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Versions: 00 01

CGA & SEND maintenance                                        T. Cheneau
Internet-Draft                                            M. Maknavicius
Updates: RFC3971                                                    TMSP
(if approved)                                                    S. Shen
Expires: December 7, 2009                                         Huawei
                                                           M. Vanderveen
                                                                Qualcomm
                                                            June 5, 2009


  Signature Algorithm Agility in the Secure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)
                                Protocol
                   draft-cheneau-send-sig-agility-01

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 7, 2009.

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   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Abstract

   This draft describes a mechanism to enable the Secure Neighbor
   Discovery (SEND) protocol to select between different signature
   algorithms to use with Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA).
   It also provides optional support for interoperability between nodes
   that do not share any common signature algorithms.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  Compatibility with existing specifications . . . . . . . .  4
       2.1.1.  Classification of SEND nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       2.1.2.  Principal Scenarios  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.  Agility Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     2.3.  Mechanism for Agility Support of CGA and SEND  . . . . . .  8
   3.  Supported Signature Algorithm Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.1.  Neighbor Cache interactions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2.  Processing Rules for Senders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.3.  Processing Rules for Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4.  SEND Universal Signature Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     4.1.  Processing Rules for Senders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.2.  Processing Rules for Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   5.  Basic negotiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.1.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.2.  Sending Unsolicited Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   6.  Router-as-a-notary function  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     6.1.  Signature Check Request Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     6.2.  Signature Status Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     6.3.  Using notary for DAD procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
   9.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   Appendix A.  On the number of Public Keys supported per CGA  . . . 32
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36











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1.  Introduction

   The usage scenarios associated with neighbor discovery have recently
   been extended to include environments with mobile or nomadic nodes.
   Many of these nodes have limited battery power and computing
   resources.  Therefore, heavy public key signing algorithms like RSA
   are not feasible to support on such constrained nodes.  Fortunately,
   more lightweight yet secure signing algorithms do exist and have been
   standardized, e.g.  Elliptic Curve based algorithms.

   It is then a worthwhile goal to extend secure neighbor discovery to
   support signing and corresponding hashing algorithm agility.  Besides
   accommodating power-constrained nodes, signing and hashing algorithm
   agility is also desired as a safety measure over time, to offer
   alternatives when cryptanalysis of one type of algorithm makes
   significant progress.

   The aim of this memo is to outline options for allowing public key
   signing algorithm and hashing algorithm agility for nodes configured
   to perform secure neighbor discovery operations.  The extent to which
   these options impact existing specifications [RFC3971] and [RFC3972]
   is also addressed.





























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2.  Overview

2.1.  Compatibility with existing specifications

   The current SEND protocol specification, [RFC3971], mandates the use
   of the RSA signature algorithm.  Since the time of its writing,
   different signature algorithms have been shown to be secure and have
   been adopted by other protocols in an effort to reduce key length,
   signature generation and verification time, and increase security
   level.  This shift in signature algorithm adoption particularly
   benefits lightweight devices, which are power and memory-limited but
   in need of secure signing algorithms support.  For these reasons, we
   feel that the restriction on the signature algorithm for SEND is no
   longer warranted.

2.1.1.  Classification of SEND nodes

   At the time of this writing, there are no known large-scale or even
   small-scale deployments of [RFC3971]-compatible devices.  However, in
   the interest of caution, we assume that there exist nodes that
   support only the RSA algorithm and that are configured to perform
   secure neighbor discovery.  Such nodes may not be updated in the near
   term or for the foreseeable future.  On the other hand, it appears
   that there will be deployments of nodes that support only Elliptic
   Curve Cryptography as their public key algorithm, i.e.  ECDSA as a
   signature algorithm, rather than traditional RSA.

   To ensure that all possible network/link configurations are
   considered when designing a signature agility solution, we categorize
   nodes (hosts and routers) according to their support for different
   signature algorithms, as follows:

   Type H1 host:

      A host that only supports one type of signature algorithm and has
      a CGA generated with the public key of this algorithm.

      Examples of this type of hosts: an old host that does not support
      signature agility, i.e. only supports RSA signature algorithm; or,
      a host that only supports ECDSA signature.

   Type H2 host:

      A host that supports multiple signature algorithms and has a CGA
      generated with only one key selected from among its supported
      algorithms.





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      Examples of this type of hosts: (1) a host that supports RSA and
      ECDSA signature algorithms, but only has a CGA derived with an RSA
      public key; (2) a host that supports RSA and ECDSA signature
      algorithms, but only has a CGA derived with an ECC public key.

   Type H3 host:

      A host that supports multiple signature algorithms and has a CGA
      generated with multiple keys of different supported algorithms.

      Such CGA generation is made possible by the introduction of a new
      CGA extension (see companion draft [cheneau-cga-pk-agility]).
      Such hosts can be compatible with hosts of other types for secure
      neighbor discovery.

   Type H4 host:

      A host that supports multiple signature algorithms and has
      multiple CGAs, each of which is associated with a single key of
      one supported algorithm.  For simplicity, we do not consider hosts
      that have multiple CGAs, one or more of which are generated from
      multiple public keys.

      A node MUST select and settle on one CGA when building a trust
      relationship with another device via SeND (more below).  In such
      cases, a destination node may be reached at a CGA associated with
      a signature algorithm that the originating node cannot verify.
      The destination node will need to securely redirect the
      originating node to one of its other CGA(s) (presumably with a
      common signature algorithm).  The need for a method to secure the
      binding between the two CGAs of the destination node is still an
      open problem.

      Based on this reasoning, consideration of H4 type nodes is left
      for future work.

   Routers are more likely to possess the resources necessary to support
   multiple signature and hashing algorithms.  It is also more feasible
   that routers employ certificates.  However, for a basic signature
   agility solution, we do not mandate that routers support multiple
   signature and hashing algorithms.

   Possible router devices with different signature algorithm support
   ability are:







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   Type R1 router:

      A router that only supports one type of signature algorithm and
      has a CGA and Certificate with a public key of this algorithm.

      Such routers are expected to be commonplace, as compliance with
      [RFC3971] suffices for them.

   Type R2 router:

      A router that supports multiple types of signature algorithms and
      has one CGA and Certificate with a public key of one of the
      algorithm types.

      This type of router can sign and verify signatures of the type of
      certificate it owns, and additionally, it can verify signatures of
      other algorithm types.

   Type R3 router:

      A router that supports multiple types of signature algorithms and
      has one CGA composed of multiple Publics Keys and multiple
      certificates containing each a Public Key.

   Type R4 router:

      A router that supports multiple types of signature algorithms and
      has multiple CGAs and Certificates with public key of several
      different algorithm types.

      This type of router can sign and verify signatures of multiple
      types.  Such routers may not be attractive to build and deploy due
      to increased requirements on its resources.  Moreover using
      multiple CGAs (with no bindings) may make that routers appear as
      having multiple identities.

   Note that all types of router presented above can be configured to
   use SEND over multiple interfaces or to have multiple addresses on
   the same interface.  In this case, the router will use separate CGAs.
   Such configuration is treated in this draft as if the different
   addresses refer to separate entities.

2.1.2.  Principal Scenarios

   Based on the discussion above, a SEND agility solution should at
   least properly deal with the communication between devices of type
   H1, H2, H3, R1, R2 and R3.




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      An H1 or R1 node interacting with an H2 or R2 node: i.e., a node
      supporting only RSA (for example, an old non-agility node which
      only supports RFC3971) and a node supporting both RSA and ECDSA
      (or other new algorithms).  These two nodes may be able to perform
      secure neighbor discovery.

      An H1 or R1 node interacting with another H1 or R1 node, but their
      algorithms differ: e.g., a node supporting only RSA (for example,
      an old non-agility node which only supports RFC3971) and a node
      supporting only ECDSA (or other new algorithms).  In this case,
      implementations supporting SEND signature agility solution may
      likely realize the incompatibility, while older implementations
      may not.

      A node of any type (H1, H2, H3, R1, R2, R3) interacting with
      another node, their algorithms differ but there is a 3rd party
      willing/able to help: this is an optional solution applicable to
      the previous scenario, where two nodes that support SEND but do
      not have any signature algorithms in common can talk through a
      third party (router).  In this case they should be able to perform
      facilitated secure neighbor discovery.

      An H2, H3 or R2 node interacting with another H2, H3, or R2 node:
      e.g., two nodes that support at least one signature algorithms in
      common will be able to perform secure neighbor discovery.

      An additional rule for H2, H3 or R2, R3 node interacting with
      another H2, H3, or R2, R3 node applies: two nodes that support two
      or more signature algorithms in common (one of which is likely
      preferred over the other), will be able to perform secure neighbor
      discovery with any of these signature algorithms.

2.2.  Agility Requirements

   We hold the following to be requirements on a signing algorithm
   agility solution for SEND:

   o  A Signature-Algorithm-Agility-Node should be able to communicate
      with a Non-Signature-Algorithm-Agility-Node, but not necessarily
      employ SEND.  Traditional ND should suffice, to accommodate nodes
      that only support one type of Signature Algorithm, which may not
      be RSA.  Local policy MAY disable this behavior, namely the use of
      unsecured ND messages when communicating with a node that does not
      share any common signature algorithm.

   o  Two Signature-Algorithm-Agility nodes that support a common
      Signature Algorithm and hashing algorithm should be able to
      communicate using SEND and sign messages using the common



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      Signature Algorithm and hash algorithm.

   o  The current SEND/CGA specifications should incur as few changes as
      possible.

2.3.  Mechanism for Agility Support of CGA and SEND

   To achieve signature agility for SEND, it must be possible for a CGA
   to be generated from and to be securely associated with multiple
   public keys corresponding to different signature algorithms.  This
   capability is described in the companion draft
   [cheneau-cga-pk-agility].

   This document proposes an update to [RFC3971] to allow two SEND nodes
   to choose an appropriate signature algorithm.  This solution
   encompasses the following:

   o  A "Supported Signature Algorithm" Neighbor Discovery Protocol
      option which contains a list of signing and hashing algorithms
      that the sender node supports for SEND purposes and its
      interaction with the Neighbor Cache;

   o  A modification of the "RSA Signature" option defined in the SEND
      specification;

   o  An optional solution to support secure communication through a
      router acting as a third party when nodes don't share any common
      Signature Algorithm.

   We define the aforementioned options format and provide processing
   rules for both senders and receivers of SEND messages employing the
   new options, as well as example negotiation message flows.



















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3.  Supported Signature Algorithm Option

   The Supported Signature Algorithm NDP option contains a list of
   signing and hashing algorithm pairs that the sender node supports.
   The format of this option is described in Figure 1:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |    Length     |           Reserved            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Sig. Alg. 1   | Sig. Alg. 2   |  Sig. Alg 3.  | Sig. Alg 4.   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   ~                                                               ~
   |                          ...                                  |
   ~                                                               ~
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     ...      | Sig. Alg. N  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 1: Supported Signature Algorithm option

   Type

      NDP option type, TBA.  See Section 8.

   Length

      The length of the option (including the Type, Length fields), in
      octets. 8-bit unsigned integer, the values lower that 2 are
      invalid.

   Reserved

      Reserved for future use.  This 16-bit field MUST be set to zero by
      the sender, and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Signature Algorithm

      A one-octet long field indicating a signature algorithm and the
      corresponding hash algorithm that this node supports; this support
      implies at least ability to verify signatures of this PK
      algorithm.

      The first leftmost bit, bit 0, if set to 0, indicates that the
      emitter is able to perform signature checks only (i.e. no
      signature generation with this type of signature algorithm).  If
      this bit is set to 1, it indicates that the emitter has a public



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      key of this type and can generate signatures.  Bit 1 and 2 are
      reserved.  Bit 3 to 7 are named Signature Type Identifier subfield
      and encode an identifier for the signature algorithm and
      corresponding hash algorithm.  Default values for the Signature
      Type Identifier subfield defined in this document are taken in
      part from the IANA-defined numbers for the IKEv2 protocol, i.e.
      IANA registry named "IKEv2 Authentication Method":

      *  Value 0 is RSA/SHA-1

      *  Value 1 is RSA/SHA-256

      *  Value 9 is ECDSA with SHA-256 on the P-256 curve

      *  Value 10 is ECDSA with SHA-384 on the P-384 curve

      *  Value 11 is ECDSA with SHA-512 on the P-521 curve

      The Signature/hash Algorithm combinations SHOULD be included in
      order of preference.

      A SSA option MAY be built to respect a Local Policy.  However, the
      SSA option MUST not indicate Signature Algorithm(s) that the
      emitting node's CGA does not support and MUST contain at least one
      Signature Algorithm with the first bit on (i.e. this Signature
      Algorithm is available for signature generation).

3.1.  Neighbor Cache interactions

   Neighbor Cache MUST have the ability to store Supported Signature
   Algorithm information for each entry (i.e.  IPv6 address).  Supported
   Signature Algorithm information for an entry MAY be empty (e.g. entry
   created by a RFC 3971 node or an unverifiable message).

3.2.  Processing Rules for Senders

   If a node has been configured to use SEND, then all Neighbor
   Solicitation, Neighbor Advertisement, Router Solicitation, Router
   Advertisement, and Redirect messages it sends MUST contain the
   Supported Signature Algorithm option.  This option MUST contain in
   the Signing Algorithm field all the signature algorithms it is
   willing to use in signature generation and verification.

3.3.  Processing Rules for Receivers

   Upon receiving a SEND packet with a Supported Signature Algorithm
   Option, a receiver performs the following operations:




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   o  when the message is a Neighbor Solicitation or a Router
      Solicitation, the receiving node computes the intersection between
      the set of Supported Signature Algorithm indicated by the option
      and its own.  If the set is empty, this means the node will not be
      able to use a Signature Algorithm that the initiating node can
      check.  Given the local policy, a receiver node MAY still respond
      to the received message using its "preferred" Signature Algorithm
      (even if the node knows the receiver will not be able to verify
      the Signature Algorithm).  If the set is not empty, the receiving
      node will choose among the set one of the algorithms in order to
      generate a Universal Signature Option.

   o  If the message pass the SEND verifications (CGA verification,
      Timestamp, Nonce, Universal Signature Option verification) and
      contains a Supported Signature Algorithm Option, the information
      of the Supported Signature Algorithm in the Neighbor Cache is
      updated by the information contained in the Supported Signature
      Option attached to the message.

   o  If the message does not pass the SEND verifications because of a
      unverifiable RSA Signature Option or Universal Signature Option,
      if it contains a Supported Signature Algorithm Option, and the
      Neighbor Cache entry associated to that node does not contain any
      information about the Supported Signature Algorithm, the Neighbor
      Cache entry SHOULD be updated with the information contained in
      the Supported Signature Algorithm Option.

























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4.  SEND Universal Signature Option

   We propose replacing the RSA Signature Option by a new algorithm-
   independent signature option.  The "Universal Signature Option" is an
   updated version of the RSA Signature Option, that allows a node to
   specify which of its potential multiple keys it is using.  To achieve
   this, we use the 16-bit reserved field of the RSA Signature Option,
   and define a new 8-bit field that contains the position of the Public
   Key associated with the signature and a new 5-bit Signature Type
   Identifier field that details the type of algorithms used to generate
   the Digital Signature.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |    Length     | Key Position  | Res.|  Sig ID |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      |                          Key Hash                             |
      |                                                               |
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      .                                                               .
      .                       Digital Signature                       .
      .                                                               .
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      .                                                               .
      .                           Padding                             .
      .                                                               .
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 2: Universal Signature Option format

   Type

      Same value as in [RFC3971]: 12.

   Length

      The length of the option (including the Type, Length, Reserved,
      Key Hash, Digital Signature, and Padding fields) in units of 8
      octets.





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   Key Position

      An 8-bit field indicating which Public Key in the CGA parameter
      structure (carried in the CGA option) has been used to compute the
      Digital Signature.  The index starts at 0, meaning the key is the
      one in the Public Key field.  Values greater than 1 refer to
      Public Key found in the CGA Extension field (as defined in the
      companion document [cheneau-cga-pk-agility]]).  Value 255 is a
      reserved value that indicates no CGA option in the message
      contains the Public Key.

   Reserved

      A 3-bit field reserved for future use.  The value MUST be set to
      zero by the sender and MUST be ignored by the receiver.

   Signature Type Identifier

      Signature Type Identifier is a 5-bit field.  It corresponds to the
      Signature Type Identifier subfield (bits 3 to 7 of the Signature
      Algorithm field) in the Supported Signature Algorithm option .  It
      indicates the type of signature contained in the Digital Signature
      field.

   Key Hash

      A 128-bit field containing the most significant (leftmost) 128
      bits of a hash of the public key used for constructing the
      signature.  It is computed using the same hash function as used in
      generating digital signature (indicated in Signature Type
      Identifier).  The hash value is computed over the presentation
      used in the Public Key field of the CGA Parameters data structure
      carried in the CGA option.  Its purpose is to associate the
      signature with a particular key known by the receiver.  Such a key
      can either be stored in the certificate cache of the receiver or
      be received in the CGA option in the same message.

   Digital Signature

      A variable-length field containing a signature constructed by
      using the sender's private key associated to the public key
      pointed by the Key Position field.  The signature type is
      determined from the value of the Signature Type Identifier field.
      If the value of the Signature Type Identifier field is 0, then the
      Key Position field must be set to 0 and this Digital Signature
      field is computed the same way as the Digital Signature field of
      the RSA Signature Option described in [RFC3971].  If the value of
      the Signature Type Identifier field is 1, then this Digital



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      Signature field is computed the same way as the Digital Signature
      field of the RSA Signature Option described in [RFC3971] except
      that the signature is computed with the RSASSA-PKCS1-v1_5
      algorithm as defined in [PKCS1] and hash function is SHA-256.  If
      the value of the Signature Type Identifier field is 9, 10 or 11,
      then this Digital Signature field is computed using the ECDSA
      signature algorithm (as defined on [SEC1]) and hash function
      defined in Signature Type Identifier on the following data:

      1.  The 128-bit CGA Message Type tag [RFC3972] value for SEND,
          0x086F CA5E 10B2 00C9 9C8C E001 6427 7C08.  (The tag value has
          been generated randomly by the editor of the [RFC3971]
          specification.).

      2.  The 128-bit Source Address field from the IP header.

      3.  The 128-bit Destination Address field from the IP header.

      4.  The 8-bit Type, 8-bit Code, and 16-bit Checksum fields from
          the ICMP header.

      5.  The NDP message header, starting from the octet after the ICMP
          Checksum field and continuing up to but not including NDP
          options.

      6.  All NDP options preceding, but not including, any of the
          Universal Signature options.

      This field starts after the Key Hash field.  The length of the
      Digital Signature field is determined by the length of the
      Universal Signature option minus the length of the other fields
      (including the variable length Pad field).

   Padding  This variable-length field contains padding, as many bytes
      long as remain after the end of the signature.

   A Neighbor Solicitation/Advertisement, Router Solicitation/
   Advertisement and Redirect message MAY contain more than one
   Universal Signature Option, as long as it does not exceed the MTU.
   This is particularly useful for routers operating in heterogeneous
   networks, where hosts have a disjoint set of supported signature
   algorithms.  For information on how to compute the message size, see
   Appendix A.

4.1.  Processing Rules for Senders

   When sending a SEND message spontaneously, an emitter node CAN choose
   a signature algorithm of its preference (defined by its local policy)



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   among the corresponding Public Keys carried in the CGA option.  Using
   this signature algorithm, the node computes the Digital Signature and
   fills the Key Position field with the position of the key in the CGA
   parameter data structure.

   If the node has been configured to use SEND, then all Neighbor
   Solicitation, Neighbor Advertisement, Router Advertisement, and
   Redirect messages MUST contain at least one Universal Signature
   option.  Router Solicitation messages not sent with the unspecified
   source address MUST contain the Universal Signature option.

   A node sending a message with one or more Universal Signature
   option(s) MUST construct the message as follows:

   o  If the node has previously received hints (e.g. a NDP message with
      a Supported Signature Algorithm option or an entry in the Neighbor
      Cache) on the type of Signature Algorithm it should use, it MUST
      restrict its choice on those Signature Algorithms.

   o  The message is then constructed in its entirety, without any of
      the Universal Signature options.

   o  The Universal Signature option(s) is (are) added as the last
      option in the message.

   o  The data to be signed is constructed as explained in [RFC3971],
      under the description of the Digital Signature field.

   o  The message, in the form defined above, is signed by using the
      configured private key associated to the selected Signature
      Algorithm, and the result signature is is encapsulated into the
      Digital Signature field.

4.2.  Processing Rules for Receivers

   Neighbor Solicitation, Neighbor Advertisement, Router Advertisement,
   and Redirect messages without any Universal Signature option or with
   an unverifiable Universal Signature option MUST be treated as
   unsecured (i.e., processed in the same way as NDP messages sent by a
   non-SEND node).  See Section 8 of [RFC3971].

   Router Solicitation messages without any Universal Signature option
   MUST also be treated as unsecured, unless the source address of the
   message is the unspecified address.

   Redirect, Neighbor Solicitation, Neighbor Advertisement, Router
   Solicitation, and Router Advertisement messages containing one or
   more Universal Signature option MUST be checked as follows:



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   o  The receiver MUST ignore any options that come after the first
      Universal Signature option.  (The options are ignored for both
      signature verification and NDP processing purposes.)

   o  The Key Hash field MUST correspond to a known public key, either
      one learned from the CGA option in the same message by the
      position indicated in the Key Position field message, or one known
      by other means.

   o  The Digital Signature field MUST have correct encoding and MUST
      not exceed the length of the Universal Signature option minus the
      Padding.

   o  The Digital Signature verification MUST show that the signature
      has been calculated as specified in the previous section.

   o  If the use of a trust anchor has been configured, a valid
      certification path (see Section 6.3 of [RFC3971]) between the
      receiver's trust anchor and the sender's public key MUST be known.

   Messages that do not pass all the above tests MUST be silently
   discarded if the host has been configured to accept only secured ND
   messages.  The messages MAY be accepted if the host has been
   configured to accept both secured and unsecured messages but MUST be
   treated as unsecured messages.  The receiver MAY also otherwise
   silently discard packets (e.g., as a response to an apparent CPU
   exhausting DoS attack).
























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5.  Basic negotiation

5.1.  Overview

   This section describes different configuration of SEND-enabled nodes
   with varying signing capabilities and their interaction during the
   negotiation phase.

   Case 1: when both nodes support the same two Signature Algorithms,
   they can pick the Signature Algorithm they prefer for signing and are
   able to verify each others signature.  Figure 3 is an example of such
   a message flow.


   Node A                                    Node B

   NS
   {CGA option,
   RSA Signature option.
   Supported-Signature-Algo option
   (RSA sign & verif, ECC sign & verif)}
                        -------->
                                   NA
                                   {CGA option,
                                   ECC Signature option
                                   Supported-Signature-Algo option
                                   (ECC sign & verif, RSA sign & verif)}
                        <--------

   IPv6 traffic         <------->  IPv6 traffic

                   Figure 3: Basic negotiation - Case 1

   Case 2: two nodes sharing at least one common Signing Algorithm must
   be able to securely communicate.  Figure 4 is an example of such a
   message flow.















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   Node A                                      Node B

   NS
   {CGA option,
   RSA Signature option.
   Supported-Signature-Algo option
   (RSA sign & verif, ECC sign & verif)}
                          -------->
                                      NA
                                      {CGA option,
                                      ECC Signature option
                                      Supported-Signature-Algo option
                                      (ECC sign & verif)}
                          <--------
                                      (At this point, Node B could not
                                      authenticate Node A's Neighbor
                                      Solicitation)

                          --------> (unidirectionnal) IPv6 traffic

                                      NS
                                      {CGA option,
                                      ECC Signature option
                                      Supported-Signature-Algo option
                                      (ECC sign & verif)}
                          <--------
   NA
   {CGA option,
   ECC Signature option.
   Supported-Signature-Algo option
   (RSA sign & verif, ECC sign & verif)}
                          -------->

   IPv6 traffic           <------->  IPv6 traffic

                   Figure 4: Basic negotiation - Case 2

   Case 3: when two nodes have a disjoint set of Signature Algorithm
   support for signing, but the two nodes are able to verify each
   others, a full negotiation is possible.  Figure 5 is an example of
   such a message flow.










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   Node A                                    Node B

   NS
   {CGA option,
   RSA Signature option.
   Supported-Signature-Algo option
   (RSA sign & verif, ECC verif only)}
                         -------->
                                  NA
                                  {CGA option,
                                  ECC Signature option
                                  Supported-Signature-Algo option
                                  (ECC sign & verif, RSA verif only)}
                        <--------

   IPv6 traffic         <------->  IPv6 traffic

                   Figure 5: Basic negotiation - Case 3

   Case 4: when two nodes have a disjoint set of Signature Algorithm
   support for signing, but one node is able to verify, a partial
   negotiation is possible.  Figure 6 is an example of such a message
   flow.

   Node A                                    Node B

   NS
   {CGA option,
   RSA Signature option.
   Supported-Signature-Algo option
   (RSA sign & verif)}
                        -------->
                                   NA
                                   {CGA option,
                                   ECC Signature option
                                   Supported-Signature-Algo option
                                   (ECC sign & verif, RSA verif only)}
                       <--------

             (...depending on local policies...)
   IPv6 traffic        <------->  IPv6 traffic

                   Figure 6: Basic negotiation - Case 4

   Section 6 describes an optional functionality that allow nodes in
   Case 4 to perform a trustful complete negotiation.





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5.2.  Sending Unsolicited Messages

   When sending unsolicited message, a node MAY have to rely on the
   entries of its Neighbor Cache.  The Neighbor Cache will provide hints
   concerning the Signature Algorithm supported by the neighbors.
   Neighbor Cache can assist the node in the Signature Algorithm
   selection process when:

   o  A router advertises unsolicited Router Advertisement message to
      the All-Nodes multicast address (e.g. to indicate a prefix
      lifetime is going down to 0).  The router needs to know which
      signature algorithm(s) to use in order to send verifiable messages
      to hosts.  To do so, the router MAY rely on the Neighbor Cache and
      compute an intersection of the set of all Supported Signature
      Algorithms.  The router will then be able to advertise a Router
      Advertisement signed multiple times with the resulting subset of
      Supported Signature Algorithms or advertise multiple Router
      Advertisements, each signed with a single Signature Algorithm part
      of the intersection.

   o  A node sends unsolicited Neighbor Advertisement (e.g. when
      changing its Link-Layer address).  This is similar to the previous
      problem and can also be solved using the Neighbor Cache the same
      way.

   o  A router sends a Redirect message to a host.  Choosing a supported
      signature algorithm without probing the node can be difficult.
      However, Neighbor Cache will most likely contain an entry for the
      host, prior to the decision to send a Redirect message, because of
      the Address Resolution process.  This entry should contain
      information on the Supported Signature Algorithm(s) and thus
      provide hints concerning the Signature Algorithm to choose to sign
      the Redirect messages.

   Note that the information on the neighbors with which a communication
   has occurred recently or is ongoing are in the Neighbor Cache and are
   maintained up to date through the Neighbor Unreachability Detection
   procedure.













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6.  Router-as-a-notary function

   This optional functionality enhances backward compatibility by
   introducing a new entity.  This new entity, named "notary", certifies
   the authenticity of a node's message.  This improves communication
   when, for example, two nodes have a disjoint set of supported
   Signature Algorithm types and still require secure neighbor
   discovery.

   In this specification, the notary function is offered by routers,
   although other nodes may offer this capability in the future
   specification.  Authorization for the router to act as a notary is
   shown through router's certificate in a KeyPurposeID as defined in
   [krishnan-cgaext-send-cert-eku] and provided by the trust anchor.

   The notary function requires the two specific ICMP messages:
   signature check request message and signature status message.

6.1.  Signature Check Request Message

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |     Code      |      Packet Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |       Checksum                |        Reserved               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Request ID.                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   +                                                               +
   |                    SEND secured packet                        |
   ~          (NDP packets should fit completely)                  ~
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Options  ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

                  Signature Check Request Message format

   Type

      TBA.

   Code

      TBA.





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   Packet Length

      Packet length is the size of the SEND secured packet

   Checksum

      Checksum is a CRC-16 of the whole packet.  During the CRC-16
      computation, this field is set to 0.  The purpose of this field is
      to quickly invalidate transmission errors.

   Reserved

      This 16-bit field is reserved.  MUST be set to 0 by senders and
      ignored by receivers.

   Request Identifier

      Request Identifier helps matching a signature check request and
      the signature status (response) messages.  Request Identifier
      field is randomly generated.

   SEND secured packet

      SEND secured packet is the packet that the node was not able to
      verify on his own, subject of the verification.  Note that the
      encapsulated packet MUST not make the whole Signature Check
      Request message exceed the MTU (as no fragmentation support is
      available).

   Options

      This field contains one or more NDP options.  Currently, only one
      option is mandatory in this field.  It is the Supported Signature
      Algorithm option, that allows the notary to choose a correct
      signature algorithm to sign the Signature Status message.

   Note that this message MAY be protected by usual SEND NDP options
   (CGA option, Timestamp, Nonce, Universal Signature Option).  In this
   case, the Universal Signature Option contains the whole packet that
   the node wants to be checked on the router (so packet may not be
   tampered with).

   A router acting as a notary processes the packet as follows:

      if the packet is protected with SEND options, the notary:

      *  Verifies the CGA of the emitter




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      *  Verifies the Universal Signature Option of the message (linked
         to CGA of the source address).  If more than one Universal
         Signature Options are in the message, the notary can decide to
         check any of them.

      *  Verifies the CGA and signature of the SEND secured packet
         (inner packet).

      *  Responds with a Signature status message (defined in the
         following section) indicating the status of the SEND secured
         packet Universal Signature Option.

      if the packet is not protected, the notary:

      *  verifies the CGA and signature of the SEND secured packet
         (inner packet).  If more than one Universal Signature Option
         are in the message, the notary can decide to check any of them.

      *  Responds with a Signature status message (defined in the
         following section) indicating the status of the SEND secured
         packet Universal Signature Option.

6.2.  Signature Status Message

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |     Code      |          Status               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Request ID.                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          Hash                                 |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Options  ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

                      Signature Status Message format

   Type

      TBA.

   Code

      TBA.






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   Status

      The 16-bit status field can be set to any of the following values:

         0: all validation checks passed

         1: Signature Check Request message checksum failed

         2: inner packet CGA verification check failed

         3: inner packet signature verification check failed

         4: unsupported hash algorithm (to compute Hash1/Hash2)

         5: unsupported Public Key algorithm

         6: ask later (router is busy)

   Request Identifier

      The Request Identifier helps matching a signature check request
      and the signature status (response) message.  The Request
      Identifier is copied from the Signature Check Request message.

   Hash

      The Hash field contains the result of a hash function applied on
      the Request ID field and on the Send Secured Packet field of the
      Signature Check Request message.  The hash function is the same as
      the one in the Key Hash field of the Universal Signature Option
      that will protect this message.

   Options

      This field contains one or more NDP options.  Mandatory options
      are CGA Option, Timestamp Option and Universal Signature Option.
      Universal Signature Option MUST be the last option.

   This message is a response to a Signature Check Request message and
   is protected by SEND options generated using a public key contained
   in a certificate of the router authorized to act as notary.  If the
   Signature Check Request message is protected by the Nonce option,
   this option MUST be copied in the Signature Status message.

   On reception of this message, a requesting node performs CGA
   verification, Nonce (if included in the initial request) and
   Timestamp checks, and Universal Signature Option check.  If any of
   those test fails, the packet is dropped and an error MAY be logged.



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   Then, if the status message is 0, that node can treat the original
   packet that created the need for a Notary Signature Check Request
   message as a secured packet.  On a status value different from 0, the
   packet will be considered as unsecure and be treated as such.  Status
   value MAY be loged for further diagnosis.

6.3.  Using notary for DAD procedure

   When performing the DAD procedure, a node can receive Neighbor
   Solicitation or Neighbor Advertisement that are protected by a
   Universal Signature Option the node can not check.  In this specific
   case, the node can ask the notary to check the signature for him.

   However, the node, while performing DAD, MUST send the Signature
   Check Request message using the unspecified address as source
   address.  The notary MUST respond with a Signature Status message
   directed to the All-Node multicast address.


































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7.  Security Considerations

             +-----------------------+-----------------------+
             | RSA key length (bits) | ECC key length (bits) |
             +-----------------------+-----------------------+
             |          3072         |          256          |
             |                       |                       |
             |          7680         |          384          |
             |                       |                       |
             |         15380         |          512          |
             +-----------------------+-----------------------+

        Equivalence between Elliptic Curves and RSA security levels

          Table 1: Security level equivalence between ECC and RSA

   Section 4 presents a new Universal Signature Option.  A recommended
   use of this option is to allow signatures of equivalent security
   level (i.e.  Public Keys with equivalent key lengths) as shown in
   Table 1.  See also section 4 of the companion draft
   [cheneau-cga-pk-agility].

   Usage of SHA-1 for signature is strongly NOT RECOMMENDED, and when
   available should be preferred by the usage of SHA-256.  SHA-1
   security is been proved to be flawed in the light of recent attacks
   [Recent SHA-1 Attack] [NIST-st].

   The Universal Signature Option is vulnerable to downgrade attacks.
   That is, given that a node can employ multiple signature types, an
   attacker may choose to use a flawed one.  To mitigate this issue,
   nodes are allowed, on a local policy, to refuse to check certain
   types of signature (i.e. those which are know to be flawed) and will
   treat the associated messages as unsecured.  When trying to
   completely mitigate downgrade attacks, an administrator MAY deploy
   SEND-secured nodes only authorizing a single signature algorithm
   scheme.  This comes at a price of a reduced interoperability.

   Section 6 introduces an optional notary functionality that offers to
   nodes to check messages on their behalf, involving heavy
   cryptographic computation.  This can lead to flooding attacks and
   Denial of Services.  However, Neighbor Discovery Protocol [RFC4861]
   and Secure Neighbor Discovery Protocol [RFC3971] are already prone to
   flooding attacks.  One possible solution is to use rate limiting on
   Signature Check Request messages.

   Notary functionality is also vulnerable to "Good Router Goes Bad"
   attacks (as described in [RFC3756]).  Notary can make node trust
   unsecured packets and drop valid ones.  This issue can be mitigated



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   when multiple notaries are present on a link.  The node can use a
   round-robin algorithm to load-balance the Signature Check Request
   message, thus reducing the risk of cache poisoning by a compromised
   notary.















































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8.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests IANA to allocate types for the two new notary
   ICMP messages.

   Section 3 defines a Signature Type Identifier subfield containing new
   values corresponding to different Signature Algorithm.  This document
   requests creation of a new registry to the IANA.











































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9.  Acknowledgments

   The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Marcelo
   Bagnulo, Gabriel Montenegro, Greg Daley, Dave Thaler, Steve Kent,
   Jari Arko, and Francis Dupont for their helpful feedback.














































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [RFC3972]  Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, March 2005.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC4982]  Bagnulo, M. and J. Arkko, "Support for Multiple Hash
              Algorithms in Cryptographically Generated Addresses
              (CGAs)", RFC 4982, July 2007.

   [cheneau-cga-pk-agility]
              Cheneau, T., Laurent-Maknavicius, M., Shen, S., and M.
              Vanderveen, "Support for Multiple Signature Algorithms in
              Cryptographically Generated  Addresses (CGAs)",
              draft-cheneau-cga-pk-agility-01 (work in progress),
              June 2009.

10.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC3756]  Nikander, P., Kempf, J., and E. Nordmark, "IPv6 Neighbor
              Discovery (ND) Trust Models and Threats", RFC 3756,
              May 2004.

   [RFC4581]  Bagnulo, M. and J. Arkko, "Cryptographically Generated
              Addresses (CGA) Extension Field Format", RFC 4581,
              October 2006.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [NIST-st]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "NIST
              Comments on Cryptanalytic Attacks on SHA-1",
              <http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/statement.html>.

   [krishnan-cgaext-send-cert-eku]
              Krishnan, S., Kukec, A., and K. Ahmed, "Certificate
              profile and certificate management for SEND",
              draft-krishnan-cgaext-send-cert-eku-03 (work in progress),
              March 2009.




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   [FIPS-186-3]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Draft
              Digital Signature Standard", FIPS PUB 186-3, March 2006.

   [PKCS1]    RSA Laboratories, "RSA Encryption Standard, Version 2.1",
              PKCS 1, November 2002.

   [FIPS.180-2]
              National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Standard", FIPS PUB 180-2, August 2002, <http://
              csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-2/fips180-2.pdf>.

   [SEC1]     Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group, "SEC 1:
              Elliptic Curve Cryptography", September 2000,
              <http://secg.org>.

   [Recent SHA-1 Attack]
              McDonald, C., Haukes, P., and J. Pieprzyk, "SHA-1
              collisions now 2^52", May 2009, <http://
              eurocrypt2009rump.cr.yp.to/
              837a0a8086fa6ca714249409ddfae43d.pdf>.






























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Appendix A.  On the number of Public Keys supported per CGA

   +------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
   |  RSA key length  |    Public    |  Size of the DER-encoded Public |
   |      (bits)      |   exponent   |           Key (bytes)           |
   +------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+
   |        384       |    3 or 17   |                76               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |        384       |     65537    |                78               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |        512       |    3 or 17   |                92               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |        512       |     65537    |                94               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       1024       |    3 or 17   |               160               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       1024       |     65537    |               162               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       2048       |    3 or 17   |               292               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       2048       |     65537    |               294               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       3072       |    3 or 17   |               420               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       3072       |     65537    |               422               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       7680       |    3 or 17   |               996               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       7680       |     65537    |               998               |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       15360      |    3 or 17   |               1956              |
   |                  |              |                                 |
   |       15360      |     65537    |               1958              |
   +------------------+--------------+---------------------------------+

           Table 2: Common sizes for DER-encoded RSA Public Key















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   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |  RSA Key Length (in  |     Size of the Digital Signature field    |
   |         bits)        |               without padding              |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
   |          384         |                     48                     |
   |                      |                                            |
   |          512         |                     64                     |
   |                      |                                            |
   |         1024         |                     128                    |
   |                      |                                            |
   |         2048         |                     256                    |
   |                      |                                            |
   |         3072         |                     384                    |
   |                      |                                            |
   |         7680         |                     960                    |
   |                      |                                            |
   |         15360        |                    1920                    |
   +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+

    Table 3: Common sizes of the Digital Signature field when using RSA

   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |   Name of the elliptic   |   Size of the DER-encoded Public Key   |
   |           curve          |                 (bytes)                |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+
   |           P-256          |                   88                   |
   |                          |                                        |
   |           P-384          |                   120                  |
   |                          |                                        |
   |           P-521          |                   158                  |
   +--------------------------+----------------------------------------+

           Table 4: Common sizes for DER-encoded ECC Public Key

   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
   |  Name of the elliptic |    Size of the Digital Signature field    |
   |         curve         |             (without padding)             |
   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
   |         P-256         |                     71                    |
   |                       |                                           |
   |         P-384         |                    104                    |
   |                       |                                           |
   |         P-521         |                    139                    |
   +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+

   Table 5: Common sizes of the Digital Signature field when using ECDSA
                             (+ DER encoding)




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   When using multiple public keys to form a CGA, one may reach the
   maximum number of possible public keys before each Neighbor Discovery
   Message exceed the Maximum Transfer Unit (which must be at least 1280
   octets according to [RFC2460]).  This section aims to approximate
   this limit.

   Numerous factors (presence and number of option, size of public keys,
   etc) influence the size of the Neighbor Discovery message.  For
   example, when sending a SEND-secured Router Advertisement message:

   o  The IPv6 header is 40 bytes long.  Described in [RFC2460].

   o  The bare Router Advertisement message (without any option) is 16
      bytes long.  Described in [RFC4861].

   o  A Prefix Information Option (can appear more than once) is 32
      bytes long.  Described in [RFC4861].

   o  A Source Link-Layer Option, when a IEEE 802 address is used, is 8
      bytes long.  Described in [RFC4861].

   o  A MTU Option is 8 bytes long.  Described in [RFC4861].

   o  The CGA Option is the size of the CGA Parameter Data Structure
      plus 4 bytes rounded up to the closest multiple of 8 value.  This
      option is defined in [RFC3971].  The CGA Parameter Data Structure
      (defined in [RFC3972] size depends on the following fields:

      *  Modifier: 16 bytes long.

      *  Subnet Prefix: 8 bytes long.

      *  Collision Count: 1 byte long.

      *  Public Key: variable size.  Table 2 provides size of the
         commonly used DER-encoded RSA Public Keys.  Table 4 provides
         size for the commonly used DER-encoded ECC Public Keys.

      *  Extension(s): variable size.  Public Key Extension field
         defined in [cheneau-cga-pk-agility] is 4 bytes plus the size of
         the Public Key long.  Public Key size are defined in Table 2
         and Table 4.

   o  The Timestamp Option is 16 bytes long.  Defined in [RFC3971].

   o  The Nonce Option minimum size is 8 bytes long.  Defined in
      [RFC3971].




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   o  The Universal Signature Option depends on the size of the Digital
      Signature.  The fixed part of the option is 20 bytes long.  This
      option is updated in this document.  Table 3 presents common sizes
      for usual Digital Signature field when using RSA.  Table 5
      presents common sizes for Digital Signature field when using
      ECDSA.  This option size must be a multiple of 8 bytes.

   A Router Advertisement message, carrying a Prefix Information Option
   and a Source Link-Layer Option, without Nonce, with one 1024-bits
   long RSA Public Key and a Public Exponent of 3 in the CGA Option is
   456 bytes long.  Using the same RSA Public Key, adding one ECC P-521
   key to CGA Option, the same message, signed with a Universal
   Signature option generated by RSA and a Universal Signature Option
   signed by ECDSA, is 768 bytes long.  Note that EC P-521 and 1024-bits
   RSA keys should not be used together because they do not present the
   same security level (see Section 7) and are shown here to indicate
   sizes of messages with "big" keys.


































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Internet-Draft     Signature Algorithm Agility in SEND         June 2009


Authors' Addresses

   Tony Cheneau
   Institut TELECOM, TELECOM SudParis, CNRS SAMOVAR UMR 5157
   9 rue Charles Fourier
   Evry  91011
   France

   Email: tony.cheneau@it-sudparis.eu


   Maryline Laurent-Maknavicius
   Institut TELECOM, TELECOM SudParis, CNRS SAMOVAR UMR 5157
   9 rue Charles Fourier
   Evry  91011
   France

   Email: maryline.maknavicius@it-sudparis.eu


   Sean Shen
   Huawei
   No. 9  Xinxi Road
   Beijing  100085
   China

   Email: sshen@huawei.com


   Michaela Vanderveen
   Qualcomm

   Email: mvandervn@gmail.com


















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