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Network Working Group                                       F. Andreasen
Internet-Draft                                             N. Cam-Winget
Intended status: Informational                                   E. Wang
Expires: July 2, 2019                                      Cisco Systems
                                                       December 29, 2018


                TLS 1.3 Impact on Network-Based Security
                    draft-camwinget-tls-use-cases-03

Abstract

   Network-based security solutions are used by enterprises, public
   sector, and cloud service providers today in order to both complement
   and augment host-based security solutions.  TLS 1.3 introduces
   several changes to TLS 1.2 with a goal to improve the overall
   security and privacy provided by TLS.  However some of these changes
   have a negative impact on network-based security solutions.  While
   this may be viewed as a feature, there are several real-life use case
   scenarios that are not easily solved without such network-based
   security solutions.  In this document, we identify the TLS 1.3
   changes that may impact network-based security solutions and provide
   a set of use case scenarios that are not easily solved without such
   solutions.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 2, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.





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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

1.  Introduction

   Enterprises, public sector, and cloud service providers need to
   defend their information systems from attacks originating from both
   inside and outside their networks.  Protection and detection are
   typically done both on end hosts and in the network.  Host agents
   have deep visibility on the devices where they are installed, whereas
   the network has broader visibility and provides homogenous security
   controls across heterogenous endpoints, covering devices for which no
   host monitoring is available (which is common today and is
   increasingly so in the Internet of Things).  This helps protect
   against unauthorized devices installed by insiders, and provides a
   fallback in case the infection of a host disables its security agent.
   Because of these advantages, network-based security mechanisms are
   widely used.  In fact, regulatory standards such as NERC CIP
   [NERCCIP] place strong requirements about network perimeter security
   and its ability to have visibility to provide security information to
   the security management and control systems.  At the same time, the
   privacy of employees, customers, and other users must be respected by
   minimizing the collection of personal data and controlling access to
   what data is collected.  These imperatives hold for both end host and
   network based security monitoring.

   Network-based security solutions such as Firewalls (FW) and Intrusion
   Prevention Systems (IPS) rely on network traffic inspection to
   implement perimeter-based security policies.  Depending on the
   security functions required, these middleboxes can either be deployed
   as traffic monitoring devices or active in-line devices.  A traffic
   monitoring middlebox may for example perform vulnerability detection,
   intrusion detection, crypto audit, compliance monitoring, etc.  An
   active in-line middlebox may for example prevent malware download,
   block known malicious URLs, enforce use of strong ciphers, stop data
   exfiltration, etc.  A significant portion of such security policies
   require clear-text traffic inspection above Layer 4, which becomes
   problematic when traffic is encrypted with Transport Layer Security
   (TLS) [RFC5246].  Today, network-based security solutions typically
   address this problem by becoming a man-in-the-middle (MITM) for the
   TLS session according to one of the following two scenarios:



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   1.  Outbound Session, where the TLS session originates from a client
       inside the perimeter towards an entity on the outside

   2.  Inbound Session, where the TLS session originates from a client
       outside the perimeter towards an entity on the inside

   For the outbound session scenario, MITM is enabled by generating a
   local root certificate and an accompanying (local) public/private key
   pair.  The local root certificate is installed on the inside entities
   for which TLS traffic is to be inspected, and the network security
   device(s) store a copy of the private key.  During the TLS handshake,
   the network security device (hereafter referred to as a middlebox)
   makes a policy decision on the current TLS session.  The policy
   decision could be pass-through, decrypt, deny, etc.  On a "decrypt"
   policy action, the middlebox becomes a TLS proxy for this TLS
   session.  It modifies the certificate provided by the (outside)
   server and (re)signs it with the private key from the local root
   certificate.  From here on, the middlebox has visibility into further
   exchanges between the client and server which enables it to decrypt
   and inspect subsequent network traffic.  Alternatively, based on
   policy, the middlebox may allow the current session to pass through
   if the session starts in monitoring mode, and then decrypt the next
   session from the same client.

   For the inbound session scenario, the TLS proxy on the middlebox is
   configured with a copy of the local servers' certificate(s) and
   corresponding private key(s).  Based on the server certificate
   presented, the TLS proxy determines the corresponding private key,
   which again enables the middlebox to gain visibility into further
   exchanges between the client and server and hence decrypt subsequent
   network traffic.

   To date, there are a number of use case scenarios that rely on the
   above capabilities when used with TLS 1.2 [RFC5246] or earlier.  TLS
   1.3 [RFC8446] introduces several changes which prevent a number of
   these use case scenarios from being satisfied with the types of TLS
   proxy based capabilities that exist today.

   It has been noted, that currently deployed TLS proxies on middleboxes
   may reduce the security of the TLS connection itself due to a
   combination of poor implementation and configuration, and they may
   compromise privacy when decrypting a TLS session.  As such, it has
   been argued that preventing TLS proxies from working should be viewed
   as a feature of TLS 1.3 and that the proper way of solving these
   issues is to rely on endpoint (client and server) based solutions
   instead.  We believe this is an overly constrained view of the
   problem that ignores a number of important real-life use case
   scenarios that improve the overall security posture.  We also note



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   that current endpoint-based TLS proxies suffer from many of the same
   security issues as the network-based TLS proxies do [HTTPSintercept].

   The purpose of this document is to provide a representative set of
   _network based security_ use case scenarios that are impacted by TLS
   1.3.  For each use case scenario, we highlight the specific aspect(s)
   of TLS 1.3 that may make the use case problematic with a TLS proxy
   based solution.

   It should be noted that this document addresses only _security_ use
   cases with a focus on identifying the problematic ones.  The document
   does not offer specific solutions to these as the goal is to
   stimulate further discussion and explore possible solutions
   subsequently.

1.1.  Requirements notation

   In this document, the key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED",
   "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY",
   and "OPTIONAL" are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119
   [RFC2119].

2.  TLS 1.3 Change Impact Overview

   To improve its overall security and privacy, TLS 1.3 introduces
   several changes to TLS 1.2; in doing so, some of the changes present
   a negative impact on network based security.  In this section, we
   describe those TLS 1.3 changes and briefly outline some scenario
   impacts.  We divide the changes into two groups; those that impact
   inbound sessions and those that impact outbound sessions.

2.1.  Inbound Session Change Impacts

2.1.1.  Removal of Static RSA and Diffie-Hellman Cipher Suites

   TLS 1.2 supports static RSA and Diffie-Hellman cipher suites, which
   enables the server's private key to be shared with server-side
   middleboxes.  TLS 1.3 has removed support for these cipher suites in
   favor of ephemeral mode Diffie-Hellman in order to provide perfect
   forward secrecy (PFS).  As a result of this, it is no longer possible
   for a server to share a key with the middlebox a priori, which in
   turn implies that the middlebox cannot gain access to the TLS session
   data.

   Example scenarios that are impacted by this include network
   monitoring, troubleshooting, compliance, etc.





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   For further details (and a suggested solution), please refer to
   [I-D.green-tls-static-dh-in-tls13].

2.2.  Outbound Session Change Impacts

2.2.1.  Encrypted Server Certificate

   In TLS, the ClientHello message is sent to the server's transport
   address (IP and port).  The ClientHello message may include the
   Server Name Indication (SNI) to specify the hostname the client
   wishes to contact.  This is useful when multiple "virtual servers"
   are hosted on a given transport address (IP and port).  It also
   provides information about the domain the client is attempting to
   reach.

   The server replies with a ServerHello message, which contains the
   selected connection parameters, followed by a Certificate message,
   which contains the server's certificate and hence its identity.

   Note that even _if_ the SNI is provided by the client, there is no
   guarantee that the actual server responding is the one indicated in
   the SNI from the client.  SNI alone does not provide reliable
   information about the server that the client attempts to reach.

   In TLS 1.2, the ClientHello, ServerHello and Certificate messages are
   all sent in clear-text, however in TLS 1.3, the Certificate message
   is encrypted thereby hiding the server identity from any
   intermediary.

   Example scenarios that are impacted by this involve selective network
   security policies on the server, such as whitelists or blacklists
   based on security intelligence, regulatory requirements, categories
   (e.g. financial services), etc.  An added challenge is that some of
   these scenarios require the middlebox to perform decryption and
   inspection, whereas other scenarios require the middlebox to _not_
   perform decryption or inspection.  The middlebox is not able to make
   the policy decisions without actively engaging in the TLS session
   from the beginning of the handshake.

   While conformant clients can generate the SNI and check that the
   server certificate contains a name matching the SNI; some enterprises
   also require a level of validation.  Thus, from a network
   infrastructure perspective, policies to validate SNI against the
   Server Certificate can not be validated in TLS 1.3 as the Server
   certificate is now obscured to the middlebox.  This is an example
   where the network infrastructure is using one measure to protect the
   enterprise from non-conformant (e.g. evasive) clients and a
   conformant server.  As a general practice, security functions conduct



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   cross checks and consistency checks wherever possible to mitigate
   imperfect or malicious implementations; even if they are deemed
   redundant with fully conformant implementations.

2.2.2.  Resumption and Pre-Shared Key

   In TLS 1.2 and below, session resumption is provided by "session IDs"
   and "session tickets" [RFC5077].  If the server does not want to
   honor a ticket, then it can simply initiate a full TLS handshake with
   the client as usual.

   In TLS 1.3, the above mechanism is replaced by Pre-Shared Keys (PSK),
   which can be negotiated as part of an initial handshake and then used
   in a subsequent handshake to perform resumption using the PSK.  TLS
   1.3 states that the client SHOULD include a "key_share" extension to
   enable the server to decline resumption and fall back to a full
   handshake, however it is not an absolute requirement.

   Example scenarios that are impacted by this are middleboxes that were
   not part of the initial handshake, and hence do not know the PSK.  If
   the client does not include the "key_share" extension, the middlebox
   cannot force a fallback to the full handshake.  If the middlebox
   policy requires it to inspect the session, it will have to fail the
   connection instead.

   Note that in practice though, it is unlikely that clients using
   session resumption will not allow for fallback to a full handshake
   since the server may treat a ticket as valid for a shorter period of
   time that what is stated in the ticket_lifetime [RFC8446].  As long
   as the client advertises a supported DH group, the server (or
   middlebox) can always send a HelloRetryRequest to force the client to
   send a key_share and hence a full handshake.

   Clients that truly only support PSK mode of operation (provisioned
   out of band) will of course not negotiate a new key, however that is
   not a change in TLS 1.3.

2.2.3.  Version Negotiation and Downgrade Protection

   In TLS, the ClientHello message includes a list of supported protocol
   versions.  The server will select the highest supported version and
   indicate its choice in the ServerHello message.

   TLS 1.3 changes the way in which version negotiation is performed.
   The ClientHello message will indicate TLS version 1.3 in the new
   "supported_versions" extension, however for backwards compatibility
   with TLS 1.2, the ClientHello message will indicate TLS version 1.2
   in the "legacy_version" field.  A TLS 1.3 server will recognize that



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   TLS 1.3 is being negotiated, whereas a TLS 1.2 server will simply see
   a TLS 1.2 ClientHello and proceed with TLS 1.2 negotiation.

   In TLS 1.3, the random value in the ServerHello message includes a
   special value in the last eight bytes when the server negotiates
   either TLS 1.2 or TLS 1.1 and below.  The special value(s) enable a
   TLS 1.3 client to detect an active attacker launching a downgrade
   attack when the client did indeed reach a TLS 1.3 server, provided
   ephemeral ciphers are being used.

   From a network security point of view, the primary impact is that TLS
   1.3 requires the TLS proxy to be an active man-in-the-middle from the
   start of the handshake.  It is also required that a TLS 1.2 and below
   middlebox implementation must handle unsupported extensions
   gracefully, which is a requirement for a conformant middlebox.

2.2.4.  SNI Encryption in TLS Through Tunneling

   As noted above, with server certificates encrypted, the Server Name
   Indication (SNI) in the ClientHello message is the only information
   available in cleartext to indicate the client's targeted server, and
   the actual server reached may differ.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-sni-encryption] proposes to hide the SNI in the
   ClientHello from middleboxes.

   Example scenarios that are impacted by this involve selective network
   security, such as whitelists or blacklists based on security
   intelligence, regulatory requirements, categories (e.g. financial
   services), etc.  An added challenge is that some of these scenarios
   require the middlebox to perform inspection, whereas other scenarios
   require the middlebox to not perform inspection, however without the
   SNI, the middlebox may not have the information required to determine
   the actual scenario before it is too late.

3.  Inbound Session Use Cases

   In this section we explain how a set of inbound real-life inbound use
   case scenarios are affected by some of the TLS 1.3 changes.

3.1.  Use Case I1 - Data Center Protection

   Services deployed in the data center may be offered for access by
   external and untrusted hosts.  Network security functions such as IPS
   and Web Application Firewall (WAF) are deployed to monitor and
   control the transactions to these services.  While an Application
   level load balancer is not a security function strictly speaking, it
   is also an important function that resides in front of these services



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   These network security functions are usually deployed in two modes:
   monitoring and inline.  In either case, they need to access the L7
   and application data such as HTTP transactions which could be
   protected by TLS encryption.  They may monitor the TLS handshakes for
   additional visibility and control.

   The TLS handshake monitoring function will be impacted by TLS 1.3.

   For additional considerations on this scenario, see also
   [I-D.green-tls-static-dh-in-tls13].

3.2.  Use Case I2 - Application Operation over NAT

   The Network Address Translation (NAT) function translates L3 and L4
   addresses and ports as the packet traverses the network device.
   Sophisticated NAT devices may also implement application inspection
   engines to correct L3/L4 data embedded in the control messages (e.g.,
   FTP control message, SIP signaling messages) so that they are
   consistent with the outer L3/L4 headers.

   Without the correction, the secondary data (FTP) or media (SIP)
   connections will likely reach a wrong destination.

   The embedded address and port correction operation requires access to
   the L7 payload which could be protected by encryption.

3.3.  Use Case I3 - Compliance

   Many regulations exist today that include cyber security requirements
   requiring close inspection of the information traversing through the
   network.  For example, organizations that require PCI-DSS [PCI-DSS]
   compliance must provide the ability to regularly monitor the network
   to prevent, detect and minimize impact of a data compromise.
   [PCI-DSS] Requirement #2 (and Appendix A2 as it concerns TLS)
   describes the need to be able to detect protocol and protocol usage
   correctness.  Further, [PCI-DSS] Requirement #10 detailing monitoring
   capabilities also describe the need to provide network-based audit to
   ensure that the protocols and configurations are properly used.

   Deployments today still use factory or default credentials and
   settings that must be observed, and to meet regulatory compliance,
   must be audited, logged and reported.  As the server (certificate)
   credential is now encrypted in TLS 1.3, the ability to verify the
   appropriate (or compliant) use of these credentials are lost, unless
   the middlebox always becomes an active MITM.






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3.4.  Use Case I4 - Crypto Security Audit

   Organizations may have policies around acceptable ciphers and
   certificates on their servers.  Examples include no use of self-
   signed certificates, black or white-list Certificate Authority, etc.
   In TLS 1.2, the Certificate message was sent in clear-text, however
   in TLS 1.3 the message is encrypted thereby preventing either a
   network-based audit or policy enforcement around acceptable server
   certificates.

   While the audits and policy enforcements could in theory be done on
   the servers themselves, the premise of the use case is that not all
   servers are configured correctly and hence such an approach is
   unlikely to work in practice.  A common example where this occurs
   includes lab servers.

4.  Outbound Session Use Cases

   In this section we explain a set of real-life outbound session use
   case scenarios.  These scenarios remain functional with TLS 1.3
   though the TLS proxy's performance is impacted by participating in
   the DHE key exchange from the beginning of the handshake.

4.1.  Use Case O1 - Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)

   Enterprises deploy security devices to enforce Acceptable Use Policy
   (AUP) according to the IT and workplace policies.  The security
   devices, such as firewall/next-gen firewall, web proxy and an
   application on the endpoints, act as middleboxes to scan traffic in
   the enterprise network for policy enforcement.

   Sample AUP policies are:

   o  "Employees are not allowed to access 'gaming' websites from
      enterprise network"

   o  "Temporary workers are not allowed to use enterprise network to
      upload video clips to Internet, but are allowed to watch video
      clips"

   Such enforcements are accomplished by controlling the DNS
   transactions and HTTP transactions.  A coarse control is achieved by
   controlling the DNS response (which itself may be protected by TLS),
   however, in many cases, granular control is required at HTTP URL or
   Method levels, to distinguish a specific web page on a hosting site,
   or to differentiate between uploading and downloading operations.





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   The security device requires access to plain text HTTP header for
   granular AUP control.

4.2.  Use Case O2 - Malware and Threat Protection

   Enterprises adopt a multi-technology approach when it comes to
   malware and threat protection for the network assets.  This includes
   solutions deployed on the endpoint, network and cloud.

   While an endpoint application based solution may be effective in
   protecting from malware and virus attacks, enterprises prefer to
   deploy multiple technologies for a multi-layer protection.  Network
   based solutions provide such additional protection with the benefit
   of rapid and centralized updates.

   The network based solutions comprise security devices and
   applications that scan network traffic for the purpose from malware
   signatures to 0-day analysis.

   The security functions require access to clear text HTTP or other
   application level streams on a needed basis.

4.3.  Use Case O3 - IoT Endpoints

   As the Internet of Everything continues to evolve, more and more
   endpoints become connected to the Internet.  From a security point of
   view, some of the challenges presented by these are:

   o  Constrained devices with limited resources (CPU, memory, etc.)

   o  Lack of ability to install and update endpoint protection
      software.

   o  Lack of software updates as new vulnerabilities are discovered.

   In short, the security posture of such devices is expected to be
   weak, especially as they get older, and the only way to improve this
   posture is to supplement them with a network-based solution.  This in
   turn requires a MITM.

4.4.  Use Case O4 - Unpatched Endpoints

   New vulnerabilities appear constantly and in spite of many advances
   in recent years in terms of automated software updates, especially in
   reaction to security vulnerabilities, the reality is that a very
   large number of endpoints continue to run versions of software with
   known vulnerabilities.




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   In theory, these endpoints should of course be patched, but in
   practice, it is often not done which leaves the endpoint open to the
   vulnerability in question.  A network-based security solution can
   look for attempted exploits of such vulnerabilities and stop them
   before they reach the unpatched endpoint.

4.5.  Use Case O5 - Rapid Containment of New Vulnerability and Campaigns

   When a new vulnerability is discovered or an attack campaign is
   launched, it is important to patch the vulnerability or contain the
   campaign as quickly as possible.  Patches however are not always
   available immediately, and even when they are, most endpoints are in
   practice not patched immediately, which leaves them open to the
   attack.

   A network-based security solution can look for attempted exploits of
   such new vulnerabilities or recognize an attack being launched based
   on security intelligence related to the campaign and stop them before
   they reach the vulnerable endpoint.

4.6.  Use Case O6 - End-of-Life Endpoint

   Older endpoints (and in some cases even new ones) will not receive
   any software updates.  As new vulnerabilities inevitably are
   discovered, these endpoints will be vulnerable to exploits.

   A network-based security solution can help prevent such exploits with
   the MITM functions.

4.7.  Use Case O7 - Compliance

   This use case is similar to the inbound compliance use case described
   in Section 3.3, except its from the client point of view.

4.8.  Use Case O8 - Crypto Security Audit

   This is a variation of the use case in Section 3.4.

   Organizations may have policies around acceptable ciphers and
   certificates for client sessions, possibly based on the destination.
   Examples include no use of self-signed certificates, black or white-
   list Certificate Authority, etc.  In TLS 1.2, the Certificate message
   was sent in clear-text, however in TLS 1.3 the message is encrypted
   thereby preventing either a network-based audit or policy enforcement
   around acceptable server certificates.

   While the audits and policy enforcements could in theory be done on
   the clients themselves, not all clients are configured correctly and



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   may not even be directly under configuration control of the
   organization in question (e.g. due to Bring Your Own Device).

5.  IANA considerations

   This document does not include IANA considerations.

6.  Security Considerations

   This document describes existing functionality and use case scenarios
   and as such does not introduce any new security considerations.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors thank Eric Rescorla who provided several comments on
   technical accuracy and middlebox security implications.

8.  Change Log

8.1.  Version -01

   Updates based on comments from Eric Rescorla.

8.2.  Version -03

   Updates based on EKR's comments

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.







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9.2.  Informative References

   [HTTPSintercept]
              "The Security Impact of HTTPS Interception", n.d.,
              <https://jhalderm.com/pub/papers/interception-ndss17.pdf>.

   [I-D.green-tls-static-dh-in-tls13]
              Green, M., Droms, R., Housley, R., Turner, P., and S.
              Fenter, "Data Center use of Static Diffie-Hellman in TLS
              1.3", draft-green-tls-static-dh-in-tls13-01 (work in
              progress), July 2017.

   [I-D.ietf-tls-sni-encryption]
              Huitema, C. and E. Rescorla, "Issues and Requirements for
              SNI Encryption in TLS", draft-ietf-tls-sni-encryption-04
              (work in progress), November 2018.

   [NERCCIP]  "North American Electric Reliability Corporation, (CIP)
              Critical Infrastructure Protection", n.d.,
              <http://www.nerc.com/pa/stand/Pages/ReliabilityStandardsUn
              itedStates.aspx?jurisdiction=United%20States>.

   [PCI-DSS]  "Payment Card Industry (PCI): Data Security Standard",
              n.d., <https://www.pcisecuritystandards.org/documents/
              PCI_DSS_v3-2.pdf>.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, DOI 10.17487/RFC5077,
              January 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5077>.

Authors' Addresses

   Flemming Andreasen
   Cisco Systems
   111 Wood Avenue South
   Iselin, NJ  08830
   USA

   Email: fandreas@cisco.com











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   Nancy Cam-Winget
   Cisco Systems
   3550 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: ncamwing@cisco.com


   Eric Wang
   Cisco Systems
   3550 Cisco Way
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: ejwang@cisco.com



































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