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Versions: (draft-bruneau-pvd) 00 01

intarea                                                       B. Bruneau
Internet-Draft                                       Ecole Polytechnique
Intended status: Informational                                P. Pfister
Expires: January 1, 2018                                           Cisco
                                                             D. Schinazi
                                                                T. Pauly
                                                                   Apple
                                                               E. Vyncke
                                                                   Cisco
                                                           June 30, 2017


             Discovering Provisioning Domain Names and Data
             draft-bruneau-intarea-provisioning-domains-01

Abstract

   An increasing number of hosts and networks are connected to the
   Internet through multiple interfaces, some of which may provide
   multiple ways to access the internet by the mean of multiple IPv6
   prefix configurations.

   This document describes a way for hosts to retrieve additional
   information about their network access characteristics.  The set of
   configuration items required to access the Internet is called a
   Provisioning Domain (PvD) and is identified by a Fully Qualified
   Domain Name (FQDN).  This identifier, retrieved using a new Router
   Advertisement (RA) option, is associated with the set of information
   included within the RA and may later be used to retrieve additional
   information associated to the PvD by the mean of an HTTP request.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 1, 2018.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Provisioning Domain Identification using Router
       Advertisements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  PvD ID Option for Router Advertisements . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Router Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  Host Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.1.  DHCPv6 configuration association  . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.3.2.  DHCPv4 configuration association  . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.3.3.  Interconnection Sharing by the Host . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Provisioning Domain Identification using IKEv2  . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Provisioning Domain Additional Information  . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Retrieving the PvD Additional Information . . . . . . . .   9
     5.2.  Providing the PvD Additional Information  . . . . . . . .  10
     5.3.  PvD Additional Information Format . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.3.1.  Connectivity Characteristics Information  . . . . . .  12
       5.3.2.  Private Extensions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.3.3.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.1.  Normative references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.2.  Informative references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Appendix A.  Changelog  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     A.1.  Version 00  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     A.2.  Version 01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Appendix B.  Connection monetary cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     B.1.  Conditions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     B.2.  Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     B.3.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19



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   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

1.  Introduction

   It has become very common in modern networks that hosts have Internet
   or more specific network access through different networking
   interfaces, tunnels, or next-hop routers.  The concept of
   Provisioning Domain (PvD) was defined in [RFC7556] as a set of
   network configuration information which can be used by hosts in order
   to access the network.

   In this document, PvDs are identified by Fully Qualified Domain Names
   called PvD IDs, which are included in Router Advertisements [RFC4861]
   as a new option and are used to identify correlated sets of network
   configuration data.

   Devices connected to the Internet through multiple interfaces would
   typically be provisioned with one PvD per interface, but it is worth
   noting that multiple PvDs with different PvD IDs could be provisioned
   on any host interface, as well as noting that the same PvD ID could
   be used on different interfaces in order to inform the host that both
   PvDs, on different interfaces, ultimately provide identical services.

   This document also introduces a way for hosts to retrieve additional
   information related to a specific PvD by the mean of an HTTP-over-TLS
   query using an URI derived from the PvD ID.  The retrieved JSON
   object contains additional network information that would typically
   be considered unfit, or too large, to be directly included in the
   Router Advertisements.  This information can be used by the
   networking stack, the applications, or even be partially displayed to
   the users (e.g., by displaying a localized network service name).

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   In addition, this document uses the following terminology:

   PvD:   A Provisioning Domain, a set of network configuration
      information; for more information, see [RFC7556].

   PvD ID:   A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used to identify a
      PvD.

   Explicit PvD:   A PvD uniquely identified with a PvD ID.



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   Implicit PvD:   A PvD associated with a set of configuration
      information that, in the absence of a PvD ID, is associated with
      the advertising router.

3.  Provisioning Domain Identification using Router Advertisements

   Each provisioning domain is identified by a PvD ID.  The PvD ID is a
   Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) which MUST belong to the network
   operator in order to avoid ambiguity.  The same PvD ID MAY be used in
   several access networks if the set of configuration information is
   identical (e.g. in all home networks subscribed to the same service).

3.1.  PvD ID Option for Router Advertisements

   This document introduces a new Router Advertisement (RA) option
   called the PvD ID Router Advertisement Option, used to convey the
   FQDN identifying a given PvD.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |  Seq  |H|L|     Reserved      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Lifetime                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          PvD ID FQDN                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                PvD ID Router Advertisements Option format

   Type        :   (8 bits) To be defined by IANA.

   Length      :   (8 bits) The length of the option (including the Type
      and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.

   Seq         :   (4 bits) Sequence number for the PvD Additional
      Information, as described in Section 5.

   H-flag      :   (1 bit) Whether some PvD Additional Information is
      made available through HTTP over TLS, as described in Section 5.

   L-flag      :   (1 bit) Whether the router is also providing IPv4
      access using DHCPv4 (see Section 3.3.2).

   Reserved    :   (10 bits) Reserved for later use.  It MUST be set to
      zero by the sender and ignored by the receiver.





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   Lifetime    :   (32 bits) The length of time in seconds (relative to
      the time the packet is sent) that the PvD ID option is valid.  A
      value of all one bits (0xffffffff) represents infinity.

   PvD ID FQDN :   The FQDN used as PvD ID in DNS binary format
      [RFC1035], padded until the next 8 octets boundary.  All the bytes
      after the first empty DNS label MUST be set to zero by the sender
      and MUST be ignored by the receiver.  The DNS name compression
      technique described in [RFC1035] MUST NOT be used.

   Routers MUST NOT include more than one PvD ID Router Advertisement
   Option in each RA.  In case multiple PvD ID options are found in a
   given RA, hosts MUST ignore all but the first PvD ID option.

   Note: The existence and/or size of the sequence number is subject to
   discussion.  The validity of a PvD Additional Information object is
   included in the object itself, but this only allows for 'pull based'
   updates, whereas the RA options usually provide 'push based' updates.

   Note: including the lifetime option is congruent with the lifetime
   option of the other RA option.  On the other hand, do we need it ?

3.2.  Router Behavior

   A router MAY insert at most one PvD ID Option in its RAs.  The
   included PvD ID is associated with all the other options included in
   the same RA (e.g., Prefix Information [RFC4861], Recursive DNS Server
   [RFC6106], Routing Information [RFC4191], Captive Portal [RFC7710]
   options).

   In order to provide multiple independent PvDs, a router MUST send
   multiple RAs using different source link-local addresses (LLA) (as
   proposed in [I-D.bowbakova-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]), each of
   which MAY include a PvD ID option.  In such cases, routers MAY
   originate the different RAs using the same datalink layer address.

   If the router is actually a VRRP instance [RFC5798], then the
   procedure is identical except that the virtual datalink layer address
   is used as well as virtual IPv6 addresses.

3.3.  Host Behavior

   RAs are used to configure IPv6 hosts.  When a host receives a RA
   message including a PvD ID Option with a non-zero lifetime, it MUST
   associate all the configuration options included in the RA (e.g.,
   Prefix Information [RFC4861], Recursive DNS Server [RFC6106], Routing
   Information [RFC4191], Captive Portal [RFC7710] options) with the PvD
   ID).



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   If the received RA does not include a PvD ID Option, or whenever the
   included PvD ID Option has a lifetime set to zero, the host MUST
   associate the options included in the RA with an implicit PvD.  This
   implicit PvD is identified by the link-local address of the router
   sending the RA and the interface on which the RA was received.

   This document does not update the way Router Advertisement options
   are processed.  But in addition to the option processing defined in
   other documents, hosts implementing this specification MUST associate
   each created or updated object (e.g. address, default route, more
   specific route, DNS server list) with the PvD associated with the
   received RA as well as the interface and link-local address of the
   router which last updated the object.

   Each configuration object has a PvD validity timer set to the PvD ID
   option lifetime whenever an RA that updates the object is received.
   If the received RA does not include a PvD ID option, or whenever the
   PvD ID option lifetime is zero, the associated objects are
   immediately associated with an implicit PvD, as mentioned in the
   previous paragraph.  Similarly, whenever an object's PvD timer
   reaches zero, the object is immediately associated with an implicit
   PvD identified by the link-local address and interface of the router
   which last updated the object.

   While resolving names, executing the default address selection
   algorithm [RFC6724] or executing the default router selection
   algorithm ([RFC2461], [RFC4191] and [RFC8028]), hosts MAY consider
   only the configuration associated with an arbitrary set of PvDs.

   For example, a host MAY associate a given process with a specific
   PvD, or a specific set of PvDs, while associating another process
   with another PvD.  A PvD-aware application might also be able to
   select, on a per-connection basis, which PvDs should be used for a
   given connection.  And particularly constrained devices such as small
   battery operated devices (e.g. IoT), or devices with limited CPU or
   memory resources may purposefully use a single PvD while ignoring
   some received RAs containing different PvD IDs.

   The way an application expresses its desire to use a given PvD, or a
   set of PvDs, or the way this selection is enforced, is out of the
   scope of this document.  Useful insights about these considerations
   can be found in [I-D.kline-mif-mpvd-api-reqs].

3.3.1.  DHCPv6 configuration association

   When a host retrieves configuration information from DHCPv6, the
   configured elements MUST be associated with the explicit or implicit
   PvD of the RA received on the same interface with the O-flag set



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   [RFC4861].  If multiple RAs with the O-flag set and associated with
   different PvDs are received on the same interface, the link-local
   address of the DHCPv6 server MAY be compared with the routers' link-
   local addresses in order to disambiguate.  If the disambiguation is
   impossible, then the DHCPv6 configuration information MUST be
   associated with an implicit PvD.

   This process requires hosts to keep track of received RAs, associated
   PvD IDs, and routers link-local addresses.

3.3.2.  DHCPv4 configuration association

   When a host retrieves configuration from DHCPv4 on an interface, the
   configured elements MUST be associated with the explicit PvD,
   received on the same interface, whose PVD ID Options L-flag is set.
   If multiple different PvDs are found, the datalink layer address used
   by the DHCPv4 server/relay MAY be compared with the datalink layer
   address used by on-link advertising routers in order to disambiguate.
   If no RA associated with a PvD ID option with the L-flag set is
   found, or if the disambiguation fails, the IPv4 configuration
   information MUST be associated with an implicit PvD.

3.3.3.  Interconnection Sharing by the Host

   The situation when a host becomes also a router by acting as a router
   or ND proxy on a different interface (such as WiFi) to share the
   connectivity of another interface (such as cellular), also known as
   "tethering" is TBD but it is expected that the one or several PvD
   associated to the shared interface will be also advertised to the
   clients.

4.  Provisioning Domain Identification using IKEv2

   RFC 7296 defines Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) which
   includes in sections 2.19 and 3.15 a Configuration Payload (CP) which
   may be used by an IPsec client to request configuration items (e.g.,
   addresses, recursive DNS servers).  IKEv2 also negatiates traffic
   selectors which represent the 5-tuple(s) to be protected by the
   Security Association (SA) negotiated by IKEv2.  This set of
   information is another PvD and may include INTERNAL_IP6_ADDRESS,
   INTERNAL_IP6_LINK, INTERNAL_IP6_SUBNET (to be used to route traffic
   to this subent), INTERNAL_IP6_DNS, INTERNAL_DNS_DOMAIN.

   The PvD ID Configuration option for IKEv2 has the following structure
   (similar to the RA option):






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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |R|  Attribute Type             |              Length           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Seq  |H|L|     Reserved                                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                            Lifetime                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          PvD ID FQDN                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


           PvD ID IKEv2 Configuration Payload Attributes format

   R-bit  Reserved (1 bit) - Defined in IKEv2 RFC [RFC7296].

   Attribute Type  (15 bits) tbd by IANA PVD_ID.

   Length  Length (2 octets, unsigned integer) - Length of PvD ID FQDN +
      2.

   Seq  Sequence number (4 bits) for the PvD Additional Information, as
      described in Section 5.

   H-flag  (1 bit) Whether some PvD Additional Information is made
      available through HTTP over TLS, as described in Section 5.

   L-flag  (1 bit) must be set to 0 if the Configuration Payload
      contains only IPv6 information, else it must be set to 1.

   Reserved  (10 bits) Reserved for later use.  It MUST be set to zero
      by the sender and ignored by the receiver.

   PvD ID FQDN  The FQDN used as PvD ID in DNS binary format [RFC1035],
      padded until the next 8 octets boundary.  All the bytes after the
      first empty DNS label MUST be set to zero by the sender and MUST
      be ignored by the receiver.  The DNS name compression technique
      described in [RFC1035] MUST NOT be used.

5.  Provisioning Domain Additional Information

   Once a new PvD ID is discovered, it may be used to retrieve
   additional information about the characteristics of the provided
   connectivity.  This set of information is called PvD Additional
   Information, and is encoded as a JSON object [RFC7159].





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   The purpose of this additional set of information is to securely
   provide additional information to hosts about the connectivity that
   is provided using a given interface and source address pair.  It
   typically includes data that would be considered too large, or not
   critical enough, to be provided with an RA option.  The information
   contained in this object MAY be used by the operating system, network
   libraries, applications, or users, in order to decide which set of
   PvDs should be used for which connection, as described in
   Section 3.3.

5.1.  Retrieving the PvD Additional Information

   When the H-flag of the PvD ID Option is set, hosts MAY attempt to
   retrieve the PvD Additional Information associated with a given PvD
   by performing an HTTP over TLS [RFC2818] GET query to https://<PvD-
   ID>/pvd.json [RFC5785].  On the other hand, hosts MUST NOT do so
   whenever the H-flag is not set.

   Note: Should the PvD AI retrieval be a MAY or a SHOULD ? Could the
   object contain critical data, or should it only contain informational
   data ?

   Note that the DNS name resolution of <PvD-ID> as well as the actual
   query MUST be performed in the PvD context associated to the PvD ID.
   In other words, the name resolution, source address selection, as
   well as the next-hop router selection MUST be performed while using
   exclusively the set of configuration information attached with the
   PvD, as defined in Section 3.3.

   If the HTTP status of the answer is greater than or equal to 400 the
   host MUST abandon and consider that there is no additional PvD
   information.  If the HTTP status of the answer is between 300
   included and 399 included it MUST follow the redirection(s).  If the
   HTTP status of the answer is between 200 included and 299 included
   the host MAY get a file containing a single JSON object.  When a JSON
   object could not be retrieved, an error message SHOULD be logged and/
   or displayed in a rate-limited fashion.

   After retrieval of the PvD Additional Information, hosts MUST watch
   the PvD ID Seq field for change.  In case a different value than the
   one in the RA Seq field is observed, or whenever the validity time
   included in the object is expired, hosts MUST either perform a new
   query and retrieve a new version of the object, or deprecate the
   object and stop using it.

   Hosts retrieving a new PvD Additional Information object MUST check
   for the presence and validity of the mandatory fields Section 5.3.  A
   retrieved object including an outdated expiration time or missing a



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   mandatory element, MUST be ignored.  In order to avoid traffic spikes
   toward the server hosting the PvD Additional Information when an
   object expires, a host which last retrieved an object at a time A,
   including a validity time B, SHOULD renew the object at a uniformly
   random time in the interval [(B-A)/2,A].

   In order to prevent PvD spoofing by malicious or misconfigured
   routers, PvD Additional Information object includes a set of IPv6
   prefixes which MUST be checked against all the Prefix Information
   Options advertised in the Router Advertisement.  If any of the
   prefixes included in the Prefix Information Options is not in the set
   of prefixes contained in the additional information, the PvD (the one
   included in the RA and in the additional information) MUST be
   considered unsafe and MUST NOT be used.  While this does not prevent
   a malicious network provider, it can be used to detect
   misconfiguration.

   The server serving the JSON files SHOULD also check whether the
   client address is part of the prefixes listed into the additional
   information and SHOULD return a 403 response code if there is no
   match.  The server MAY also use the client address to select the
   right JSON object to be returned.

   Note: In a similar way, a DNS server names list could be included in
   the PvD AI in order to avoid rogue APs from inserting a different DNS
   resolver.  But this would also prevent CPEs from advertising
   themselves as default DNS (which is usually done).  SPs which really
   want to use CPEs as DNS, for caching reasons, might find 'creative'
   ways to go around this rule.

5.2.  Providing the PvD Additional Information

   Whenever the H-flag is set in the PvD RA Option, a valid PvD
   Additional Information object MUST be made available to all hosts
   receiving the RA.  In particular, when a captive portal is present,
   hosts MUST still be allowed to access the object, even before logging
   into the captive portal.

   Routers MAY increment the PVD ID Sequence number (Seq) in order to
   inform host that a new PvD Additional Information object is available
   and should be retrieved.

5.3.  PvD Additional Information Format

   The PvD Additional Information is a JSON object.

   The following array presents the mandatory keys which MUST be
   included in the object:



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   +----------+-------------------+-----------+------------------------+
   | JSON key | Description       | Type      | Example                |
   +----------+-------------------+-----------+------------------------+
   | name     | Human-readable    | UTF-8     | "Awesome Wifi"         |
   |          | service name      | string    |                        |
   | expires  | Date after which  | ISO 8601  | "2017-07-23T06:00:00Z" |
   |          | this object is    |           |                        |
   |          | not valid         |           |                        |
   | prefixes | Array of IPv6     | Array of  | ["2001:db8:1::/48",    |
   |          | prefixes valid    | strings   | "2001:db8:4::/48"]     |
   |          | for this PVD      |           |                        |
   +----------+-------------------+-----------+------------------------+

   A retrieved object which does not include a valid string associated
   with the "name" key at the root of the object, or a valid date
   associated with the "expiration" key, also at the root of the object,
   MUST be ignored.  In such cases, an error message SHOULD be logged
   and/or displayed in a rate-limited fashion.

   The following table presents some optional keys which MAY be included
   in the object.

   +-----------------+-----------------------+---------+---------------+
   | JSON key        | Description           | Type    | Example       |
   +-----------------+-----------------------+---------+---------------+
   | localizedName   | Localized user-       | UTF-8   | "Wifi Genial" |
   |                 | visible service name, | string  |               |
   |                 | language can be       |         |               |
   |                 | selected based on the |         |               |
   |                 | HTTP Accept-Language  |         |               |
   |                 | header in the         |         |               |
   |                 | request.              |         |               |
   | noInternet      | No Internet, set when | boolean | true          |
   |                 | the PvD only provides |         |               |
   |                 | restricted access to  |         |               |
   |                 | a set of services.    |         |               |
   | characteristics | Connectivity          | JSON    | See Section   |
   |                 | characteristics       | object  | 5.3.1         |
   | metered         | metered, when the     | boolean | false         |
   |                 | access volume is      |         |               |
   |                 | limited.              |         |               |
   +-----------------+-----------------------+---------+---------------+

   It is worth noting that the JSON format allows for extensions.
   Whenever an unknown key is encountered, it MUST be ignored along with
   its associated elements, unless specified otherwise in future
   updating documents.




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5.3.1.  Connectivity Characteristics Information

   The following set of keys can be used to signal certain
   characteristics of the connection towards the PvD.

   They should reflect characteristics of the overall access technology
   which is not limited to the link the host is connected to, but rather
   a combination of the link technology, CPE upstream connectivity, and
   further quality of service considerations.

   +---------------+--------------+---------------------+--------------+
   | JSON key      | Description  | Type                | Example      |
   +---------------+--------------+---------------------+--------------+
   | maxThroughput | Maximum      | object({down(int),  | {"down":     |
   |               | achievable   | up(int)}) in kb/s   | 10000, "up": |
   |               | throughput   |                     | 5000}        |
   | minLatency    | Minimum      | object({down(int),  | {"down": 10, |
   |               | achievable   | up(int)}) in ms     | "up": 20}    |
   |               | latency      |                     |              |
   | rl            | Maximum      | object({down(int),  | {"down":     |
   |               | achievable   | up(int)}) in losses | 0.1, "up":   |
   |               | reliability  | every 1000 packets  | 1}           |
   +---------------+--------------+---------------------+--------------+

5.3.2.  Private Extensions

   JSON keys starting with "x-" are reserved for private use and can be
   utilized to provide information that is specific to vendor, user or
   enterprise.  It is RECOMMENDED to use one of the patterns "x-FQDN-
   KEY" or "x-PEN-KEY" where FQDN is a fully qualified domain name or
   PEN is a private enterprise number [PEN] under control of the author
   of the extension to avoid collisions.

5.3.3.  Example

   Here are two examples based on the keys defined in this section.

   {
     "name": "Foo Wireless",
     "localizedName": "Foo-France Wifi",
     "expires": "2017-07-23T06:00:00Z",
     "prefixes" : ["2001:db8:1::/48", "2001:db8:4::/48"],
     "characteristics": {
      "maxThroughput": { "down":200000, "up": 50000 },
      "minLatency": { "down": 0.1, "up": 1 }
     }
   }




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   {
     "name": "Bar 4G",
     "localizedName": "Bar US 4G",
     "expires": "2017-07-23T06:00:00Z",
     "prefixes": ["2001:db8:1::/48", "2001:db8:4::/48"],
     "metered": true,
     "characteristics": {
       "maxThroughput": { "down":80000, "up": 20000 }
     }
   }

6.  Security Considerations

   Although some solutions such as IPSec or SEND [RFC3971] can be used
   in order to secure the IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol, actual
   deployments largely rely on link layer or physical layer security
   mechanisms (e.g. 802.1x [IEEE8021X]).

   This specification does not improve the Neighbor Discovery Protocol
   security model, but extends the purely link-local configuration
   retrieval mechanisms with HTTP-over-TLS communications.

   During the exchange, the server authenticity is verified by the mean
   of a certificate, validated based on the FQDN found in the Router
   Advertisement (e.g. using a list of pre-installed CA certificates, or
   DNSSec [RFC4035] with DNS Based Authentication of Named Entities
   [RFC6698]).  This authentication creates a secure binding between the
   information provided by the trusted Router Advertisement, and the
   HTTP server.

   The IPv6 prefixes list included in the PvD Additional Information
   JSON object is used to validate that the prefixes included in the
   Router Advertisements are really part of the PvD.

   Note: The previous point does not protect against attacker performing
   NAT66.  It would if we mandate the source-address validation on the
   server side, but not protect against tunnels.  In other words,
   address based security will not protect against rogue APs, but may
   prevent the use of NAT66.

   For privacy reasons, it is desirable that the PvD Additional
   Information object may only be retrieved by the hosts using the given
   PvD.  Host identity SHOULD be validated based on the client address
   that is used during the HTTP query.







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7.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is kindly requested to allocate a new IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
   option number for the PvD ID Router Advertisement option and a new
   IKEv2 Configuration Payload Attribute Types for PVD_ID.

   TBD: JSON keys will need a new register.

8.  Acknowledgements

   Many thanks to M. Stenberg and S. Barth for their earlier work:
   [I-D.stenberg-mif-mpvd-dns].

   Thanks also to Ray Bellis, Lorenzo Colitti, Thierry Danis, Marcus
   Keane, Erik Kline, Jen Lenkova, Mark Townsley and James Woodyatt for
   useful and interesting discussions.

   Finally, many thanks to Thierry Danis for his implementation work:
   [github].

9.  References

9.1.  Normative references

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2461]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., and W. Simpson, "Neighbor
              Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 2461, December
              1998.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC2818, May 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC5785]  Nottingham, M. and E. Hammer-Lahav, "Defining Well-Known
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785, DOI
              10.17487/RFC5785, April 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5785>.





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   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

9.2.  Informative references

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>.

   [RFC4191]  Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
              More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005.

   [RFC5798]  Nadas, S., Ed., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
              Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC5798, March 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5798>.

   [RFC6106]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 6106, November 2010.

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.

   [RFC6724]  Thaler, D., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
              "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6)", RFC 6724, September 2012.

   [RFC7556]  Anipko, D., Ed., "Multiple Provisioning Domain
              Architecture", RFC 7556, DOI 10.17487/RFC7556, June 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7556>.

   [RFC7710]  Kumari, W., Gudmundsson, O., Ebersman, P., and S. Sheng,
              "Captive-Portal Identification Using DHCP or Router
              Advertisements (RAs)", RFC 7710, DOI 10.17487/RFC7710,
              December 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7710>.

   [RFC8028]  Baker, F. and B. Carpenter, "First-Hop Router Selection by
              Hosts in a Multi-Prefix Network", RFC 8028, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC8028, November 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8028>.



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   [I-D.bowbakova-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming]
              Baker, F., Bowers, C., and J. Linkova, "Enterprise
              Multihoming using Provider-Assigned Addresses without
              Network Prefix Translation: Requirements and Solution",
              draft-bowbakova-rtgwg-enterprise-pa-multihoming-01 (work
              in progress), October 2016.

   [I-D.stenberg-mif-mpvd-dns]
              Stenberg, M. and S. Barth, "Multiple Provisioning Domains
              using Domain Name System", draft-stenberg-mif-mpvd-dns-00
              (work in progress), October 2015.

   [I-D.kline-mif-mpvd-api-reqs]
              Kline, E., "Multiple Provisioning Domains API
              Requirements", draft-kline-mif-mpvd-api-reqs-00 (work in
              progress), November 2015.

   [PEN]      IANA, "Private Enterprise Numbers", <https://www.iana.org/
              assignments/enterprise-numbers>.

   [IEEE8021X]
              IEEE, "IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area
              Networks: Port based Network Access Control, IEEE Std", .

   [github]   Cisco, "IPv6-mPvD github repository", <https://github.com/
              IPv6-mPvD>.

Appendix A.  Changelog

   Note to RFC Editors: Remove this section before publication.

A.1.  Version 00

   Initial version of the draft.  Edited by Basile Bruneau + Eric Vyncke
   and based on Basile's work.

A.2.  Version 01

   Major rewrite intended to focus on the the retained solution based on
   corridors, online, and WG discussions.  Edited by Pierre Pfister.
   The following list only includes major changes.

      PvD ID is an FQDN retrieved using a single RA option.  This option
      contains a sequence number for push-based updates, a new H-flag,
      and a L-flag in order to link the PvD with the IPv4 DHCP server.

      A lifetime is included in the PvD ID option.




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      Detailed Hosts and Routers specifications.

      Additional Information is retrieved using HTTP-over-TLS when the
      PvD ID Option H-flag is set.  Retrieving the object is optional.

      The PvD Additional Information object includes a validity date.

      DNS-based approach is removed as well as the DNS-based encoding of
      the PvD Additional Information.

      Major cut in the list of proposed JSON keys.  This document may be
      extended later if need be.

      Monetary discussion is moved to the appendix.

      Clarification about the 'prefixes' contained in the additional
      information.

      Clarification about the processing of DHCPv6.

Appendix B.  Connection monetary cost

   NOTE: This section is included as a request for comment on the
   potential use and syntax.

   The billing of a connection can be done in a lot of different ways.
   The user can have a global traffic threshold per month, after which
   his throughput is limited, or after which he/she pays each megabyte.
   He/she can also have an unlimited access to some websites, or an
   unlimited access during the weekends.

   An option is to split the bill in elementary billings, which have
   conditions (a start date, an end date, a destination IP address...).
   The global billing is an ordered list of elementary billings.  To
   know the cost of a transmission, the host goes through the list, and
   the first elementary billing whose the conditions are fulfilled gives
   the cost.  If no elementary billing conditions match the request, the
   host MUST make no assumption about the cost.

B.1.  Conditions

   Here are the potential conditions for an elementary billing.  All
   conditions MUST be fulfill.








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   +-----------+-------------+---------------+-------------------------+
   | Key       | Description | Type          | JSON Example            |
   +-----------+-------------+---------------+-------------------------+
   | beginDate | Date before | ISO 8601      | "1977-04-22T06:00:00Z"  |
   |           | which the   |               |                         |
   |           | billing is  |               |                         |
   |           | not valid   |               |                         |
   | endDate   | Date after  | ISO 8601      | "1977-04-22T06:00:00Z"  |
   |           | which the   |               |                         |
   |           | billing is  |               |                         |
   |           | not valid   |               |                         |
   | domains   | FQDNs whose | array(string) | ["deezer.com","spotify. |
   |           | the billing |               | com"]                   |
   |           | is limited  |               |                         |
   | prefixes4 | IPv4        | array(string) | ["78.40.123.182/32","78 |
   |           | prefixes    |               | .40.123.183/32"]        |
   |           | whose the   |               |                         |
   |           | billing is  |               |                         |
   |           | limited     |               |                         |
   | prefixes6 | IPv6        | array(string) | ["2a00:1450:4007:80e::2 |
   |           | prefixes    |               | 00e/64"]                |
   |           | whose the   |               |                         |
   |           | billing is  |               |                         |
   |           | limited     |               |                         |
   +-----------+-------------+---------------+-------------------------+

B.2.  Price

   Here are the different possibilities for the cost of an elementary
   billing.  A missing key means "all/unlimited/unrestricted".  If the
   elementary billing selected has a trafficRemaining of 0 kb, then it
   means that the user has no access to the network.  Actually, if the
   last elementary billing has a trafficRemaining parameter, it means
   that when the user will reach the threshold, he/she will not have
   access to the network anymore.
















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   +------------------+------------------+--------------+--------------+
   | Key              | Description      | Type         | JSON Example |
   +------------------+------------------+--------------+--------------+
   | pricePerGb       | The price per    | float        | 2            |
   |                  | Gigabit          | (currency    |              |
   |                  |                  | per Gb)      |              |
   | currency         | The currency     | ISO 4217     | "EUR"        |
   |                  | used             |              |              |
   | throughputMax    | The maximum      | float (kb/s) | 100000       |
   |                  | achievable       |              |              |
   |                  | throughput       |              |              |
   | trafficRemaining | The traffic      | float (kB)   | 12000000     |
   |                  | remaining        |              |              |
   +------------------+------------------+--------------+--------------+

B.3.  Examples

   Example for a user with 20 GB per month for 40 EUR, then reach a
   threshold, and with unlimited data during weekends and to
   example.com:

   [
     {
       "domains": ["example.com"]
     },
     {
       "prefixes4": ["78.40.123.182/32","78.40.123.183/32"]
     },
     {
       "beginDate": "2016-07-16T00:00:00Z",
       "endDate": "2016-07-17T23:59:59Z",
     },
     {
       "beginDate": "2016-06-20T00:00:00Z",
       "endDate": "2016-07-19T23:59:59Z",
       "trafficRemaining": 12000000
     },
     {
       "throughputMax": 100000
     }
   ]

   If the host tries to download data from example.com, the conditions
   of the first elementary billing are fulfilled, so the host takes this
   elementary billing, finds no cost indication in it and so deduces
   that it is totally free.  If the host tries to exchange data with
   foobar.com and the date is 2016-07-14T19:00:00Z, the conditions of
   the first, second and third elementary billing are not fulfilled.



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   But the conditions of the fourth are.  So the host takes this
   elementary billing and sees that there is a threshold, 12 GB are
   remaining.

   Another example for a user abroad, who has 3 GB per year abroad, and
   then pay each MB:

   [
     {
       "beginDate": "2016-02-10T00:00:00Z",
       "endDate": "2017-02-09T23:59:59Z",
       "trafficRemaining": 3000000
     },
     {
       "pricePerGb": 30,
       "currency": "EUR"
     }
   ]

Authors' Addresses

   Basile Bruneau
   Ecole Polytechnique
   Vannes  56000
   France

   Email: basile.bruneau@polytechnique.edu


   Pierre Pfister
   Cisco
   11 Rue Camille Desmoulins
   Issy-les-Moulineaux  92130
   France

   Email: ppfister@cisco.com


   David Schinazi
   Apple

   Email: dschinazi@apple.com


   Tommy Pauly
   Apple

   Email: tpauly@apple.com



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   Eric Vyncke
   Cisco
   De Kleetlaan, 6
   Diegem  1831
   Belgium

   Email: evyncke@cisco.com












































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