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Versions: 00 01 02 03 draft-xu-mpls-sr-over-ip

MPLS Working Group                                        S. Bryant, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track                          A. Farrel, Ed.
Expires: March 2, 2018                                          J. Drake
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                             J. Tantsura
                                                              Individual
                                                         August 29, 2017


                  MPLS Segment Routing in IP Networks
                   draft-bryant-mpls-unified-ip-sr-02

Abstract

   Segment routing is a source routed forwarding method that allows
   packets to be steered through a network on paths other than the
   shortest path derived from the routing protocol.  The approach uses
   information encoded in the packet header to partially or completely
   specify the route the packet takes through the network, and does not
   make use of a signaling protocol to pre-install paths in the network.

   Two different encapsulations have been defined to enable segment
   routing in an MPLS network or in an IPv6 network.  While
   acknowledging that there is a strong need to support segment routing
   in both environments, this document defines a mechanism to carry MPLS
   segment routing packets encapsulated in UDP.  The resulting approach
   is applicable to both IPv4 and IPv6 networks without the need for any
   changes to the IP or segment routing specifications.

   This document makes no changes to the segment routing architecture
   and builds on existing protocol mechanisms such as the encapsulation
   of MPLS within UDP defined in RFC 7510.

   No new procedures are introduced, but existing mechanisms are
   combined to achieve the desired result.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.




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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  The MPLS-SR-over-UDP Encoding Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  The Segment Routing Instruction Stack . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  TTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  UDP/IP Encapsulation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Elements of Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Domain Ingress Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.2.  Legacy Transit Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.3.  On-Path Pass-Through SR Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.4.  SR Transit Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.5.  Penultimate SR Transit Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     5.6.  Domain Egress Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Modes of Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.1.  Interconnection of SR Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.2.  SR Within an IP Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   7.  Control Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14



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   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   12. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   Segment routing (SR) [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] is a source
   routed forwarding method that allows packets to be steered through a
   network on paths other than the shortest path derived from the
   routing protocol.  SR also allows the packets to be steered through a
   set of packet processing functions along that path.  SR uses
   information encoded in the packet header to partially or completely
   specify the route the packet takes through the network and does not
   make use of a signaling protocol to pre-install paths in the network.

   The approach to segment routing in IPv6 networks is known as SRv6 and
   is described in [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header].  The
   mechanism described encodes the segment routing instruction list as
   an ordered list of 128-bit IPv6 addresses that is carried in a new
   IPv6 extension header: the Source Routing Header (SRH).

   MPLS-SPRING [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] (also known as
   MPLS Segment Routing or MPLS-SR) encodes the route the packet takes
   through the network and the instructions to be applied to the packet
   as it transits the network by imposing a stack of MPLS label entries
   on the packet.

   This document describes a method for running SR in IPv4 or IPv6
   networks by using an MPLS-SR label stack carried in UDP.  No change
   is made to the MPLS-SR encoding mechanism as described in
   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] where a sequence of 32 bit
   units, one for each instruction, called the Segment Routing
   Instruction Stack (SRIS) is used.  Each basic unit is encoded as an
   MPLS label stack entry and the segment routing instructions (i.e.,
   the Segment Identifiers, SIDs) are encoded in the 20 bit MPLS Label
   fields.

   In summary, the processing described in this document is a
   combination of normal MPLS-over-UDP behavior as described in
   [RFC7510], MPLS-SR lookup and label-pop behavior as described in
   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls], and normal IP forwarding.  No
   new procedures are introduced, but existing mechanisms are combined
   to achieve the desired result.





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   The method defined is a complementary way of running SR in an IP
   network that can be used alongside or interchangeably with that
   defined in [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header].  Implementers and
   deployers should consider the benefits and drawbacks of each method
   and select the approach most suited to their needs.

2.  The MPLS-SR-over-UDP Encoding Stack

   The MPLS-SR-over-UDP encoding stack is shown in Figure 1.


    +---------------------+
    |                     |
    |      IP Header      |
    |                     |
    +---------------------+
    |                     |
    |     UDP Header      |
    |                     |
    +---------------------+
    |                     |
    |   Segment Routing   |
    |  Instruction Stack  |
    ~                     ~
    ~                     ~
    |                     |
    +---------------------+
    |                     |
    |      Payload        |
    ~                     ~
    ~                     ~
    |                     |
    +---------------------+


                      Figure 1: Packet Encapsulation

   The payload may be of any type that, with an appropriate convergence
   layer, can be carried over a packet network.  It is anticipated that
   the most common packet types will be IPv4, IPv6, native MPLS, and
   pseudowires [RFC3985].

   Preceding the Payload is the Segment Routing Instruction Stack (SRIS)
   that carries the sequence of instructions to be executed on the
   packet as it traverses the network.  This is the Segment Identifier
   (SID) stack that is the ordered list of segments described in
   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing].




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   Preceding the SRIS is a UDP header.  The UDP header is included to:

   o  Introduce entropy to allow equal-cost multi-path load balancing
      (ECMP) [RFC2992] in the IP layer [RFC7510].

   o  Provide a protocol multiplexing layer as an alternative to using a
      new IP type/next header.

   o  Allow transit through firewalls and other middleboxes.

   o  Provide disaggregation.

   Preceding the UDP header is the IP header which may be IPv4 or IPv6.

3.  The Segment Routing Instruction Stack

   The SRIS consists of a sequence of Segment Identifiers as described
   in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] encoded as an MPLS label stack
   as described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls].

   The top SRIS entry is the next instruction to be executed.  When the
   node to which this instruction is directed has processed the
   instruction it is removed (popped) from the SRIS, and the next
   instruction processed.

   Each instruction is encoded in a single Label Stack Entry (LSE) as
   shown in Figure 2.  The structure of the LSE is unchanged from
   [RFC3032].


    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Instruction                  | TC  |S|   TTL     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Instruction:  Label Value, 20 bits
                   TC:           Traffic Class, 3 bits
                   S:            Bottom of Stack, 1 bit
                   TTL:          Time to Live, 8 bits


                     Figure 2: SRIS Label Stack Entry

   As with [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls] a 32 bit LSE is used
   to carry each SR instruction.  The instruction itself is carried in
   the 20 bit Label Value field.  The TC field has the normal meaning as
   defined in [RFC3032] and modified in [RFC5462].  The S bit has bottom



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   of stack semantics defined in [RFC3032].  TTL is discussed in
   Section 3.1.

3.1.  TTL

   The setting of the TTL is application specific, but the following
   operational consideration should be born in mind.  In SR the size of
   the label stack may be increased within a single routing domain by
   various operations such as the pushing of a binding SID.  Furthermore
   in SR packets are not necessarily constrained to travel on the
   shortest path with that routing domain.  Consideration therefore has
   to be given to possibility of a forwarding loop.  To mitigate against
   this it is RECOMMENDED that the TTL is continuously decremented as
   the packet passes through the SR network regardless of any other
   changes to the network layer encapsulation.

   Further discussion of the use of TTL during tunnelling can be found
   in [RFC4023].

4.  UDP/IP Encapsulation

   The procedures defined in [RFC7510] are followed.  RFC7510 specifies
   the values to be used in the UDP Source Port, Destination Port, and
   Checksum fields.

   An administrative domain, or set of administrative domains that are
   sufficiently well managed and monitored to be able to safely use IP
   segment routing is likely to comply with the requirements called out
   in [RFC7510] to permit operation with a zero checksum over IPv6.
   However each operator needs to validate the decision on whether or
   not to use a UDP checksum for themselves.

   The [RFC7510] UDP header may be carried over IPv4 or over IPv6.

   The IP source address is the address of the encapsulating device.
   The IP destination address is implied by the instruction at the top
   of the instruction stack.

   If IPv4 is in use, fragmentation is not permitted.

5.  Elements of Procedure

   Not all of the nodes in an SR domain are "SR capable" meaning that
   they can process MPLS-SR packets.  Some nodes may be "legacy routers"
   that cannot handle SR packets but can forward IP packets.  An SR
   capable node may advertise its capabilities using the IGP as
   described in Section 7.  There are six types of node in an SR domain:




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   o  Domain ingress nodes that receive packets and encapsulate them for
      transmission across the domain.  These packets may be any payload
      protocol including native IP packets or packets that are already
      MPLS encapsulated.

   o  Legacy transit nodes that are IP routers but that are not able to
      perform segment routing.

   o  Transit nodes that are SR capable but that are not identified by a
      SID in the SID stack.

   o  Transit nodes that are SR capable and need to perform SR routing.

   o  The penultimate SR capable node on the path that processes the
      last SID on the stack on behalf of the domain egress node.

   o  The domain egress node that forwards the payload packet for
      ultimate delivery.

   The following sub-sections describe the processing behavior in each
   case.

   In summary, the processing is a combination of normal MPLS-over-UDP
   behavior as described in [RFC7510], MPLS-SR lookup and label-pop
   behavior as described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls], and
   normal IP forwarding.  No new procedures are introduced, but existing
   mechanisms ae combined to achieve the desired result.

   The descriptions in the following sections represent the functional
   behavior.  Optimizations on this behavior may be possible in
   implementations.

5.1.  Domain Ingress Nodes

   Domain ingress nodes receive packets from outside the domain and
   encapsulate them to be forwarded across the domain.  Received packets
   may already be MPLS-SR packets (in the case of connecting two MPLS-SR
   networks across a native IP network), or may be IP or MPLS packets.

   In the latter case, the packet is classified by the domain ingress
   node and an MPLS-SR stack is imposed.  In the former case the MPLS-SR
   stack is already in the packet.  The top entry in the stack is popped
   from the stack and retained for use below.

   The packet is then encapsulated in UDP with the destination port set
   to 6635 to indicate "MPLS-UDP" or to 6636 to indicate "MPLS-UDP-
   DTLS"as described in [RFC7510].  The source UDP port is set randomly
   or to provide entropy as described in [RFC7510].



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   The packet is then encapsulated in IP for transmission across the
   network.  The IP source address is set to the domain ingress node,
   and the destination address is set to the address corresponding to
   the label that was previously popped from the stack.

   This corresponds to sending the packet out of a virtual interface
   that corresponds to a virtual link between the ingress node and the
   next hop SR node realized by a UDP tunnel.

   The packet is then sent into the IP network and is routed according
   to the local FIB and applying hashing to resolve any ECMP choices.

5.2.  Legacy Transit Nodes

   A legacy transit node is an IP router that has no SR capabilities.
   When such a router receives an MPLS-SR-in-UDP packet it will carry
   out normal TTL processing and if the packet is still live it will
   forward it as it would any other UDP-in-IP packet.  The packet will
   be routed toward the destination indicated in the packet header using
   the local FIB and applying hashing to resolve any ECMP choices.

   If the packet is mistakenly addressed to the legacy router, the UDP
   tunnel will be terminated and the packet will be discarded either
   because the MPLS-in-UDP port is not supported or because the
   uncovered top label has not been allocated.  This is, however, a
   misconnection and should not occur unless there is a routing error.

5.3.  On-Path Pass-Through SR Nodes

   Just because a node is SR capable and receives an MPLS-SR-in-UDP
   packet does not mean that it performs SR processing on the packet.
   Only routers identified by SIDs in the SR stack need to do such
   processing.

   Routers that are not addressed by the destination address in the IP
   header simply treat the packet as a normal UDP-in-IP packet carrying
   out normal TTL processing and if the packet is still live routing the
   packet according to the local FIB and applying hashing to resolve any
   ECMP choices.

   This is important because it means that the SR stack can be kept
   relatively small and the packet can be steered through the network
   using shortest path first routing between selected SR nodes.








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5.4.  SR Transit Nodes

   An SR capable node that is addressed by the top most SID in the stack
   when that is not the last SID in the stack (i.e., the S bit is not
   set) is an SR transit node.  When an SR transit node receives an
   MPLS-SR-in-UDP packet that is addressed to it, it acts as follows:

   o  Perform TTL processing as normal for an IP packet.

   o  Determine that the packet is addressed to the local node.

   o  Find that the payload is UDP and that the destination port
      indicates MPLS-in-UDP.

   o  Strip the IP and UDP headers.

   o  Pop the top label from the SID stack and retain it for use below.

   o  Encapsulate the packet in UDP with the destination port set to
      6635 (or 6636 for DTLS) and the source port set for entropy.  The
      entropy value SHOULD be retained from the received UDP header or
      MAY be freshly generated since this is a new UDP tunnel.

   o  Encapsulate the packet in IP with the IP source address set to
      this transit router, and the destination address set to the
      address corresponding to the next SID in the stack.

   o  Send the packet into the IP network routing the packet according
      to the local FIB and applying hashing to resolve any ECMP choices.

5.5.  Penultimate SR Transit Nodes

   The penultimate SR transit node is an SR transit node as described in
   Section 5.4 where the SID for the node is directly followed by the
   final SID (i.e., that of domain egress node).  When a penultimate SR
   transit node receives an MPLS-SR-in-UDP packet that is addressed to
   it, it acts according to whether penultimate hop popping (PHP) is
   supported for the final SID.  That information could be indicated
   using the control plane as described in Section 7.

   If PHP is allowed the penultimate SR transit node acts as follows:

   o  Perform TTL processing as normal for an IP packet.

   o  Determine that the packet is addressed to the local node.

   o  Find that the payload is UDP and that the destination port
      indicates MPLS-in-UDP.



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   o  Strip the IP and UDP headers.

   o  Pop the top label from the SID stack and retain it for use below.

   o  Pop the next label from the SID stack.

   o  Encapsulate the packet in UDP with the destination port set to
      6635 (or 6636 for DTLS) and the source port set for entropy.  The
      entropy value SHOULD be retained from the received UDP header or
      MAY be freshly generated since this is a new UDP tunnel.

   o  Encapsulate the packet in IP with the IP source address set to
      this transit router, and the destination address set to the domain
      egress node IP address corresponding to the label that was
      previously popped from the stack.

   o  Send the packet into the IP network routing the packet according
      to the local FIB and applying hashing to resolve any ECMP choices.

   If PHP is not supported, the penultimate SR transit node just acts as
   a normal SR transit node just as described in Section 5.4.  However,
   the penultimate SR transit node may be required to replace the final
   SID with an MPLS-SR label stack entry carrying an explicit null label
   value (0 for IPv4 and 2 for IPv6) before forwarding the packet.  This
   requirement may also be indicated by the control plane as described
   in Section 7.

5.6.  Domain Egress Nodes

   The domain egress acts as follows:

   o  Perform TTL processing as normal for an IP packet.

   o  Determine that the packet is addressed to the local node.

   o  Find that the payload is UDP and that the destination port
      indicates MPLS-in-UDP.

   o  Strip the IP and UDP headers.

   o  Pop the outermost SID if present (i.e., if PHP was not performed
      as described in Section 5.5.

   o  Pop the explicit null label if it is present in the label stack as
      requested by the domain egress and communicated in the control
      plane as described in Section 7.





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   o  Forward the payload packet according to its type and the local
      routing/forwarding mechanisms.

6.  Modes of Deployment

   As previously noted, the procedures described in this document may be
   used to connect islands of SR functionality across an IP backbone, or
   can provide SR function within a native IP network.  This section
   briefly expounds upon those two deployment modes.

6.1.  Interconnection of SR Domains

   Figure 3 shows two SR domains interconnected by an IP network.  The
   procedures described in this document are deployed at border routers
   R1 and R2 and packets are carried across the backbone network in a
   UDP tunnel.

   R1 acts as the domain ingress as described in Section 5.1.  It takes
   the MPLS-SR packet from the SR domain, pops the top label and uses it
   to identify its peer border router R2.  R1 then encapsulates the
   packet in UDP in IP and sends it toward R2.

   Routers within the IP network simply forward the packet using normal
   IP routing.

   R2 acts as a domain egress router as described in Section 5.6.  It
   receives a packet that is addressed to it, strips the IP and UDP
   headers, and acts on the payload SR label stack to continue to route
   the packet.


                    ________________________
       ______      (                        )      ______
      (      )    (        IP Network        )    (      )
     (        )  (                            )  (        )
    (      --------                          --------      )
   (      | Border |    SR-in-UDP Tunnel    | Border |      )
   (  SR  | Router |========================| Router |  SR  )
   (      |   R1   |                        |   R2   |      )
    (      --------                          --------      )
     (        )  (                            )  (        )
      (______)    (                          )    (______)
                   (________________________)


              Figure 3: SR in UDP to Tunnel Between SR Sites





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6.2.  SR Within an IP Network

   Figure 4 shows the procedures defined in this document to provide SR
   function across an IP network.

   R1 receives a native packet and classifies it, determining that it
   should be sent on the SR path R2-R3-R4-R5.  It imposes a label stack
   accordingly and then acts as a domain ingress as described in
   Section 5.1.  It pops the label for R2, and encapsulates the packet
   in UDP in IP, sets the IP source to R1 and the IP destination to R2,
   and sends the packet into the IP network.

   Routers Ra and Rb are transit routers that simply forward the packets
   using normal IP forwarding.  They may be legacy transit routers (see
   Section 5.2) or on-path pass-through SR nodes (see Section 5.3).

   R2 is an SR transit nodes as described in Section 5.4.  It receives a
   packet addressed to it, strips the IP and UDP headers, and processes
   the SR label stack.  It pops the top label and uses it to identify
   the next SR hop which is R3.  R2 then encapsulates the packet in UDP
   in IP setting the IP source to R2 and the IP destination to R3.

   Rc, Rd, and Re are transit routers and perform as Ra and Rb.

   R3 is an SR transit node and performs as R2.

   R4 is a penultimate SR transit node as described in Section 5.5.  It
   receives a packet addressed to it, strips the IP and UDP headers, and
   processes the SR label stack.  It pops the top label and uses it to
   identify the next SR hop which is R5.

   R5 is the domain egress as described in Section 5.6.  It receives a
   packet addressed to it, strips the IP and UDP headers.


















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                    __________________________________
                 __(           IP Network             )__
              __(                                        )__
             (               --        --        --         )
        --------   --   --  |R2|  --  |R3|  --  |R4|  --   --------
       | Ingress| |Ra| |Rb| |  | |Rc| |  | |Rd| |  | |Re| | Egress |
   --->| Router |===========|  |======|  |======|  |======| Router |--->
       |   R1   | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |  | |   R5   |
        --------   --   --  |  |  --  |  |  --  |  |  --   --------
             (__             --        --        --       __)
                (__                                    __)
                   (__________________________________)


                     Figure 4: SR Within an IP Network

7.  Control Plane

   This document is concerned with forwarding plane issues, and a
   description of applicable control plane mechanisms is out of scope.
   This section is provided only as a collection of references.  No
   changes to the control plane mechanisms for MPLS-SR are needed or
   proposed.

   A routers that is able to support SR can advertise the fact in the
   IGP as follows:

   o  In IS-IS, by using the SR-Capabilities TLV as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions]

   o  In OSPF/OSPFv3 by using the Router Information LSA as defined in
      [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions] and
      [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions].

   Nodes can advertise SIDs using the mechanisms defined in
   [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions],
   [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions], or
   [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions].

   Support for PHP can be indicated in a SID advertisement using flags
   in the advertisements as follows:

   o  For IS-IS, the N (no-PHP) flag in the Prefix-SID sub-TLV indicates
      whether PHP is not to be used.

   o  For OSPF/OSPFv3, the NP (no-PHP) flag in the Prefix SID Sub-TLV
      indicates whether PHP is not to be used.




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   The requirement to use an explicit null SID if PHP is not in use can
   be indicated in SID advertisement using the Explicit-Null Flag
   (E-Flag).  If set, the penultimate SR transit node replaces the final
   SID with a SID containing an Explicit-NULL value (0 for IPv4 and 2
   for IPv6) before forwarding the packet.

   The method of advertising the tunnel encapsulation capability of a
   router using IS-IS or OSPF are specified in
   [I-D.ietf-isis-encapsulation-cap] and
   [I-D.ietf-ospf-encapsulation-cap] respectively.  No changes to those
   procedures are needed in support of this work.

8.  OAM

   OAM at the payload layer follows the normal OAM procedures for the
   payload.  To the payload the whole SR network looks like a tunnel.

   OAM in the IP domain follows the normal IP procedures.  This can only
   be carried out between on the IP hops between pairs of SR nodes.

   OAM between instruction processing entities i.e. at the SR layer uses
   the procedures documented for MPLS.

9.  Security Considerations

   The security consideration of [I-D.ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases] and
   [RFC7510] apply.  DTLS [RFC6347] SHOULD be used where security is
   needed on an MPLS-SR-over-UDP segment.

   It is difficult for an attacker to pass a raw MPLS encoded packet
   into a network and operators have considerable experience at
   excluding such packets at the network boundaries.

   It is easy for an ingress node to detect any attempt to smuggle IP
   packet into the network since it would see that the UDP destination
   port was set to MPLS.  SR packets not having a destination address
   terminating in the network would be transparently carried and would
   pose no security risk to the network under consideration.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no IANA requests.

11.  Acknowledgements

   This draft was partly inspired by
   [I-D.xu-mpls-unified-source-routing-instruction], and we acknowledge
   the following authors of version -02 of that draft: Robert Raszuk,



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   Uma Chunduri, Luis M.  Contreras, Luay Jalil, Hamid Assarpour, Gunter
   Van De Velde, Jeff Tantsura, and Shaowen Ma.

   Thanks to Joel Halpern, Bruno Decraene, Loa Andersson, Ron Bonica,
   Eric Rosen, Robert Raszuk, Wim Henderickx, Jim Guichard, and Gunter
   Van De Velde for their insightful comments on this draft.

12.  Contributors

   o  Mach Chen, Huawei Technologies, mach.chen@huawei.com

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]
              Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S.,
              and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", draft-ietf-
              spring-segment-routing-12 (work in progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls]
              Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Bashandy, A., Decraene, B.,
              Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing with MPLS
              data plane", draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-mpls-10
              (work in progress), June 2017.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3032]  Rosen, E., Tappan, D., Fedorkow, G., Rekhter, Y.,
              Farinacci, D., Li, T., and A. Conta, "MPLS Label Stack
              Encoding", RFC 3032, DOI 10.17487/RFC3032, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3032>.

   [RFC5462]  Andersson, L. and R. Asati, "Multiprotocol Label Switching
              (MPLS) Label Stack Entry: "EXP" Field Renamed to "Traffic
              Class" Field", RFC 5462, DOI 10.17487/RFC5462, February
              2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5462>.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
              January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.







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   [RFC7510]  Xu, X., Sheth, N., Yong, L., Callon, R., and D. Black,
              "Encapsulating MPLS in UDP", RFC 7510,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7510, April 2015, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc7510>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-6man-segment-routing-header]
              Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Raza, K., Leddy, J., Field, B.,
              daniel.voyer@bell.ca, d., daniel.bernier@bell.ca, d.,
              Matsushima, S., Leung, I., Linkova, J., Aries, E., Kosugi,
              T., Vyncke, E., Lebrun, D., Steinberg, D., and R. Raszuk,
              "IPv6 Segment Routing Header (SRH)", draft-ietf-6man-
              segment-routing-header-07 (work in progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-isis-encapsulation-cap]
              Xu, X., Decraene, B., Raszuk, R., Chunduri, U., Contreras,
              L., and L. Jalil, "Advertising Tunnelling Capability in
              IS-IS", draft-ietf-isis-encapsulation-cap-01 (work in
              progress), April 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-isis-segment-routing-extensions]
              Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Bashandy, A., Gredler, H.,
              Litkowski, S., Decraene, B., and j. jefftant@gmail.com,
              "IS-IS Extensions for Segment Routing", draft-ietf-isis-
              segment-routing-extensions-13 (work in progress), June
              2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-encapsulation-cap]
              Xu, X., Decraene, B., Raszuk, R., Contreras, L., and L.
              Jalil, "Advertising Tunneling Capability in OSPF", draft-
              ietf-ospf-encapsulation-cap-06 (work in progress), July
              2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-ospfv3-segment-routing-extensions]
              Psenak, P., Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Gredler, H.,
              Shakir, R., Henderickx, W., and J. Tantsura, "OSPFv3
              Extensions for Segment Routing", draft-ietf-ospf-ospfv3-
              segment-routing-extensions-09 (work in progress), March
              2017.

   [I-D.ietf-ospf-segment-routing-extensions]
              Psenak, P., Previdi, S., Filsfils, C., Gredler, H.,
              Shakir, R., Henderickx, W., and J. Tantsura, "OSPF
              Extensions for Segment Routing", draft-ietf-ospf-segment-
              routing-extensions-19 (work in progress), August 2017.





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   [I-D.ietf-spring-ipv6-use-cases]
              Brzozowski, J., Leddy, J., Filsfils, C., Maglione, R., and
              M. Townsley, "IPv6 SPRING Use Cases", draft-ietf-spring-
              ipv6-use-cases-11 (work in progress), June 2017.

   [I-D.xu-mpls-unified-source-routing-instruction]
              Xu, X., Filsfils, C., Bashandy, A., Raszuk, R., Chunduri,
              U., Contreras, L., Jalil, L., Assarpour, H., Velde, G.,
              Tantsura, J., Ma, S., and T. Mizrahi, "Unified Source
              Routing Instructions using MPLS Label Stack", draft-xu-
              mpls-unified-source-routing-instruction-03 (work in
              progress), August 2017.

   [RFC2992]  Hopps, C., "Analysis of an Equal-Cost Multi-Path
              Algorithm", RFC 2992, DOI 10.17487/RFC2992, November 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2992>.

   [RFC3985]  Bryant, S., Ed. and P. Pate, Ed., "Pseudo Wire Emulation
              Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture", RFC 3985,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3985, March 2005, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc3985>.

   [RFC4023]  Worster, T., Rekhter, Y., and E. Rosen, Ed.,
              "Encapsulating MPLS in IP or Generic Routing Encapsulation
              (GRE)", RFC 4023, DOI 10.17487/RFC4023, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4023>.

Authors' Addresses

   Stewart Bryant (editor)
   Huawei

   Email: stewart.bryant@gmail.com


   Adrian Farrel (editor)
   Juniper Networks

   Email: afarrel@juniper.net


   John Drake
   Juniper Networks

   Email: jdrake@juniper.net






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   Jeff Tantsura
   Individual

   Email: jefftant.ietf@gmail.com















































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