[Docs] [txt|pdf|xml] [Tracker] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits] [IPR]

Versions: 00 01 02 03

Network Working Group                                             X. Cai
Internet-Draft                                                C. Meirosu
Intended status: Informational                                  Ericsson
Expires: May 18, 2017                                          G. Mirsky
                                                       November 14, 2016

 Recursive Monitoring Language in Network Function Virtualization (NFV)


   Network Function Virtualization (NFV) poses a number of monitoring
   challenges; one potential solution to these challenges is a recursive
   monitoring language.  This document presents a set of requirements
   for such a recursive monitoring language.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 18, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 1]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       1.1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
       1.1.2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Requirements towards NFV Monitoring Language  . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Sample Use Cases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Overview of the Recursive Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Formal Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  Requirements for Using the Language . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Sample Query Scripts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     7.1.  Query End to End Delay Between Network Functions  . . . .   9
     7.2.  Query the CPU Usage of Network Functions  . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   This document discusses a recursive monitoring query language to
   support monitoring real-time properties of NFV infrastructures (e.g.,
   defined in ETSI [ETSI-ARC] and UNIFY
   [I-D.unify-nfvrg-recursive-programming]).  A network service can be
   constructed of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) or Physical Network
   Functions (PNFs) interconnected through a Network Function Forwarding
   Graph (VNFFG).  A single VNF, in turn, can consist of interconnected
   elements; in other words, VNFFGs can be nested.

   Service operators and developers are interested in monitoring the
   performance of a service contained within an VNFFG (as above) or any
   part of it.  For example, an operator may want to measure the CPU or
   memory usage of an entire network service and the network delay cross
   a VNF which consists of multiple VMs, instead of only individual
   virtual or physical entities.

   In existing systems, this is usually done by mapping the performance
   metrics of VNFs to primitive network functions or elements,
   statically and manually when the virtualized service is deployed.
   However, in the architecture defined in ETSI [ETSI-ARC] and UNIFY
   [I-D.unify-nfvrg-recursive-programming] a multi-layer hierarchical

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 2]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   architecture is adopted, and the VNF and associated resources,
   expressed VNFFGs, may be composed recursively in different layers of
   the architecture.  This will pose greater challenges for performance
   queries for a specific service, as the mapping of performance metrics
   from the service layer (highest layer) to the infrastructure (lowest
   layer) is more complex than an infrastructure with a single layer of
   orchestration.  We argue that it is important to have an automatic
   and dynamic way to decompose performance queries in this environment
   in a recursive way, following the different abstraction levels
   expressed in the NF-NFs at hierarchical architecture layers.  Hence,
   we propose using a declarative language such as Datalog [Green-2013]
   to perform recursive queries based on input in form of the resource
   graph depicted as VNFFG.  By reusing the VNFFG models and monitoring
   database already deployed in NFV infrastructure, the language can
   hide the complexity of the multilayer network architecture with
   limited extra effort and resources.  Even for single layer NFV
   architectures, using such language can simplify performance queries
   and enable a more dynamic performance decomposition and aggregation
   for the service layer.

   Recursive query languages can support many DevOps
   [I-D.unify-nfvrg-devops] processes, most notably observability and
   troubleshooting tasks relevant for both operators and developer
   roles, e.g. for high-level troubleshooting where various information
   from different sources need to be retrieved.  Additionally, the query
   language might be used by specific modules located in the control and
   orchestration layers, e.g. a module realizing infrastructure
   embedding of VNFFGs might query monitoring data for an up-to-date
   picture of current resource usage.  Also scaling modules of specific
   network functions might take advantage of the flexible query engine
   pulling of monitoring information on demand (e.g. resource usage,
   traffic trends, etc.), as complement to relying on devices and/or
   elements to push this information based on pre-defined thresholds.

1.1.  Conventions used in this document

1.1.1.  Terminology

   ETSI - European Telecommunication Standards Institute

   VNFFG - Network Function Forwarding Graph

   NFV - Network Function Virtualization

   PNF - Physical Network Function

   SG - Service Graph

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 3]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   VNF - Virtual Network Function

1.1.2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in

2.  Requirements towards NFV Monitoring Language

   Following are the requirements for a language to express constructs
   and actions of monitoring NFV infrastructures:

   o  The network service MAY consist of VNFs which contain inter-
      connected elements and be described by nested VNFFGs.  The
      language MUST support recursive query.

   o  The language is used by the service operators or developers to
      monitor the high-level performance of the network service.
      Declarative language could provide better description on the
      monitoring task rather than the procedure and imperative language.
      The language MUST be declarative.

3.  Sample Use Cases

   In Figure 1, the Service Graph (SG) and corresponding VNFFGs of a
   network service is illustrated.  The service consists of two Network
   Functions NF1 and NF2, which consists of (VNF1-1, VNF1-2) and
   (VNF2-1, VNF2-2) respectively.  In VNF1-1 and VNF2-2 there are
   recursively nested VNFs VNF1-3 and VNF2-3.

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 4]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

                           +---+        +---+
           +-------------- |NF1|--------|NF2| ---------------+
           |               +-+-+        +-+-+                |
           |                 |            |                  |
           |                 |            |                  |
   +-------+-------+ +-----------+ +--------------+ +-----------------+
   |     VNF1-1    | |   VNF1-2  | |    VNF2-1    | |     VNF2-2      |
   |+------+  +----+ +----+ +----+ | +---+  +---+ | | +---+  +------+ |
   ||VNF1-3|  |vm1|| ||vm2| |vm3|| | |vm4|  |vm5| | | |vm6|  |VNF2-3| |
   |-------+  |----| |----+ |----| | |---+  |---+ | | |---+  +------+ |
   +---------------+ +-----------+ +--------------+ +-----------------+
      |   |                                                  |     |
   +--++  +---+                                           +--++  +-+--+
   |vm7|  |vm8|                                           |vm9|  |vm10|
   +---+  +---+                                           +---+  +----+

               Figure 1: The sample VNFFG of network service

   Two use cases of the recursive monitoring query are described below.

   First, consider the use case where an operator of the network service
   wants to query the end to end delay from network function NF1 to
   Network Function NF2 in the service graph.  Here the end to end delay
   of two network functions are defined as the delay between ingress
   node of source network function and egress node of destination
   network function.  After running a querying script, the delay between
   NF1 and NF2 in service layer should be mapped recursively to the
   delay between two specific virtual machines (vm7 and vm10) in the NFV

   Second, consider the use case where an operator wants to measure the
   CPU usage of network function NF1 in order to dynamically scale in/
   out this function.  Several types of CPU usage of a network function
   can be defined.  For example, average CPU usage is the average value
   of measured CPU usage of all nodes belongs to the network function.
   Maximum CPU usage is the measured usage of the node that has the
   highest CPU load.  To get either the average or maximum CPU usage,
   the query language to recursively identify all nodes (i.e., vm1, vm2,
   vm3, vm7 and vm8) of NF1, then retrieve the measured CPU usage of
   these nodes from somewhere and return the mean or maximum value to
   the operator.

4.  Overview of the Recursive Language

   In this section we describe the recursive monitoring language.  The
   query language proposed here is based on Datalog, which is a
   declarative logic programming language that provides recursive query

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 5]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   capability.  The simple and clear semantics of Datalog allow better
   query sepcifiation, understanding and maintenance.  In addition, the
   neat formuation of its recursive query makes it fit well in the
   recursive based architecture.  Datalog has been successfully used in
   cloud computing in recent years, e.g., the OpenStack [OpenStack]
   policy engine Congress [OpenStack-Congress].  In addition, there are
   many open source or commerial Datalog interpreter avaible now, e.g.,
   python based pyDatalog [pyDatalog], java based IRIS [IRIS], LogicBlox
   [LogicBlox], and etc.

   As like other Datalog based language, the recursive monitoring query
   program consists of a set of declarative Datalog rules and a query.
   A rule has the form:

      h <= p1, p2, ..., pn

   which can be defined as "p1 and p2 and ... and pn implies h". "h" is
   the head of the rule, and "p1, p2, ..., pn" is a list of literals
   that constitutes the body of the rule.  Literals "p(x1, ..., xi, ...,
   xn)" are either predicates applied to arguments "xi" (variables and
   constants), or function symbols applied to arguments.  The program is
   said to be recursive if a cycle exists through the predicates, i.e.,
   predicate appearing both in the head and body of the same rule.  The
   order in which the rules are presented in a program is semantically
   irrelevant.  The commas separating the predicates in a rule are
   logical conjuncts (AND); the order in which predicates appear in a
   rule body has no semantic significance, i.e. no matter in what order
   rules been processed, the result is atomic, i.e. the same.  The names
   of predicates, function symbols and constants begin with a lower-case
   letter, while variable names begin with an upper-case letter.  A
   variable appearing in the head is called distinguished variable while
   a variable appearing in the body is called non-distinguished
   variable.  The head is true of the distinguished variables if there
   exist values of the non-distinguished variables that make all sub
   goals of the body true.  In every rule, each variable stands for the
   same value.  Thus, variables can be considered as placeholders for
   values.  Possible values are those that occur as constants in some
   rule/fact of the program itself.  In the program, a query is of the
   form "query(m, y1, ..., yn)", in which "query" is a predicate
   contains arguments "m" and "yi". "m" represents the monitoring
   function to be queried, e.g., end to end delay, average CPU usage,
   and etc. "yi" is the arguments for the query function.  The meaning
   of a query given a set of Datalog rules and facts is the set of all
   facts of query() that are given or can be inferred using the rules in
   the program.  The predicates can be divided into two categories:
   extensional database predicates (EDB predicates), which contain
   ground facts, meaning it only has constant arguments; and intentional

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 6]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   database predicates (IDB predicates), which correspond to derived
   facts computed by Datalog rules.

   In order to perform a recursive monitoring query, the resource graph
   described in the VNFFG needs be transformed so it is represented as a
   set of Datalog ground facts which are used by the rules in the
   program.  The following keywords can be defined to represent the
   VNFFG graph into Datalog facts, which are then used in the query

      sub(x, y) which represents 'y'; is an element of the directly
      descend sub-layer of 'x';

      link(x, y) which represents that there is a direct link between
      elements 'x' and 'y';

      node(z) which represents a node in VNFFG.

   If the NFV environment adopts standardized specification or templates
   to define the VNFs and their connectivity graph, e.g., OASIS TOSCA
   [TOSCA-Simple-Profile-NFV-v1.0] and ETSI NFV MANO [ETSI-ARC], various
   keywords shall be defined to convert constructs included in these
   specifications or templates into Datalog facts.

   For example, the Organization for the Advancement of Structured
   Information Standards (OASIS) has defined a simple profile for NFV
   with TOSCA [TOSCA-Simple-Profile-NFV-v1.0], an language to describe
   the topology and orchestration of cloud applications.  TOSCA NFV data
   model supports layered structures.  A top layer template is Network
   Service Description (NSD) which contains the templates of VNFD (VNF
   Descriptors), VLD (Virtual Link Descriptor ), VNFFGD (VNF Forwarding
   Graph Descriptor), etc., which may also contain substitution
   templates.  For example VNFD is composed of templates of VDU
   (Virtualization Deployment Unit), VLD, etc.  For TOSCA NFV profile,
   the following keywords could be defined as an example:

      node(id, type) which represents a node (e.g., VNF, PNF) in NSD
      with given 'id' and 'type';

      sub(x, y) which represents a node 'y' belongs to a substitution
      template.  For example, if a VNF (vnf1) node contains one VDU
      (vdu1) and one Connection Point (CP) (cp11), it can be denoted as
      'sub(vnf1, vdu1)' and 'sub(vnf1, cp11)';

      vbind(x, y) which represents a node 'y' (e.g., CP) is associated
      with the node 'x' (e.g., VDU);

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 7]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

      vlink(x, y) which denotes a Connection Points 'y' belongs to
      Virtual Link 'x'.  CP represents the virtual and/or physical
      interfaces of the VNFs in TOSCA NFV profile;

      forwarding path(p1 , p2 , ..., pn ) represents a network
      forwarding path which consists of an ordered list of CPs.

   In addition, a set of functions calls can be defined in order to
   support the monitoring query.  The function call will start with
   "fn_"; in the syntax and may include 'boolean' predicates, arithmetic
   computations and some other simple operation.  The function calls can
   be provided by the query engine or developers.

   If the sub-VNFFGs of a network service are provided by different NFV
   infrastructure providers and not available to the provider who
   attempts to measure some aspect of the VNFFG due to some reason,
   e.g., security, additional extensions to the language and query
   engine would be required (this is called a distributed query).  This
   scenario is not considered in this draft and is left for further

5.  Formal Syntax

   The following syntax specification describes the Datalog based
   reursive monitoring language and uses the augmented Backus-Naur Form
   (BNF) as described in [RFC2234].

           <program>         ::= <statement>*
           <statement>       ::= <rule> | < fact>
           <rule>            ::= [<rule-identifier>] <head> <= <body>
           <fact>            ::= [<fact-identifier>]<clause> |
           <head>            ::= <clause>
           <body>            ::= <clause>
           <clause>          ::= <atom> | <atom>, <clause>
           <atom>            ::= <predicate> ( <terms> )
           <predicate>       ::= <lowercase-letter><string>
           <fact_predicate>  ::= ("sub"; | "node" |
                                  "link")( <terms> )
           <terms>           ::= <term> | <term>, <terms>
           <term>            ::= <VARIABLE> | <constant>
           <constant>        ::= <lowercase-letter><string>
           <VARIABLE>        ::= <Uppercase-letter><string>
           <fact-identifier> ::= "F"<integer>
           <rule-identifier> ::= "R"<integer>

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 8]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

6.  Requirements for Using the Language

   To utilize the recursive monitoring language a query engine has to be
   deployed into NFV infrastructure.  Some basic functions are required
   for the query engine.

      The query engine MUST provide the capability to parse and
      interpret the query scripts which are written with the language.

      The query engine MUST be able to retrieve the VNFFG created by NFV
      infrastructure and translate them into Datalog based ground facts.

      The query engine MUST be able to query the database in which the
      monitoring results of primitive metric are stored.

      An interface between query engine and the users of the language
      (e.g., developer or network service operator) MUST be defined to
      exchange the query scripts and query results.

7.  Sample Query Scripts

   According to the defined language, the sample query scripts for the
   above mentioned use cases are illustrated in this section.  Some
   example query scripts are illustrated in this section.

7.1.  Query End to End Delay Between Network Functions

   Two kinds of delay between network functions are discussed here: end-
   to-end delay and hop-by-hop delay.  Here end to end delay is defined
   as the delay between the ingress node in the lowest layer of the
   source network function and the egress node in the lowest layer of
   the destination network function.  And the hop by hop delay is
   defined as the aggregation of the delay of each segment which
   consists of the path from the source to the destination network

   The scripts to query the end to end delay from NF1 to NF2 as
   illustrated in Figure 1 contains both the ground facts and IDB

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                  [Page 9]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   F1: sub(NF1, VNF1-1, VNF1-2), sub(NF2, VNF2-1, VNF2-2),
   sub(VNF1-1, VNF1-3, vm1), sub(VNF1-2, vm2, vm3),
   sub(VNF1-3, vm7, vm8), sub(VNF2-1, vm4, vm5),
   sub(VNF2-2, vm6, VNF2-3), sub(VNF2-3, vm9, vm10)
   F2: link(NF1, NF2), link (VNF1-3, vm1), link(vm2, vm3),
   link(vm3, vm4), link(vm4,vm5), link(vm5,vm6),
   link(vm6, VNF2-3), link(vm7, vm8), link(vm9, vm10)
   R1: child(X,Y) <= sub(X,Z), child(Z,Y)
   R2: child(X,Y) <= sub(X,Y)
   R3: leaf(X,Y) <= child(X,Y), ~sub(Y,Z)
   R4: in_leaf(X, Y) <= leaf(X, Y) & ~link(M, Y)
   R5: out_leaf(X, Y) <= leaf(X, Y) & ~link(Y, M)
   R6: e2e_delay(S,D,P) <= link(S,D), P == f_e2e_delay(in_leaf(S,Y),
   query(e2e_delay, NF1, NF2)

   F1-F2 are used to translate the VNFFG in Figure x into ground facts.
   R1-R5 are used to traversal the VNFFG recursively to get the ingress
   node of VNF1 and egress node of VNF2.  R1-R2 can recursively traverse
   the graphs and determine all child nodes (i.e., VNF1-1, VNF1-3,
   VNF1-2, vm1, vm2, vm3, vm7, vm8, VNF2-1, VNF2-2, VNF2-3, vm4, vm5,
   vm6, vm9, vm10 in Figure 1).  R3 is used to find out all leaf nodes
   (i.e., virtual machines).  In the example, they include all virtual
   machines.  R4 and R5 are used to get the ingress and egress nodes of
   NF1 and NF2 respectively, i.e., vm7 and vm10.  In R6 the delay for a
   given source and destination network functions is measured by
   function f_e2e_delay.  R1-R6 can be stored into a library of the
   query engine as a template e2e_delay, so that the users only need to
   send a simple query request, e.g. e2e_delay NF1 NF2, to the query
   engine to measure the end to end delay between NF1 and NF2.

   The recursion is controlled by the Datalog engine.  It combines the
   F1-2 rules (i.e., the ground facts) to conceptually build,
   internally, a multi-rooted tree structure indicating the
   relationships between the different elements in the VNFFG.  It then
   uses R1-3 as the primary means to determine how to traverse this
   tree.  The R4-5 rules are special in the sense that they allow
   selecting very specific leafs of the tree.  Recursivity in this
   context refers to the capability to automatically traverse components
   of the VNFFG located at different hierarchical levels in a NFV

7.2.  Query the CPU Usage of Network Functions

   A set of example scripts to query the CPU usage (maximum and average
   usage) of a given network function are included below:

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                 [Page 10]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

   F1: sub(NF1, VNF1-1, VNF1-2), sub(NF2, VNF2-1, VNF2-2),
   sub(VNF1-1, VNF1-3, vm1), sub(VNF1-2, vm2, vm3),
   sub(VNF1-3, vm7, vm8), sub(VNF2-1, vm4, vm5),
   sub(VNF2-2, vm6, VNF2-3), sub(VNF2-3, vm9, vm10)
   R1: child(X,Y) <= sub(X,Z), child(Z,Y)
   R2: child(X,Y) <= sub(X,Y)
   R3: leaf(X,Y) <= child(X,Y), ~sub(Y,Z)
   R4: max_cpu(X,C) <= leaf(X,Y), C == f_max_cpu(leaf(X,Y))
   R5: mean_cpu (X,C) <= leaf(X, Y), C == f_mean_cpu(leaf(X,Y))
   Query(max_cpu, NF1)

   F1 is used to translate the VNFFG in Figure x into ground facts.
   R1-R3 are used to traversal the VNFFG recursively to get all child
   nodes of NF1 in Figure x.  R1-R2 recursively traversal the graphs and
   figure out all child nodes of NF1(i.e., VNF1-3, vm1, vm2, vm3, vm7,
   vm8).  R3 is used to figure out all leaf nodes of NF1(i.e., vm1, vm2,
   vm3, vm7, vm8).  In R4, the maximum CPU usage is calculated by
   function f_max_cpu.  In R6, the average CPU usage is calculated by
   function f_mean_cpu.

   Here only the query scripts for network delay and CPU usage are
   illustrated.  But the language can also be applied to other
   performance metrics like throughput.

   More advanced queries are possible by defining them in the template
   library.  Related to the examples presented above, such a function
   could determine not only the maximum but the TopN CPU usage values
   for a particular type of VNF instances, or for the all the VNF
   instances that are part of a chain, and also return the identifiers
   of the VNF instances that generated these values.  The results could
   be used as input to the orchestration that could in turn decide how
   to address a particular situation (for example, by consolidating the
   bottom M lightly used instances, or by scaling some of the TopN
   utilized instances).

8.  IANA Considerations


9.  Security Considerations


Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                 [Page 11]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

10.  Acknowledgements

   Authors deeply appreciate thorough review and insightful comments by
   Russ White.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

11.2.  Informative References

              "Architectural Framework v1.1.1", ETSI , October 2013.

              Green, T., Huang, S., Zhou, W., and B. Loo, "Datalog and
              Recursive Query Processing", Foundations and Trends in
              Databases Vol. 5, No. 2, November 2013.

              Meirosu, C., Manzalini, A., Steinert, R., Marchetto, G.,
              Papafili, I., Pentikousis, K., and S. Wright, "DevOps for
              Software-Defined Telecom Infrastructures", draft-unify-
              nfvrg-devops-03 (work in progress), October 2015.

              Szabo, R., Qiang, Z., and M. Kind, "Towards recursive
              virtualization and programming for network and cloud
              resources", draft-unify-nfvrg-recursive-programming-02
              (work in progress), October 2015.

   [IRIS]     "IRIS Reasoner (online)", http://www.iris-reasoner.org/ .

              "LogicBlox (online)", http://www.logicblox.com/ .

              "OpenStack (online)", http://www.openstack.org/ .

              "OpenStack Congress (online)",
              https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/Congress .

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                 [Page 12]

Internet-Draft    Recursive Monitoring Language in NFV     November 2016

              "pyDatalog (online)", https://sites.google.com/site/
              pydatalog/ .

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, DOI 10.17487/RFC2234,
              November 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2234>.

              "TOSCA simple profile for network functions virtualization
              (NFV) version 1.0", ETSI , November 2016.

Authors' Addresses

   Xuejun Cai

   Email: xuejun.cai@ericsson.com

   Catalin Meirosu

   Email: catalin.meirosu@ericsson.com

   Greg Mirsky

   Email: gregimirsky@gmail.com>

Cai, et al.               Expires May 18, 2017                 [Page 13]

Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129b, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/