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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 draft-ietf-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring

DMM                                                              H. Chan
Internet-Draft                                       Huawei Technologies
Intended status: Informational                                    J. Lee
Expires: October 16, 2015                           Sangmyung University
                                                                 S. Jeon
                                           Instituto de Telecomunicacoes
                                                          April 14, 2015


                     Distributed Mobility Anchoring
            draft-chan-dmm-distributed-mobility-anchoring-02

Abstract

   This document defines the mobility management protocol solutions in
   the context of a distributed mobility management deployment.  Such
   solutions consider the problem of assigning a mobility anchor and a
   gateway at the initiation of a flow.  In addition, the mid-session
   switching of the mobility anchor in a distributed mobility management
   environment is considered.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 16, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect



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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  Anchor Initiation and Switching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Anchoring function in network of attachment  . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  Anchoring Function not in network of attachment  . . . . .  5
     3.3.  Keeping an IP address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.4.  Changing the IP address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.5.  Moving the IP address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.6.  Indirection of a flow  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.7.  Changing indirection of a flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   5.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   6.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


























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1.  Introduction

   A key requirement in distributed mobility management [RFC7333] is to
   enable traffic to avoid traversing single mobility anchor far from
   the optimal route.  Recent developments in research and
   standardization with respect to future deployment models call for far
   more flexibility in network function operation and management.  For
   example, the work on service function chaining at the IETF (SFC WG)
   has already identified a number of use cases for data centers.
   Although the work in SFC is not primarily concerned with mobile
   networks, the impact on IP-based mobile networks is not hard to see
   as by now most hosts connected to the Internet do so over a wireless
   medium.  For instance, as a result of a dynamic re-organization of
   service chain a non-optimal route between mobile nodes may arise if
   one relies solely on centralized mobility management.  This may also
   occur when the mobile node has moved such that both the mobile node
   and the correspondent node are far from the mobility anchor via which
   the traffic is routed.

   Recall that distributed mobility management solutions do not make use
   of centrally deployed mobility anchor.  As such, a flow SHOULD be
   able to have its traffic changing from traversing one mobility anchor
   to traversing another mobility anchor as the mobile node moves, or
   when changing operation and management (OAM) requirements call for
   mobility anchor switching, thus avoiding non-optimal routes.  This
   draft proposes distributed mobility anchoring solutions.


2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL","SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   All general mobility-related terms and their acronyms used in this
   document are to be interpreted as defined in the Mobile IPv6 base
   specification [RFC6275], the Proxy Mobile IPv6 specification
   [RFC5213], and the DMM current practices and gap analysis [RFC7429].
   This includes terms such as mobile node (MN), correspondent node
   (CN), home agent (HA), home address (HoA), care-of-address (CoA),
   local mobility anchor (LMA), and mobile access gateway (MAG).

   In addition, this document uses the following term:








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   Home network of an application session (or of an HoA):  the network
      that has allocated the IP address (HoA) used for the session
      identifier by the application running in an MN.  An MN may be
      running multiple application sessions, and each of these sessions
      can have a different home network.

   Anchoring Function (AF):  allocation to a mobile node of an IP
      address, i.e., Home Address (HoA), or prefix, i.e., Home Network
      Prefix (HNP) topologically anchored by the advertising node.  That
      is, the anchor node is able to advertise a connected route into
      the routing infrastructure for the allocated IP prefixes.  This is
      a basic function of a mobility anchor.  With separation of control
      plane and data plane, this function may reside in a control plane
      anchor.  Then the anchor function performs the IP prefix or
      address allocation and the route advertisement for an IP anchor in
      the data plane.

   Internetwork Location Management (LM) function:  managing and keeping
      track of the internetwork location of an MN.  The location
      information may be a binding of the IP advertised address/prefix,
      e.g., HoA or HNP, to the IP routing address of the MN or of a node
      that can forward packets destined to the MN.  It is a control
      plane function.

      In a client-server protocol model, location query and update
      messages may be exchanged between a Location Management client
      (LMc) and a Location Management server (LMs).  With separation of
      control plane and data plane, this function may reside in a
      control plane anchor.

   Forwarding Management (FM) function:  packet interception and
      forwarding to/from the IP address/prefix assigned to the MN, based
      on the internetwork location information, either to the
      destination or to some other network element that knows how to
      forward the packets to their destination.

      This function may be used to achieve indirection.  With separation
      of control plane and data plane, FM may split into a FM function
      in the control plane (FM-CP), which may be a function in a control
      plane anchor or mobility controller, and a FM function in the data
      plane (FM-DP), which may be the function of a data plane anchor.

   Security Management (SM) function:  The security management function
      controls security mechanisms/protocols providing access control,
      integrity, authentication, authorization, confidentiality, etc.
      for the control plane and data plane.

      This function resides in all nodes such as control plane anchor,



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      data plane anchor, and mobile node.


3.  Anchor Initiation and Switching

3.1.  Anchoring function in network of attachment

   The anchoring function of the IP address at MN's side of a flow may
   be at the access router to which the MN is attached.

   For example, when an MN attaches to a network (Net1) or moves to a
   new network (Net2), it is allocated an IP prefix from that network.
   It configures from this prefix an IP address which is typically a
   dynamic IP address.  It then uses this IP address when it starts a
   new flow.  Packets to the MN in this flow are simply forwarded
   according to the forwarding table.

   In this example, the flow may have terminated before the MN moves to
   a new network.  Otherwise, the flow may close and then restart using
   a new IP address configured in the new network.

   The security management function in the IP anchoring node at a new
   network must assign a valid IP prefix to a mobile node.  In the
   example, the security management function in the node anchoring
   address IP2 assigns the valid IP prefix for the mobile node.



  Net1                                                  Net2
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  |AR1:          |                                      |AR2:          |
  |RA(IP1)       |                                      |RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  |MN(IP1):      |                  or                  |MN(IP2):      |
  |flow(IP1,...) |                                      |flow(IP2,...) |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+

   Figure 1.  Anchoring function in network of attachment.  MN is
   attached to AR1 in Net1 where it has initiated a flow using IP1 or
   has moved to AR2 in Net2 where it initiates a new flow using IP2.

3.2.  Anchoring Function not in network of attachment

   The anchoring function of the IP address at MN's side of a flow may
   not be at the access router to which the MN is attached.

   An example when an MN moves to a new network is as follows.  The MN



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   has an ongoing session which was initialized in a prior network
   (Net1) of attachment using an IP address belonging to the network
   where it was initialized as described in Section 3.1.  When the flow
   is unable to change its IP address it may continue to use its
   original IP address so that the anchoring function of the IP address
   is not in the current network of attachment but in the network where
   the original IP address belongs.  Mobility support is needed to
   enable the flow to use this original IP address.

   The security management function in the anchoring node at a new
   network must assign a valid IP prefix to a mobile node.  The security
   management function must allow the mobile node to receive or send
   data packets with an IP address configured at a prior network of
   attachment of the mobile node.  Note that nowadays access networks
   deploy ingress filtering so that the mobile node may not receive or
   send data packets with the previously configured IP address without
   the security management function's interaction with ingress
   filtering.



  Net1                                                  Net2
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  |AR1:          |                                      |AR2:          |
  |RA(IP1)       |                                      |RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
                                                        +--------------+
                                                        |MN(IP2):      |
                                                        |flow(IP1,...) |
                                                        +--------------+

   Figure 2.  Anchoring function not in network of attachment.  MN
   attached to AR2 in Net2 has a flow(IP1,...) using IP1, which belongs
   to Net1.

3.3.  Keeping an IP address

   After the MN moves with an ongoing session to the new network (Net2),
   it obtains a new IP address or prefix from the new network.  However,
   the ongoing session which was initialized in a prior network of
   attachment is using an IP address belonging to the network where it
   was initialized as described in Section 3.1.  IP mobility is needed
   to use the original IP address for session continuity.








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  Net1                                                  Net2
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  |AR1:          |                                      |AR2:          |
  |RA(IP1)       |                                      |RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .MN(IP1):      .                 move                 |MN(IP1,IP2):  |
  .flow(IP1,...) .               =======>               |flow(IP1,...) |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+

   Figure 3.  Keeping an IP address.  MN with ongoing flow using IP1 in
   Net1 has moved to Net2 and the flow needs to continue using IP1 to
   preserve session continuity.

   The use of IP address belonging to the network of attachment whenever
   a new flow is initiated as described in Section 3.1 and to keep the
   IP address as the MN moves to a new network are described in
   [I-D.seite-dmm-dma].

3.4.  Changing the IP address

   With the MN in the example in Section 3.1 it may be desirable to
   change to a flow using the new IP address configured in the new
   network.  The packets of this flow may then follow the forwarding
   table without requiring IP layer mobility support.  Yet such a change
   in flow may be using a higher layer mobility support which is not in
   the scope of this document to change the IP address of the flow.

   The security management function in the IP anchoring node at a new
   network must assign a valid IP prefix to a mobile node.



  Net1                                                  Net2
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  |AR1:          |                                      |AR2:          |
  |RA(IP1)       |                                      |RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .MN(IP1):      .                 move                 |MN(IP2):      |
  .flow(IP1,...) .               =======>               |flow(IP2,...) |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+

   Figure 4.  Changing the IP address.  MN running a flow using IP1 in
   Net1 changes to running a flow using IP2 in Net2.






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3.5.  Moving the IP address

   The anchoring function may move without changing the IP address of
   the flow.



  Net1                                                  Net2
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .              .                 move                 |AR2:          |
  .RA(IP1)       .               =======>               |RA(IP2,IP1)   |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .MN(IP1):      .                 move                 |MN(IP2,IP1):  |
  .flow(IP1,...) .               =======>               |flow(IP1,...) |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+

   Figure 5.  Moving the IP address.  MN with flow using IP1 in Net1
   continues to run the flow using IP1 as it moves to Net2.

   As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
   preserve session continuity by moving the original IP address to the
   new network.  An example is in the use of BGP UPDATE messages to
   change the forwarding table entries as described in
   [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch] and also for 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
   network in [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc].  Another example
   is in the case where Net1 and Net2 both belong to the same operator
   network with separation of control and data planes
   ([I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario] and
   [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]), where the controller may
   send to the switches/routers the updated information of the
   forwarding tables with the anchoring function of the original IP
   prefix/address at AR1 moved to AR2 in the new network.  Then the
   anchoring function which was advertising the prefix in the original
   network will need to move to the new network.  As the anchoring
   function in the new network advertises the prefix of the original IP
   address in the new network, the forwarding tables will be updated so
   that packets of the flow will be forwarded according to the updated
   forwarding tables.

   The security management function must allow that the anchoring
   function in the new network configures the original IP prefix/address
   used by the mobile node at the previous (original) network.  As the
   configured original IP prefix/address is to be used in the new
   network, the security management function must allow the anchoring
   function to advertise the prefix of the original IP address and also
   allow the mobile node to send and receive data packets with the
   original IP address.



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3.6.  Indirection of a flow

   As an MN with an ongoing session moves to a new network, the flow may
   use the original IP address for session continuity by using
   indirection.  Here the location management information may be kept as
   a binding of the original IP address to a new forwarding address,
   whereas the Forwarding management function may then use this binding
   to forward the flow.

   In Figure 6, the location management information kept in the original
   network is the binding of the original IP address to an IP address in
   the new network.


                             Net3
                             +--------------+
                             |AR3:          |
                            /|RA(IPcn)      |
                           / +--------------+
  Net1                    /  +--------------+           Net2
  +--------------+       /   |CN(IPcn): flow|           +--------------+
  |flow(IP1,...) |      /    |(IPcn,IP1,...)|           |flow(IP1,...) |
  |--> AR2       |     /     +--------------+           |-->MN         |
  |              |    /                                 |              |
  |IP1<->IPar2   |   /                                  |              |
  |--------------|  /                                   |--------------|
  |AR1:          |<-                                    |AR2(IPar2):   |
  |RA(IP1)       | ------------------------------------>|RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .MN(IP1):      .                 move                 |MN(IP1,IP2):  |
  .flow(IP1,...) .               =======>               |flow(IP1,...) |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+

   Figure 6.  Indirection of a flow.  After MN has moved from Net1 to
   Net2, Location Information function in Net1 keeps a binding of IP1 to
   IP of AR2, and Routing Management function in Net1 forwards the
   packets of the flow(IP1,...) to Net2.

   The packets of the flow(IP1, IPcn, ...) from the CN to the MN will
   first be forwarded to AR1 in the original network.  Here, using the
   binding of IP1 to an IP address in the new network, the forwarding
   management function may forward these packets to the new network such
   as by encapsulating them with a header destined to the new network.

   In a host-based mobility management solution such as
   [I-D.bernardos-dmm-cmip] the address in the new network may be the MN
   itself.



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   In a network-based mobility management solution such as
   [I-D.bernardos-dmm-pmip], [I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi], and
   [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP], the address in the new network may
   be an access router to which the MN is attached in the new network.
   The access router may then forward the packet to the MN at L2, which
   may use Software-Defined Networking as described in
   [I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi].

   In general, indirection is invoked only when needed.  The flow can
   use the IP address belonging to the network of attachment where the
   flow is initialized as described in [I-D.seite-dmm-dma].

   The security management function in the IP anchoring node must ensure
   that the forwarding management function establishes a secure session
   anchoring with a relevant node.  The security management function in
   the end communication nodes (i.e., mobile node and correspondent
   node) may be used to ensure a secure data plane between them.  For
   both cases (i.e., establishments of secure session anchoring and
   secure data plane), existing security protocols such as IKE, IPsec,
   TLS may be invoked by the security management function.

3.7.  Changing indirection of a flow

   Forwarding the packets of an ongoing session from CN's network via
   the original network to MN's new network is not necessarily optimal.
   The route can be more direct by forwarding these packets directly
   from CN's network to MN's new network.

   Here, the location information in the original network may be copied
   to CN's network.  The packets of the flow(IP1, IPcn, ...) from the CN
   to the MN are first intercepted at the access router of CN.  Then
   using the binding of IP1 to an IP address in the new network, the
   forwarding management function in CN's network may forward these
   packets directly to the new network
   ([Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP]) such as by encapsulating them
   with a header destined to the new network.

   To change the indirection of a flow, the relevant context with regard
   to MN should be delivered from AR1 in Net1 to AR3 (CN's anchor) in
   Net3 (CN's network), while AR2 should be notified of the change of
   indirection to receive packets directly forwarded by AR3.  Existing
   IP mobility signaling messages such as Proxy Binding Update (PBU) and
   Proxy Binding Acknowledgment (PBA) can be used for the both
   communications with as little option extensions as possible.  When a
   packet from the CN has reached AR3, AR3 encapsulates the packet with
   a tunnel header specified with IP address of CN's anchor as outer
   source IP and AR2's IP address as outer destination IP.  For
   transparent packet delivery operation in the perspective od AR2, CN's



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   anchor needs to forward packets encapsulated with a tunnel header
   specified with AR1's IP address as outer source IP and AR2's IP
   address as outer destination IP.

   The security management function in the IP anchoring node must ensure
   that the forwarding management function re-establishes a secure
   session anchoring with a relevant node during mid-session.  The
   security management function in the end communication nodes may be
   used to ensure a secure data plane between them during mid-session.
   For both cases (i.e., re-establishments of secure session anchoring
   and secure data plane), existing security protocols such as IKE,
   IPsec, TLS may be invoked by the security management function.


                             Net3
                             +--------------+
                             |flow(IP1,...) |
                             |--> AR2       |
                         y..>|              |
                        p.   |IP1<->IPar2   |
                       o.    |--------------|
                      c.     |AR3:          |
                      .      |RA(IPcn)      |\
                     .       +--------------+ \
  Net1              .        +--------------+  \        Net2
  +--------------+           |CN(IPcn): flow|   \       +--------------+
  |flow(IP1,...) |           |(IPcn,IP1,...)|    \      |flow(IP1,...) |
  |--> AR2       |           +--------------+     \     |-->MN         |
  |              |                                 \    |              |
  |IP1<->IPar2   |                                  \   |              |
  |--------------|                                   \  |--------------|
  |AR1:          |                                    ->|AR2(IPar2):   |
  |RA(IP1)       |                                      |RA(IP2)       |
  +--------------+                                      +--------------+
  +..............+                                      +--------------+
  .MN(IP1):      .                 move                 |MN(IP1,IP2):  |
  .flow(IP1,...) .               =======>               |flow(IP1,...) |
  +..............+                                      +--------------+


   Figure 7.  Changing indirection of a flow.  Location Information
   function and Routing Management function in Net2 are copied to Net3,
   so that the Location Information function in Net3 keeps a binding of
   IP1 to IP of AR2, and the Routing Management function in Net3
   forwards the packets of the flow(IP1,...) to Net2.






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4.  Security Considerations

   TBD


5.  IANA Considerations

   This document presents no IANA considerations.


6.  Contributors

   This document is an attempt to harmonize the different distributed
   mobility solutions in a number of other drafts.  These drafts cited
   in this document are the work of their many authors/co-authors.
   While some of them have taken the work to jointly write this
   document, others have contributed at least indirectly by writing
   these drafts.  The latter include Carlos J. Bernardos, Philippe
   Bertin, Hui Deng, Fabio Giust, Dapeng Liu, Satoru Matushima, Peter
   McCann, Antonio de la Oliva, Behcet Sarikaya, Pierrick Seite, Li Xue,
   and Ryuji Wakikawa.


7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.bernardos-dmm-cmip]
              Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., and F. Giust, "An IPv6
              Distributed Client Mobility Management approach using
              existing mechanisms", draft-bernardos-dmm-cmip-03 (work in
              progress), March 2015.

   [I-D.bernardos-dmm-pmip]
              Bernardos, C., Oliva, A., and F. Giust, "A PMIPv6-based
              solution for Distributed Mobility Management",
              draft-bernardos-dmm-pmip-04 (work in progress),
              March 2015.

   [I-D.liu-dmm-deployment-scenario]
              Liu, V., Chan, A., and H. Deng, "Distributed mobility
              management deployment scenario and architecture",
              draft-liu-dmm-deployment-scenario-03 (work in progress),
              March 2015.

   [I-D.matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc]
              Matsushima, S. and R. Wakikawa, "Stateless user-plane
              architecture for virtualized EPC (vEPC)",



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              draft-matsushima-stateless-uplane-vepc-04 (work in
              progress), March 2015.

   [I-D.mccann-dmm-flatarch]
              McCann, P., "Authentication and Mobility Management in a
              Flat Architecture", draft-mccann-dmm-flatarch-00 (work in
              progress), March 2012.

   [I-D.sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi]
              Sarikaya, B. and L. Xue, "Distributed Mobility Management
              Protocol for WiFi Users in Fixed Network",
              draft-sarikaya-dmm-for-wifi-01 (work in progress),
              October 2014.

   [I-D.seite-dmm-dma]
              Seite, P., Bertin, P., and J. Lee, "Distributed Mobility
              Anchoring", draft-seite-dmm-dma-07 (work in progress),
              February 2014.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V., Chowdhury, K.,
              and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6", RFC 5213, August 2008.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., and A.
              Bierman, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)",
              RFC 6241, June 2011.

   [RFC6275]  Perkins, C., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 6275, July 2011.

   [RFC7333]  Chan, H., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J. Korhonen,
              "Requirements for Distributed Mobility Management",
              RFC 7333, August 2014.

   [RFC7429]  Liu, D., Zuniga, JC., Seite, P., Chan, H., and CJ.
              Bernardos, "Distributed Mobility Management: Current
              Practices and Gap Analysis", RFC 7429, January 2015.

7.2.  Informative References

   [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.PMIP]
              Chan, H., "Proxy Mobile IP with Distributed Mobility
              Anchors",  Proceedings of GlobeCom Workshop on Seamless
              Wireless Mobility, December 2010.

   [Paper-Distributed.Mobility.Review]



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Internet-Draft          mobility anchor switching             April 2015


              Chan, H., Yokota, H., Xie, J., Seite, P., and D. Liu,
              "Distributed and Dynamic Mobility Management in Mobile
              Internet: Current Approaches and Issues", February 2011.


Authors' Addresses

   H Anthony Chan
   Huawei Technologies
   5340 Legacy Dr. Building 3
   Plano, TX 75024
   USA

   Email: h.a.chan@ieee.org


   Jong-Hyouk Lee
   Sangmyung University
   708 Hannuri Building
   Cheonan 330-720
   Korea

   Email: jonghyouk@smu.ac.kr


   Seil Jeon
   Instituto de Telecomunicacoes
   Campus Universitario de Santiago
   Aveiro 3810-193
   Portugal

   Email: seiljeon@av.it.pt



















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