU.  Thus, a
      simple comparison between "Opt data Len" and "Max Length" allows
      to decide whether or not data could be added.

   Flags  8-bit field.  Following flags are defined:

      Bit 0  "Overflow" (O-bit) (least significant bit).  This bit is
         set by the network element if there is not enough number of
         bytes left to record node data, no field is added and the
         overflow "O-bit" must be set to "1" in the header.  This is




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         useful for transit nodes to ignore further processing of the
         option.

      Bit 1  "Loopback" (L-bit).  This bit when set indicates to the
         transit nodes processing this option to send a copy of the
         packet back to the source of the packet while it continues to
         forward the original packet towards the destination.  The L-bit
         MUST be cleared in the copy of the packet before sending it.

   Node data List [n]:  Variable-length field.  The type of which is
      determined by the OAM Type representing the n-th node data in the
      node data list.  The node data list is encoded starting from the
      last node data of the path.  The first element of the node data
      list (node data list [0]) contains the last node of the path while
      the last node data of the node data list (node data list[n])
      contains the first node data of the path traced.

4.1.3.  In-situ OAM node data fields and associated formats

   All the data fields MUST be 4-byte aligned.  The IOAM encapsulating
   node MUST initialize data fields that it adds to the packet to zero.
   If a node which is supposed to update an IOAM data field is not
   capable of populating the value of a field set in the IOAM-Trace-
   Type, the field value MUST be left unaltered except when explicitly
   specified in the field description below.  In the description of data
   below if zero is valid value then a non-zero value to mean not
   populated is specified.

   Data field and associated data type for each of the data field is
   shown below:

   Hop_Lim and node_id:  4-octet field defined as follows:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Hop_Lim:  1-octet unsigned integer.  It is set to the Hop Limit
         value in the packet at the node that records this data.  Hop
         Limit information is used to identify the location of the node
         in the communication path.  This is copied from the lower
         layer, e.g., TTL value in IPv4 header or hop limit field from
         IPv6 header of the packet when the packet is ready for
         transmission.

      node_id:  3-octet unsigned integer.  Node identifier field to
         uniquely identify a node within in-situ OAM domain.  The



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         procedure to allocate, manage and map the node_ids is beyond
         the scope of this document.

   ingress_if_id and egress_if_id:  4-octet field defined as follows:
      When this field is part of the data field but a node populating
      the field is not able to fill it, the position in the field must
      be filled with value 0xFFFFFFFF to mean not populated.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     ingress_if_id             |         egress_if_id          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      ingress_if_id:  2-octet unsigned integer.  Interface identifier to
         record the ingress interface the packet was received on.

      egress_if_id:  2-octet unsigned integer.  Interface identifier to
         record the egress interface the packet is forwarded out of.

   timestamp seconds:  4-octet unsigned integer.  Absolute timestamp in
      seconds that specifies the time at which the packet was received
      by the node.  The structure of this field is identical to the most
      significant 32 bits of the 64 least significant bits of the
      [IEEE1588v2] timestamp.  This truncated field consists of a 32-bit
      seconds field.  As defined in [IEEE1588v2], the timestamp
      specifies the number of seconds elapsed since 1 January 1970
      00:00:00 according to the International Atomic Time (TAI).

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       timestamp seconds                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   timestamp nanoseconds:  4-octet unsigned integer in the range 0 to
      10^9-1.  This timestamp specifies the fractional part of the wall
      clock time at which the packet was received by the node in units
      of nanoseconds.  This field is identical to the 32 least
      significant bits of the [IEEE1588v2] timestamp.  This fields
      allows for delay computation between any two nodes in the network
      when the nodes are time synchronized.  When this field is part of
      the data field but a node populating the field is not able to fill
      it, the field position in the field must be filled with value
      0xFFFFFFFF to mean not populated.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       timestamp nanoseconds                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



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   transit delay:  4-octet unsigned integer in the range 0 to 2^30-1.
      It is the time in nanoseconds the packet spent in the transit
      node.  This can serve as an indication of the queuing delay at the
      node.  If the transit delay exceeds 2^30-1 nanoseconds then the
      top bit 'O' is set to indicate overflow.  When this field is part
      of the data field but a node populating the field is not able to
      fill it, the field position in the field must be filled with value
      0xFFFFFFFF to mean not populated.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |O|                     transit delay                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   app_data:  4-octet placeholder which can be used by the node to add
      application specific data

   queue depth:  4-octet unsigned integer field.  This field indicates
      the current length of the egress interface queue of the interface
      from where the packet is forwarded out.  The queue depth is
      expressed as the current number of memory buffers used by the
      queue (a packet may consume one or more memory buffers, depending
      on its size).  When this field is part of the data field but a
      node populating the field is not able to fill it, the field
      position in the field must be filled with value 0xFFFFFFFF to mean
      not populated.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       queue depth                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Opaque State Snapshot:  Variable length field.  It allows the network
      element to store an arbitrary state in the node data field ,
      without a pre-defined schema.  The schema needs to be made known
      to the analyzer by some out-of-band mechanism.  The specification
      of this mechanism is beyond the scope of this document.  The
      24-bit "Schema Id" field in the field indicates which particular
      schema is used, and should be configured on the network element by
      the operator.











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       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Length      |                     Schema ID                 |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      |                        Opaque data                            |
      ~                                                               ~
      .                                                               .
      .                                                               .
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Length:  1-octet unsigned integer.  It is the length in octets of
         the Opaque data field that follows Schema Id.  It MUST always
         be a multiple of 4.

      Schema ID:  3-octet unsigned integer identifying the schema of
         Opaque data.

      Opaque data:  Variable length field.  This field is interpreted as
         specified by the schema identified by the Schema ID.

   Hop_Lim and node_id wide:  8-octet field defined as follows:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                         node_id (contd)                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Hop_Lim:  1-octet unsigned integer.  It is set to the Hop Limit
         value in the packet at the node that records this data.  Hop
         Limit information is used to identify the location of the node
         in the communication path.  This is copied from the lower layer
         for e.g.  TTL value in IPv4 header or hop limit field from IPv6
         header of the packet.

      node_id:  7-octet unsigned integer.  Node identifier field to
         uniquely identify a node within in-situ OAM domain.  The
         procedure to allocate, manage and map the node_ids is beyond
         the scope of this document.

   ingress_if_id and egress_if_id wide:  8-octet field defined as
      follows: When this field is part of the data field but a node
      populating the field is not able to fill it, the field position in




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      the field must be filled with value 0xFFFFFFFF to mean not
      populated.

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       ingress_if_id                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       egress_if_id                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      ingress_if_id:  4-octet unsigned integer.  Interface identifier to
         record the ingress interface the packet was received on.

      egress_if_id:  4-octet unsigned integer.  Interface identifier to
         record the egress interface the packet is forwarded out of.

   app_data wide:  8-octet placeholder which can be used by the node to
      add application specific data.

4.1.4.  Examples of In-situ OAM node data

   An entry in the "node data list" array can have different formats,
   following the needs of the deployment.  Some deployments might only
   be interested in recording the node identifiers, whereas others might
   be interested in recording node identifier and timestamp.  The
   section defines different types that an entry in "node data list" can
   take.

   0x002B:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x2B then the format of node data is:

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     ingress_if_id             |         egress_if_id          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                  timestamp nanoseconds                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                            app_data                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   0x0003:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x0003 then the format is:








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        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |     ingress_if_id             |         egress_if_id          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+



   0x0009:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x0009 then the format is:

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                   timestamp nanoseconds                       |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   0x0021:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x0021 then the format is:

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                            app_data                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   0x0029:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x0029 then the format is:

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    timestamp nanoseconds                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                            app_data                           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   0x018C:  IOAM-Trace-Type is 0x104D then the format is:









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        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                      timestamp seconds                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    timestamp nanoseconds                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Length      |                     Schema Id                 |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       |                                                               |
       |                        Opaque data                            |
       ~                                                               ~
       .                                                               .
       .                                                               .
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |   Hop_Lim     |              node_id                          |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                         node_id(contd)                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


4.2.  In-situ OAM Proof of Transit Option

   In-situ OAM Proof of Transit data is to support the path or service
   function chain [RFC7665] verification use cases.  Proof-of-transit
   uses methods like nested hashing or nested encryption of the in-situ
   OAM data or mechanisms such as Shamir's Secret Sharing Schema (SSSS).
   While details on how the in-situ OAM data for the proof of transit
   option is processed at in-situ OAM encapsulating, decapsulating and
   transit nodes are outside the scope of the document, all of these
   approaches share the need to uniquely identify a packet as well as
   iteratively operate on a set of information that is handed from node
   to node.  Correspondingly, two pieces of information are added as in-
   situ OAM data to the packet:

   o  Random: Unique identifier for the packet (e.g., 64-bits allow for
      the unique identification of 2^64 packets).

   o  Cumulative: Information which is handed from node to node and
      updated by every node according to a verification algorithm.











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   In-situ OAM Proof of Transit Option:

   In-situ OAM Proof of Transit Option Header:

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |IOAM POT Type|P|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   In-situ OAM Proof of Transit Option Data MUST be 4-byte aligned:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+
   |                           Random                              |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  P
   |                        Random(contd)                          |  O
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  T
   |                         Cumulative                            |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
   |                         Cumulative (contd)                    |  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+<-+



   IOAM POT Type:  7-bit identifier of a particular POT variant that
      dictates the POT data that is included.  This document defines POT
      Type 0:

      0: POT data is a 16 Octet field as described below.

   Profile to use (P):  1-bit.  Indicates which POT-profile is used to
      generate the Cumulative.  Any node participating in POT will have
      a maximum of 2 profiles configured that drive the computation of
      cumulative.  The two profiles are numbered 0, 1.  This bit conveys
      whether profile 0 or profile 1 is used to compute the Cumulative.

   Random:  64-bit Per packet Random number.

   Cumulative:  64-bit Cumulative that is updated at specific nodes by
      processing per packet Random number field and configured
      parameters.

   Note: Larger or smaller sizes of "Random" and "Cumulative" data are
   feasible and could be required for certain deployments (e.g.  in case
   of space constraints in the transport protocol used).  Future
   versions of this document will address different sizes of data for
   "proof of transit".



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4.3.  In-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option

   The in-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option is to carry data that is added by
   the in-situ OAM encapsulating node and interpreted by in-situ OAM
   decapsulating node.  The in-situ OAM transit nodes MAY process the
   data without modifying it.

   Currently only sequence numbers use the in-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge
   option.  In order to detect packet loss, packet reordering, or packet
   duplication in an in-situ OAM-domain, sequence numbers can be added
   to packets of a particular tube (see
   [I-D.hildebrand-spud-prototype]).  Each tube leverages a dedicated
   namespace for its sequence numbers.

     In-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option:

      In-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option Header:

       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | IOAM-E2E-Type |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      In-situ OAM Edge-to-Edge Option Data MUST be 4-byte aligned:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       E2E Option data field determined by IOAM-E2E-Type       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   IOAM-E2E-Type:  8-bit identifier of a particular in situ OAM E2E
      variant.

         0: E2E option data is a 64-bit sequence number added to a
         specific tube which is used to identify packet loss and
         reordering for that tube.

5.  In-situ OAM Data Export

   In-situ OAM nodes collect information for packets traversing a domain
   that supports in-situ OAM.  The device at the domain edge (which
   could also be an end-host) which receives a packet with in-situ OAM
   information chooses how to process the in-situ OAM data collected
   within the packet.  This decapsulating node can simply discard the
   information collected, can process the information further, or export
   the information using e.g., IPFIX.



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   The discussion of in-situ OAM data processing and export is left for
   a future version of this document.

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA considerations will be added in a future version of this
   document.

7.  Manageability Considerations

   Manageability considerations will be addressed in a later version of
   this document..

8.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations will be addressed in a later version of this
   document.  For a discussion of security requirements of in-situ OAM,
   please refer to [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements].

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Eric Vyncke, Nalini Elkins, Srihari
   Raghavan, Ranganathan T S, Karthik Babu Harichandra Babu, Akshaya
   Nadahalli, LJ Wobker, Erik Nordmark, Vengada Prasad Govindan, and
   Andrew Yourtchenko for the comments and advice.  This document
   leverages and builds on top of several concepts described in
   [I-D.kitamura-ipv6-record-route].  The authors would like to
   acknowledge the work done by the author Hiroshi Kitamura and people
   involved in writing it.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-requirements]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Dara, S., Pignataro, C.,
              Gredler, H., Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mozes, D., Mizrahi,
              T., <>, P., and r. remy@barefootnetworks.com,
              "Requirements for In-situ OAM", draft-brockners-inband-
              oam-requirements-03 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [IEEE1588v2]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
              "1588-2008 - IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock
              Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and
              Control Systems",  IEEE Std 1588-2008, 2008,
              <http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
              standard/1588-2008.html>.



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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC7799]  Morton, A., "Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (with
              Hybrid Types In-Between)", RFC 7799, DOI 10.17487/RFC7799,
              May 2016, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7799>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.brockners-inband-oam-transport]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Govindan, V., Pignataro, C.,
              Gredler, H., Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Mozes,
              D., Lapukhov, P., and R. <>, "Encapsulations for In-situ
              OAM Data", draft-brockners-inband-oam-transport-03 (work
              in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.hildebrand-spud-prototype]
              Hildebrand, J. and B. Trammell, "Substrate Protocol for
              User Datagrams (SPUD) Prototype", draft-hildebrand-spud-
              prototype-03 (work in progress), March 2015.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-geneve]
              Gross, J., Ganga, I., and T. Sridhar, "Geneve: Generic
              Network Virtualization Encapsulation", draft-ietf-
              nvo3-geneve-04 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe]
              Maino, F., Kreeger, L., and U. Elzur, "Generic Protocol
              Extension for VXLAN", draft-ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe-04 (work
              in progress), April 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-sfc-nsh]
              Quinn, P. and U. Elzur, "Network Service Header", draft-
              ietf-sfc-nsh-12 (work in progress), February 2017.

   [I-D.kitamura-ipv6-record-route]
              Kitamura, H., "Record Route for IPv6 (PR6) Hop-by-Hop
              Option Extension", draft-kitamura-ipv6-record-route-00
              (work in progress), November 2000.

   [I-D.lapukhov-dataplane-probe]
              Lapukhov, P. and r. remy@barefootnetworks.com, "Data-plane
              probe for in-band telemetry collection", draft-lapukhov-
              dataplane-probe-01 (work in progress), June 2016.





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   [RFC7665]  Halpern, J., Ed. and C. Pignataro, Ed., "Service Function
              Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7665>.

Authors' Addresses

   Frank Brockners
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Hansaallee 249, 3rd Floor
   DUESSELDORF, NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN  40549
   Germany

   Email: fbrockne@cisco.com


   Shwetha Bhandari
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Cessna Business Park, Sarjapura Marathalli Outer Ring Road
   Bangalore, KARNATAKA 560 087
   India

   Email: shwethab@cisco.com


   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-11 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Email: cpignata@cisco.com


   Hannes Gredler
   RtBrick Inc.

   Email: hannes@rtbrick.com


   John Leddy
   Comcast

   Email: John_Leddy@cable.comcast.com







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   Stephen Youell
   JP Morgan Chase
   25 Bank Street
   London  E14 5JP
   United Kingdom

   Email: stephen.youell@jpmorgan.com


   Tal Mizrahi
   Marvell
   6 Hamada St.
   Yokneam  2066721
   Israel

   Email: talmi@marvell.com


   David Mozes
   Mellanox Technologies Ltd.

   Email: davidm@mellanox.com


   Petr Lapukhov
   Facebook
   1 Hacker Way
   Menlo Park, CA  94025
   US

   Email: petr@fb.com


   Remy Chang
   Barefoot Networks
   2185 Park Boulevard
   Palo Alto, CA  94306
   US


   Daniel
   Bell Canada

   Email: daniel.bernier@bell.ca







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