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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 draft-ietf-geojson

Independent                                                    H. Butler
Internet-Draft                                                 Hobu Inc.
Intended status: Informational                                   M. Daly
Expires: February 6, 2015                                        Cadcorp
                                                                A. Doyle
                                                                     MIT
                                                              S. Gillies
                                                             Mapbox Inc.
                                                               T. Schaub
                                                                 OpenGeo
                                                                S. Drees

                                                          August 5, 2014


                           The GeoJSON Format
                        draft-butler-geojson-04

Abstract

   GeoJSON is a geospatial data interchange format based on JavaScript
   Object Notation (JSON).  It defines several types of JSON objects and
   the manner in which they are combined to represent data about
   geographic features, their properties, and their spatial extents.
   This document recommends a single coordinate reference system based
   on WGS 84.  Other coordinate reference systems are not recommended.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 6, 2015.








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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.3.  Specification of GeoJSON  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.4.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     1.5.  Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  GeoJSON Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.1.  Geometry Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.1.1.  Position  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       2.1.2.  Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.3.  MultiPoint  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.4.  LineString  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.5.  MultiLineString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.6.  Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       2.1.7.  MultiPolygon  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       2.1.8.  Geometry Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.2.  Feature Object  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.3.  Feature Collection Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   3.  Coordinate Reference System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Bounding Box  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   6.  Interoperability Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Appendix A.  Geometry Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     A.1.  Points  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     A.2.  LineStrings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     A.3.  Polygons  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     A.4.  MultiPoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14



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     A.5.  MultiLineStrings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     A.6.  MultiPolygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     A.7.  GeometryCollections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Appendix B.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   GeoJSON is a format for encoding data about geographic features using
   JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC7159].  The format is concerned
   with features in the broadest sense; any thing with qualities that
   are bounded in geographical space may be a feature whether it is a
   physical structure or not.  The concepts in GeoJSON are not new; they
   are derived from pre-existing open geographic information system
   standards (for COM, SQL, and XML) and have been streamlined to better
   suit web application development using JSON.

   GeoJSON comprises the seven concrete geometry types defined in the
   OpenGIS Simple Features Implementation Specification for SQL [SFSQL]:
   0-dimensional Point and MultiPoint; 1-dimensional curve LineString
   and MultiLineString; 2-dimensional surface Polygon and MultiPolygon;
   and the heterogeneous GeometryCollection.  GeoJSON representations of
   instances of these geometry types are analogous to the well-known
   binary (WKB) and text (WKT) representations described in that same
   specification.

   GeoJSON also comprises the types Feature and FeatureCollection.
   Feature objects in GeoJSON contain a geometry object with one of the
   above geometry types and additional properties.  A FeatureCollection
   object contains an array of feature objects.  This structure is
   analogous to that of the Web Feature Service (WFS) response to
   GetFeatures requests specified in [WFSv1] or to a KML Folder of
   Placemarks [KMLv2.2].  Some implementations of the WFS specification
   also provide GeoJSON formatted responses to GetFeature requests, but
   there is no particular service model or feature type ontology implied
   in the GeoJSON format specification.

   Since its initial publication in 2008 [GJ2008], the GeoJSON format
   specification has steadily grown in popularity.  It is widely used in
   JavaScript web mapping libraries, JSON-based document databases, and
   web APIs.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].



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1.2.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The ordering of the members of any JSON object defined in this
   document MUST be considered irrelevant, as specified by [RFC7159].

   Some examples use the combination of a JavaScript single line comment
   (//) followed by an ellipsis (...) as placeholder notation for
   content deemed irrelevant by the authors.  These placeholders must of
   course be deleted or otherwise replaced, before attempting to
   validate the corresponding JSON code example.

   Whitespace is used in the examples inside this document to help
   illustrate the data structures, but is not required.  Unquoted
   whitespace is not significant in JSON.

1.3.  Specification of GeoJSON

   This document updates the original GeoJSON format specification
   [GJ2008].

1.4.  Definitions

   o  JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and the terms object, name,
      value, array, number, true, false, and null are to be interpreted
      as defined in [RFC7159].

   o  Inside this document the term "geometry type" refers to the seven
      case-sensitive strings: "Point", "MultiPoint", "LineString",
      "MultiLineString", "Polygon", "MultiPolygon", and
      "GeometryCollection".

   o  As another shorthand notation, the term "GeoJSON types" refers to
      the nine case-sensitive strings "Feature", "FeatureCollection" and
      the geometry types listed above.

1.5.  Example

   A GeoJSON feature collection:













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   {
       "type": "FeatureCollection",
       "features": [{
           "type": "Feature",
           "geometry": {
               "type": "Point",
               "coordinates": [102.0, 0.5]
           },
           "properties": {
               "prop0": "value0"
           }
       }, {
           "type": "Feature",
           "geometry": {
               "type": "LineString",
               "coordinates": [
                   [102.0, 0.0],
                   [103.0, 1.0],
                   [104.0, 0.0],
                   [105.0, 1.0]
               ]
           },
           "properties": {
               "prop0": "value0",
               "prop1": 0.0
           }
       }, {
           "type": "Feature",
           "geometry": {
               "type": "Polygon",
               "coordinates": [
                   [
                       [100.0, 0.0],
                       [101.0, 0.0],
                       [101.0, 1.0],
                       [100.0, 1.0],
                       [100.0, 0.0]
                   ]
               ]
           },
           "properties": {
               "prop0": "value0",
               "prop1": {
                   "this": "that"
               }
           }
       }]
   }



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2.  GeoJSON Object

   GeoJSON always consists of a single object.  This object (referred to
   as the GeoJSON object below) represents a geometry, feature, or
   collection of features.

   o  The GeoJSON object MUST have a member with the name "type".  The
      value of the member MUST be one of the GeoJSON types.

   o  The GeoJSON object MAY have any number of other members.

   o  A GeoJSON object MAY have a "bbox" member, the value of which MUST
      be a bounding box array (see 4.  Bounding Boxes).

2.1.  Geometry Object

   A geometry object is a GeoJSON object where the "type" value is one
   of the geometry types.  A GeoJSON geometry object of any type other
   than "GeometryCollection" MUST have a member with the name
   "coordinates".  The value of the coordinates member is always an
   array.  The structure of the elements in this array is determined by
   the type of geometry.  GeoJSON processors MAY interpret geometry
   objects with empty coordinates arrays as null objects.

2.1.1.  Position

   A position is the fundamental geometry construct.  The "coordinates"
   member of a geometry object is composed of either:

   o  one position (in the case of a Point geometry),

   o  an array of positions (LineString or MultiPoint geometries),

   o  an array of arrays of positions (Polygons, MultiLineStrings),

   o  or a multidimensional array of positions (MultiPolygon).

   A position is represented by an array of numbers.  There MUST be two
   or more elements.  The first two elements will be longitude and
   latitude, or easting and northing, precisely in that order and using
   decimal numbers.  Altitude or elevation MAY be included as an
   optional third element.

   Additional position elements MAY be included but MUST follow the
   three specified above and MAY be ignored by software.  Interpretation
   and meaning of additional elements is beyond the scope of this
   specification.




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   Examples of positions and geometries are provided in "Appendix A.
   Geometry Examples".

2.1.2.  Point

   For type "Point", the "coordinates" member MUST be a single position.

2.1.3.  MultiPoint

   For type "MultiPoint", the "coordinates" member MUST be an array of
   positions.

2.1.4.  LineString

   For type "LineString", the "coordinates" member MUST be an array of
   two or more positions.

2.1.5.  MultiLineString

   For type "MultiLineString", the "coordinates" member MUST be an array
   of LineString coordinate arrays.

2.1.6.  Polygon

   To specify a constraint specific to polygons, it is useful to
   introduce the concept of a linear ring:

   o  A linear ring is a closed LineString with 4 or more positions.

   o  The first and last positions are equivalent (they represent
      equivalent points).

   o  A linear ring is the boundary of a surface or the boundary of a
      hole in a surface.

   Though a linear ring is not explicitly represented as a GeoJSON
   geometry type, it leads to a canonical formulation of the Polygon
   geometry type definition as follows:

   o  For type "Polygon", the "coordinates" member MUST be an array of
      linear ring coordinate arrays.

   o  For Polygons with more than one of these rings, the first MUST be
      the exterior ring and any others MUST be interior rings.  The
      exterior ring bounds the surface and the interiors rings (if
      present) bound holes within the surface.





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2.1.7.  MultiPolygon

   For type "MultiPolygon", the "coordinates" member MUST be an array of
   Polygon coordinate arrays.

2.1.8.  Geometry Collection

   A GeoJSON object with type "GeometryCollection" is a geometry object
   which represents a collection of geometry objects.  A geometry
   collection MUST have a member with the name "geometries".  The value
   corresponding to "geometries" is an array.  Each element in this
   array is a GeoJSON geometry object.

2.2.  Feature Object

   A GeoJSON object with the type "Feature" is a feature object.

   o  A feature object MUST have a member with the name "geometry".  The
      value of the geometry member SHALL be either a geometry object as
      defined above or, in the the case that the feature is unlocated, a
      JSON null value.

   o  A feature object MUST have a member with the name "properties".
      The value of the properties member is an object (any JSON object
      or a JSON null value).

   o  If a feature has a commonly used identifier, that identifier
      SHOULD be included as a member of the feature object with the name
      "id" and the value of this member is either a JSON string or
      number.

2.3.  Feature Collection Object

   A GeoJSON object with the type "FeatureCollection" is a feature
   collection object.  An object of type "FeatureCollection" MUST have a
   member with the name "features".  The value corresponding to
   "features" is an array.  Each element in the array is a feature
   object as defined above.

3.  Coordinate Reference System

   The default reference system for all GeoJSON coordinates SHALL be a
   geographic coordinate reference system, using the [WGS84] datum, and
   with longitude and latitude units of decimal degrees.  This
   coordinate reference system is equivalent to the OGC's "http://
   www.opengis.net/def/crs/OGC/1.3/CRS84" [OGCURL].  An OPTIONAL third
   position element SHALL be the height in meters above the WGS 84




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   reference ellipsoid.  For widest interoperability, GeoJSON data
   SHOULD use this default coordinate reference system.

   Other coordinate reference systems, including ones described by CRS
   objects of the kind defined in [GJ2008] are NOT RECOMMENDED.  GeoJSON
   processing software SHALL NOT be expected to have access to
   coordinate reference systems databases.  Applications requiring CRS
   other than the default MUST assume all responsibility for reference
   system and coordinate accuracy.  Furthermore, GeoJSON coordinates
   MUST NOT under any circumstances use latitude, longitude order.  See
   Section 6, Interoperability Considerations, for guidance in
   processing GeoJSON documents that do contain such a CRS object.

4.  Bounding Box

   A GeoJSON object MAY have a member named "bbox" to include
   information on the coordinate range for its geometries, features, or
   feature collections.  The value of the bbox member MUST be an array
   of length 2*n where n is the number of dimensions represented in the
   contained geometries, with the lowest values for all axes followed by
   the highest values.  The axes order of a bbox follows the axes order
   of geometries.

   Example of a bbox member on a feature:

   {
       "type": "Feature",
       "bbox": [-180.0, -90.0, 180.0, 90.0],
       "geometry": {
           "type": "Polygon",
           "coordinates": [
               [
                   [-180.0, 10.0],
                   [20.0, 90.0],
                   [180.0, -5.0],
                   [-30.0, -90.0]
               ]
           ]
       }
       //...
   }

   Example of a bbox member on a feature collection:








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   {
       "type": "FeatureCollection",
       "bbox": [100.0, 0.0, 105.0, 1.0],
       "features": [
       //...
       ]
   }

5.  Security Considerations

   GeoJSON shares security issues common to all JSON content types.  See
   [RFC7159] Section 12 for additional information.  GeoJSON does not
   provide executable content.

   As with other geographic data formats, e.g., [KMLv2.2], providing
   details about the locations of sensitive persons, animals, habitats,
   and facilities can expose them to unauthorized tracking or injury.
   GeoJSON does not provide privacy or integrity services; if sensitive
   data requires privacy or integrity protection the service must be
   provided externally.

6.  Interoperability Considerations

   There are differences among geographic data formats over whether
   latitude or longitude come first in a pair of numbers.  Longitude
   comes first in GeoJSON coordinates as it does in [KMLv2.2].

   The original GeoJSON format specification [GJ2008] included
   descriptions of coordinate reference system (CRS) objects.  These are
   NOT RECOMMENDED but may be found in existing documents.  When such a
   CRS is encountered in GeoJSON, the document should be processed with
   caution.  The coordinate values may be projected, i.e., easting and
   northing instead of longitude and latitude.

   On encountering a named CRS object with a value of
   "urn:ogc:def:crs:OGC:1.3:CRS84" or "http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/
   OGC/1.3/CRS84", processors SHOULD interpret the coordinates exactly
   as in Section 2.1.1; these CRS are equivalent to the default
   coordinate reference system.

   Due to a history of changing and vernacular usage, extra caution is
   required when processing GeoJSON that has a named CRS object with the
   value "EPSG:4326."  Heuristics may be necessary to interpret the
   coordinates properly; they may not be in the required longitude,
   latitude order.

   When serving GeoJSON, use of CRS objects is NOT RECOMMENDED.  If an
   application requires coordinates in a reference system other than the



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   default, it MUST assume all responsibility for communicating this to
   clients.

   Regardless, GeoJSON coordinates MUST NOT under any circumstances use
   latitude, longitude order.

7.  IANA Considerations

   The MIME media type for GeoJSON text is application/vnd.geo+json.

   Type name: application

   Subtype name: vnd.geo+json

   Required parameters: n/a

   Optional parameters: n/a

   Encoding considerations: binary

   Security considerations: See section 5 above

   Interoperability considerations: See section 6 above

   Published specification: draft-butler-geojson

   Applications that use this media type: various

   Additional information:

      Magic number(s) : n/a

      File extension(s) : .json, .geojson

      Macintosh file type code : TEXT

      Object Identifiers: n/a

   Person to contact for further information:

      Sean Gillies

      sean.gillies@gmail.com

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: none




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8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

8.2.  Informative References

   [GJ2008]   Butler, H., Daly, M., Doyle, A., Gillies, S., Schaub, T.,
              and C. Schmidt, "The GeoJSON Format Specification", June
              2008.

   [KMLv2.2]  Wilson, T., "OGC KML", OGC 07-147r2, April 2008.

   [OGCURL]   Cox, S., "OGC-NA Name type specification - definitions:
              Part 1 - basic name", OGC 09-048r3, March 2010.

   [SFSQL]    OpenGIS Consortium, Inc., "OpenGIS Simple Features
              Specification For SQL Revision 1.1", OGC 99-049, May 1999.

   [WFSv1]    Vretanos, P., "Web Feature Service Implementation
              Specification", OGC 02-058, May 2002.

   [WGS84]    National Imagery and Mapping Agency, "Department of
              Defense World Geodetic System 1984, Third Edition", 1984.

Appendix A.  Geometry Examples

   Each of the examples below represents a valid and complete GeoJSON
   object.

A.1.  Points

   Point coordinates are in x, y order (easting, northing for projected
   coordinates, longitude, latitude for geographic coordinates):

     {
         "type": "Point",
         "coordinates": [100.0, 0.0]
     }







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A.2.  LineStrings

   Coordinates of LineString are an array of positions (see "2.1.1.
   Position"):

     {
         "type": "LineString",
         "coordinates": [
             [100.0, 0.0],
             [101.0, 1.0]
         ]
     }

A.3.  Polygons

   Coordinates of a Polygon are an array of LinearRing (cf.  "2.1.6
   Polygon") coordinate arrays.  The first element in the array
   represents the exterior ring.  Any subsequent elements represent
   interior rings (or holes).

   No holes:

     {
         "type": "Polygon",
         "coordinates": [
             [
                 [100.0, 0.0],
                 [101.0, 0.0],
                 [101.0, 1.0],
                 [100.0, 1.0],
                 [100.0, 0.0]
             ]
         ]
     }

   With holes:















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     {
         "type": "Polygon",
         "coordinates": [
             [
                 [100.0, 0.0],
                 [101.0, 0.0],
                 [101.0, 1.0],
                 [100.0, 1.0],
                 [100.0, 0.0]
             ],
             [
                 [100.2, 0.2],
                 [100.8, 0.2],
                 [100.8, 0.8],
                 [100.2, 0.8],
                 [100.2, 0.2]
             ]
         ]
     }

A.4.  MultiPoints

   Coordinates of a MultiPoint are an array of positions::

     {
         "type": "MultiPoint",
         "coordinates": [
             [100.0, 0.0],
             [101.0, 1.0]
         ]
     }

A.5.  MultiLineStrings

   Coordinates of a MultiLineString are an array of LineString
   coordinate arrays:















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     {
         "type": "MultiLineString",
         "coordinates": [
             [
                 [100.0, 0.0],
                 [101.0, 1.0]
             ],
             [
                 [102.0, 2.0],
                 [103.0, 3.0]
             ]
         ]
     }

A.6.  MultiPolygons

   Coordinates of a MultiPolygon are an array of Polygon coordinate
   arrays:

































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     {
         "type": "MultiPolygon",
         "coordinates": [
             [
                 [
                     [102.0, 2.0],
                     [103.0, 2.0],
                     [103.0, 3.0],
                     [102.0, 3.0],
                     [102.0, 2.0]
                 ]
             ],
             [
                 [
                     [100.0, 0.0],
                     [101.0, 0.0],
                     [101.0, 1.0],
                     [100.0, 1.0],
                     [100.0, 0.0]
                 ],
                 [
                     [100.2, 0.2],
                     [100.8, 0.2],
                     [100.8, 0.8],
                     [100.2, 0.8],
                     [100.2, 0.2]
                 ]
             ]
         ]
     }

A.7.  GeometryCollections

   Each element in the geometries array of a GeometryCollection is one
   of the geometry objects described above:
















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     {
         "type": "GeometryCollection",
         "geometries": [{
             "type": "Point",
             "coordinates": [100.0, 0.0]
         }, {
             "type": "LineString",
             "coordinates": [
                 [101.0, 0.0],
                 [102.0, 1.0]
             ]
         }]
     }

Appendix B.  Contributors

   The GeoJSON format is the product of discussion on the GeoJSON
   mailing list: http://lists.geojson.org/listinfo.cgi/geojson-
   geojson.org.

   Comments are solicited and should be addressed to the GeoJSON mailing
   list at geojson@lists.geojson.org or to the GeoJSON issue tracker at
   https://github.com/geojson/draft-geojson/issues.

Authors' Addresses

   H. Butler
   Hobu Inc.


   M. Daly
   Cadcorp


   A. Doyle
   MIT


   S. Gillies
   Mapbox Inc.

   Email: sean.gillies@gmail.com
   URI:   http://sgillies.net


   T. Schaub
   OpenGeo




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Internet-Draft                   GeoJSON                     August 2014


   S. Drees
   Rheinaustr. 62
   Bonn  53225
   DE

   Email: stefan@drees.name
   URI:   http://sdre.es/












































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