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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-lisp-architecture

LISP Working Group                                         J. N. Chiappa
Internet-Draft                              Yorktown Museum of Asian Art
Intended status: Informational                             July 16, 2012
Expires: January 17, 2013


                An Architectural Perspective on the LISP
                  Location-Identity Separation System
                   draft-chiappa-lisp-architecture-01

Abstract

   LISP upgrades the architecture of the IPvN internetworking system by
   separating location and identity, current intermingled in IPvN
   addresses. This is a change which has been identified by the IRTF as
   a critically necessary evolutionary architectural step for the
   Internet. In LISP, nodes have both a 'locator' (a name which says
   _where_ in the network's connectivity structure the node is) and an
   'identifier' (a name which serves only to provide a persistent handle
   for the node). A node may have more than one locator, or its locator
   may change over time (e.g. if the node is mobile), but it keeps the
   same identifier.

   This document gives additional architectural insight into LISP, and
   considers a number of aspects of LISP from a high-level standpoint.

   [NOTE: This is still a somewhat rough draft version; a few sections
   at the end are just rough frameworks, but almost all the key
   sections, and all the front part of the document, are here, and in
   something like reasonably complete form.]

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 17, 2013.

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   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction
   2. Goals of LISP
     2.1. Reduce DFZ Routing Table Size
     2.2. Deployment of New Namespaces
     2.3. Future Development of LISP
   3. Architectual Perspectives
     3.1. Another Packet-Switching Layer
     3.2. 'Double-Ended' Approach
   4. Architectual Aspects
     4.1. Critical State
     4.2. Need for a Mapping System
     4.3. Piggybacking of Control on User Data
   5. Namespaces
     5.1. LISP EIDs
       5.1.1. Residual Location Functionality in EIDs
     5.2. RLOCs
     5.3. Overlapping Uses of Existing Namespaces
     5.4. LCAFs
   6. Scalability
     6.1. Demand Loading of Mappings
     6.2. Caching of Mappings
     6.3. Amount of State
     6.4. Scalability of The Indexing Subsystem
   7. Security
     7.1. Basic Philosophy
     7.2. Design Guidance
       7.2.1. Security Mechanism Complexity
     7.3. Security Overview
       7.3.1. Securing Lookups
       7.3.2. Securing The Indexing Subsystem
       7.3.3. Securing Mappings
     7.4. Securing the xTRs
   8. Robustness
   9. Fault Discovery/Handling
   10. Optimization
   11. Open Issues
     11.1. Local Open Issues
       11.1.1. Missing Mapping Packet Queueing
       11.1.2. Mapping Cache Management Algorithm
     11.2. Systemic Open Issues
       11.2.1. Mapping Database Provider Lock-in
       11.2.2. Automated ETR Synchronization
       11.2.3. EID Reachability
       11.2.4. Detect and Avoid Broken ETRs
   12. Acknowledgments
   13. IANA Considerations
   14. Security Considerations
   15. References
     15.1. Normative References
     15.2. Informative References
   Appendix A. Glossary/Definition of Terms
   Appendix B. Other Appendices

1. Introduction

   This document begins by introducing some high-level architectural
   perspectives which have proven useful for thinking about the LISP
   location-identity separation system. It then discusses some
   architectural aspects of LISP (e.g. its namespaces). The balance
   (and bulk) of the document contains architectural analysis of the
   LISP system; that is, it reviews from a high-level standpoint various
   aspects of that system; e.g. its scalability, security, robustness,
   etc.

   NOTE: This document assumes a fair degree of familiarity with LISP;
   in particular, the reader should have a good 'high-level'
   understanding of the overall LISP system architecture, such as is
   provided by [Introduction], "An Introduction to the LISP System".

   By "system architecture" above, the restricted meaning used there is:
   'How the system is broken up into subsystems, and how those
   subsystems interact; when does information flows from one to another,
   and what that information is.'  There is obviously somewhat more to
   architecture (e.g. the namespaces of a system, in particular their
   syntax and semantics), and that remaining architectural content is
   covered here.

2. Goals of LISP

   As previously stated in the abstract, broadly, the goal of LISP is to
   be a practically deployable architectural upgrade to IPvN which
   performs separation of location and identity. But what is the value
   of that?  What will it allow us to do?

   The answer to that obviously starts with the things mentioned in the
   "Initial Applications" section of [Introduction], but there are
   other, longer-range (and broader) goals as well.

2.1. Reduce DFZ Routing Table Size

   One of the main design drivers for LISP, as well as other location-
   identity separation proposals, is to decrease the overhead of running
   global routing system. In fact, it was this aspect that led the IRTF
   Routing RG to conclude that separation of location and identity was a
   key architectural underpinning needed to control the growth of the
   global routing system. [RFC6115]

   As noted in [Introduction], many of the practical needs of Internet
   users are today met with techniques that increase the load on the
   global routing system (Provider Independent addresses for the
   provision of provider independence, multihoming, etc; more-specific
   routes for TE; etc.)  Provision of these capabilities by a mechanism
   which does not involve extra load on the global routing system is
   therefore very desirable.

   A number of factors, including the use of these techniques, has led
   to a great increase in the fragmentation of the address space, at
   least in terms of routing table entries. In particular, the growth
   in demand for multi-homing has been forseen as driving a large
   increase in the size of the global routing tables.

   In addition, as the IPv4 address space becomes fuller and fuller,
   there will be an inevitable tendency to find use in smaller and
   smaller 'chunks' of that space. [RFC6127] This too would tend to
   increase the size of the global routing table.

   LISP, if successful and widely deployed, offers an opportunity to use
   separation of location and identity to control the growth of the size
   of the global routing table. (A full examination of this topic is
   beyond the scope of this document - see {{find reference}}.)

2.2. Deployment of New Namespaces

   Once the mapping system is widely deployed and available, it should
   make deployment of new namespaces (in the sense of new syntax, if not
   new semantics) easier. E.g. if someone wishes in the future to
   devise a system which uses native MPLS [RFC3031] for a data carriage
   system joining together a large number of xTRs, it would easy enough
   to arrange to have the mappings for destinations attached to those
   xTRs abe some sort of MPLS-specific name.

   More broadly, the existence of a binding layer, with support for
   multiple namespace built into the interface on both sides (see
   Section 5) is a tremendously powerful evolutionary tool; one can
   introduce a new namespace (on one side) more easily, if it is mapped
   to something which is already deployed (on the other). Then, having
   taken that step, one can invert the process, and deploy yet another
   new namespace, but this time on the other.

2.3. Future Development of LISP

   Speculation about long-term future developments which are enabled by
   the deployment of LISP is not really proper for this document.
   However, interested readers may wish to consult [Future] for one
   person's thoughts on this topic.

3. Architectual Perspectives

   This section contains some high-level architectural perspectives
   which have proven useful in a number of ways for thinking about LISP.
   For one, when trying to think of LISP as a complete system, they
   provide a conceptual structure which can aid analysis of LISP. For
   another, they can allow the application of past analysis of, and
   experience with, similar designs.

3.1. Another Packet-Switching Layer

   When considering the overall structure of the LISP system at a high
   level, it has proven most useful to think of it as another packet-
   switching layer, run on top of the original internet layer - much as
   the Internet first ran on top of the ARPANET.

   All the functions that a normal packet switch has to undertake - such
   as ensuring that it can reach its neighbours, and they they are still
   up - the devices that make up the LISP overlay also have to do, along
   the 'tunnels' which connect them to other LISP devices.

   There is, however, one big difference: the fanout of a typical LISP
   ITR will be much larger than most classic physical packet switches.
   (ITRs only need to be considered, as the LISP tunnels are all
   effectively unidirectional, from ITR to ETR - an ETR needs to keep no
   per-tunnel state, etc.)

   LISP is, fundamentally, a 'tunnel' based system. Tunnel system
   designs do have their issues (e.g. the high inter-'switch' fan-out),
   but it's important to realize that they also can have advantages,
   some of which are listed below.

3.2. 'Double-Ended' Approach

   LISP may be thought of as a 'double-ended' approach to enhancing the
   architecture, in that it uses pairs of devices, one at each end of a
   communication stream. In particular, to interact with the population
   of 'legacy' hosts (which will be, inevitably, the vast majority, in
   the early stages of deployment) it requires a LISP device at both
   ends of the 'tunnel'.

   This is in distinction to, say, NAT systems ([RFC1631]), which only
   need a device deployed at one end: the host at the other end doesn't
   need a matching device at its end to massage the packets, but can
   simply consume them on its own, as any packets it receives are fully
   normal packets. This allows any site which deploys such a 'single-
   ended' device to get the full benefit, whilst acting entirely on its
   own. [Wasserman]

   The issue is not that LISP uses tunnels. Designs like HIP
   ([RFC4423]) and ILNP ([ILNP]), which do not involve tunnels, inhabit
   a similar space to tunnel-based designs like LISP, in that unless
   both ends are upgraded - or there is a proxy at the un-upgraded end -
   one doen't get any benefits. So it's really not the tunnel which is
   the key aspect, it's the 'all at one end' part which is key. Whether
   the system is tunnel, versus non-tunnel, is not that important.

   However, the double-ended approach of LISP does have advantages, as
   well as costs. To put it simply, the 'feature' of the alternative
   approach, that there's only a box at one end, has a 'bug': there's
   only a box at one end. There are things which such a design cannot
   accomplish, because of that.

   To put it another way, does the fact that the packet thus necessarily
   has only a single 'name' in it for the entities at each end (i.e. the
   IPvN source and destination addresses), because it is a 'normal'
   packet, present a limitation?  Put that way, it would seem natural
   that it should cause certain limits.

   To compile a complete list of the things that can be done, when two
   separate 'names' are in the packet, is beyond the scope of this
   document. However, one example of the kind of thing that can be done
   is mobility with open connections, without needing to 'triangle
   route' the packets through some sort of 'base station' at the
   original location. Another is that is possible to automatically
   tunnel IPv6 traffic over IPv4 infrastructure, or vice versa,
   invisibly to the hosts on both ends.

   In the longer term, having having tunnel boxes will allow (and is
   allowing) us to explore other kinds of wrappings. For example, we
   can transport 'raw' local-network packets (such as Ethernet MAC
   frames) across an IPvN infrastructure.

   One could also wrap packets in non-IPvN formats: perhaps to take
   direct advantage of the capabilities of underlying switching fabrics
   (e.g. MPLS [RFC3031]); perhaps to deploy new carriage protocols,
   etc, where non-standard packet formats will allow extended semantics.

4. Architectual Aspects

   LISP does take some novel architectural approaches in a number of
   ways: e.g. its use of a separate mapping system, etc, etc. This
   section contains some commentary on some of the high-level
   architectural aspects of LISP.

4.1. Critical State

   LISP does have 'critical state' in the network (i.e. state which, if
   if lost, causes the communication to fail). However, because LISP is
   designed as an overall system, 'designing it in' allows for a
   'systems' approach to its state issues. In LISP, this state has been
   designed to be maintained in an 'architected' way, so it does not
   produce systemic brittleness in the way that the state in NATs does.

   For instance, throughout the system, provisions have been made to
   have redundant copies of state, in multiple devices, so that the loss
   of any one device does not necessarily cause a failure of an ongoing
   connection.

4.2. Need for a Mapping System

   LISP does need to have a mapping system, which brings design,
   implementation, configuration and operational costs. Surely all
   these costs are a bad thing?  However, having a mapping system have
   advantages, especially when there is a mapping layer which has global
   visibility (i.e. other entities know that it is there, and have an
   interface designed to be able to interact with it). This is unlike,
   say, the mappings in NAT, which are 'invisible' to the rest of the
   network.

   In fact, one could argue that the mapping layer is LISP's greatest
   strength. Wheeler's Axiom* ('Any problem in computer science can be
   solved with another level of indirection') indicates that the binding
   layer available with the LISP mapping system will be of great value.
   Again, it is not the job of this document to list them all - and in
   any event, there is no way to forsee them all.

   The author of this document has often opined that the hallmark of
   great architecture is not how well it does the things it was designed
   to do, but how well it does things it was never expected to have to
   handle. Providing such a powerful and generic binding layer is one
   sure way to achieve the sort of lasting flexibility and power that
   leads to that outcome.

   [Footnote *: This Axiom is often mis-attributed to Butler Lampson,
   but Lampson himself indicated that it came from David Wheeler.]

4.3. Piggybacking of Control on User Data

   LISP piggybacks control transactions on top of user data packets.
   This is a technique that has a long history in data networking, going
   back to the early ARPANET. [McQuillan] It is now apparently regarded
   as a somewhat dubious technique, the feeling seemingly being that
   control and user data should be strictly segregated.

   It should be noted that _none_ of the piggybacking of control
   functionality in LISP is _architecturally fundamental_ to LISP. All
   of the functions in LISP which are performed with piggybacking could
   be performed almost equally well with separate control packets.

   The "almost" is solely because it would cause more overhead (i.e.
   control packets); neither the response time, robustness, etc would
   necessarily be affected - although for some functions, to match the
   response time observed using piggybacking on user data would need as
   much control traffic as user data traffic.

   This technique is particularly important, however, because of the
   issue identified at the start of this section - the very large fanout
   of the typical LISP switch. Unlike a typical router, which will have
   control interactions with only a few neighbours, a LISP switch could
   eventually have control interactions with hundreds, or perhaps even
   thousands (for a large site) of neighbours.

   Explicit control traffic, especially if good response times are
   desired, could amount to a very great deal of overhead in such a
   case.

5. Namespaces

   One of the key elements in any architecture, or architectural
   analysis, are the namespaces involved: what are their semantics and
   syntax, what are the kinds of things they name, etc.

   LISP has two key namespace, EIDs and RLOCs, but it must be emphasized
   that on an architectural level, neither the syntax, or, to a lesser
   degree, the semantics, of either are absolutely fixed. There are
   certain core semantics which are generaly unchanging (such as the
   notion that EIDs provide only identity, whereas RLOCs provide
   location), but as we will see, there is a certain amount of
   flexibility available for the long-term.

   In particular, all of LISP's key interfaces always include an Address
   Family Identifier (AFI) [AFI] for all names, so that new forms can be
   introduced at any time the need is felt. Of course, in practise such
   an introduction would not be a trivial exercise - but neither is is
   impossibly painful, as is the case with IPv4's 32-bit addresses,
   which are effectively impossible to upgrade.

5.1. LISP EIDs

   A 'classic' EID is defined as a subset of the possible namespaces for
   endpoints. [Chiappa] Like most 'proper' endpoint names, as proposed
   there, they contain contain no information about the location of the
   endpoint. EIDs are the subset of possible endpoint names which are:
   fixed length, 'reasonably' short', binary (i.e. not intended for
   direct human use), globally unique (in theory), and allocated in a
   top-down fashion (to achieve the former).

   LISP EIDs are, in line with the general LISP deployment philosophy, a
   reuse of something already existing - i.e. IPvN addresses. For
   those used as in LISP as EIDs, LISP removes much (or, in some cases,
   all) of the location-naming function of IPvN addresses.

   In addition, the goal is to have EIDs name hosts (or, more properly,
   their end-end communication stacks), whereas the other LISP namespace
   group (RLOCs) names interfaces. The idea is not just to have two
   namespaces (with different semantics), but also to use them to name
   _different classes of things_ - classes which currently do not have
   clearly differentiated names. This should produce even more
   functionality.

5.1.1. Residual Location Functionality in EIDs

   LISP retains, especially in the early stages of the deployment, in
   many cases some residual location-naming functionality in EIDs, This
   is to allow the packet to be correctly routed/forwarded to the
   destination node, once it has been unwrapped by the ETR - and this is
   a direct result of LISP's deployment philosophy (see [Introduction],
   Section "Deployment").

   Clearly, if there are one or more unmodified routers between the ETR
   and the desination node, those routers will have to perform a routing
   step on the packet, for which it will need _some_ information as to
   the location of the destination.

   One can thus view such LISP EIDs, which retain 'stub' location
   information, as 'addresses' (in the definition of the generic sense
   of this term, as used here), but with the location information
   restricted to a limited, local scope.

   This retention of some location functionality in LISP EIDs, in some
   cases, has led some people to argue that use of the name 'EID' is
   improper. In response, it was suggested that LISP use the term
   'LEID', to distinguish LISP's 'bastardized' EIDs from 'true' EIDs,
   but this usage has never caught on.

   It has also been suggested that one usage mode for LISP EIDs, in
   existing software loads, is to assign them as the address on an
   internal virtual interface; all the real interfaces would have RLOCs
   only. [Templin] This would make such LISP EIDs functionally
   equivalent to 'real' EIDs - they are names which are purely identity,
   have no location information of any kind in them, and cannot be used
   to make any routing decisions anywhere outside the host.

   It is true that even in such cases, the EID is still not a 'pure'
   EID, as it names an interface, not the end-end stack directly.
   However, to do a perfect job here (or on separation of location and
   identity) is impossible without modifying existing hosts (which are,
   inevitably, almost always one end of an end-end communication) - and
   that has been ruled out, for reasons of viable deployment.

   The need for interoperation with existing unmodified hosts limits the
   semantic changes one can impose, much as one might like to provide a
   cleaner separation. (Future evolution can bring us toward that
   state, however: see [Future].)

5.2. RLOCs

   RLOCs are basically pure 'locators' [RFC1992], although their syntax
   and semantics is restricted at the moment, because in practise the
   only forms of RLOCs supported are IPv4 and IPv6.

5.3. Overlapping Uses of Existing Namespaces

   It is in theory possible to have a block of IPvN namespace used as
   both EIDs and RLOCs. In other words, EIDs from that block might map
   to some other RLOCs, and that block might also appear in the DFZ as
   the locators of some other ETRs.

   This is obviously potentially confusing - when a 'bare' IPvN address
   from one of these blocks, is it the RLOC, or the EID?  Sometimes it
   it obvious from the context, but in general one could not simply have
   a (hypothetical) table which assigns all of the address space to
   either 'EID' or 'RLOC'.

   In addition, such usage will not allow interoperation of the sites
   named by those EIDs with legacy sites, using the PITR mechanism
   ([Introduction], Section "Proxy Devices"), since that mechanisms
   depends on advertizing the EIDs into the DFZ, although the LISP-NAT
   mechanism should still work ([Introduction], Section "LISP-NAT").

   Nevertheless, as the IPv4 namespace becomes increasingly used up,
   this may be an increasingly attractive way of getting the 'absolute
   last drop' out of that space.

5.4. LCAFs

   {{To be written.}}

   --- Key-ID
   --- Instance-IDs

6. Scalability

   As with robustness, any global communication system must be scalable,
   and scalable up to almost any size. As previously mentioned (xref
   target="Perspectives-Packet"/), the large fanouts to be seen with
   LISP, due to its 'overlay' nature, present a special challenge.

   One likely saving grace is that as the Internet grows, most sites
   will likely only interact with a limited subset of the Internet; if
   nothing else, the separation of the world into language blocks means
   that content in, say, Chinese, will not be of interest to most of the
   rest of the world. This tendency will help with a lot of things
   which could be problematic if constant, full, N^2 connectivity were
   likely on all nodes; for example the caching of mappings.

6.1. Demand Loading of Mappings

   One question that many will have about LISP's design is 'why demand-
   load mappings - why not just load them all'?  It is certainly true
   that with the growth of memory sizes, the size of the complete
   database is such that one could reasonably propose keeping the entire
   thing in each LISP device. (In fact, one proposed mapping system for
   LISP, named NERD, did just that. [NERD])

   A 'pull'-based system was chosen over 'push' for several reasons; the
   main one being that the issue is not just the pure _size_ of the
   mapping database, but its _dynamicity_. Depending on how often
   mappings change, the update rate of a complete database could be
   relatively large.

   It is especially important to realize that, depending on what
   (probably unforseeable) uses eventually evolve for the
   identity->location mapping capability LISP provides, the update rate
   could be very high indeed. E.g. if LISP is used for mobility, that
   will greatly increase the update rate. Such a powerful and flexible
   tool is likely be used in unforseen ways (Section 4.2), so it's
   unwise to make a choice that would preclude any which raise the
   update rate significantly.

   Push as a mechanism is also fundamentally less desirable than pull,
   since the control plane overhead consumed to load and maintain
   information about unused destinations is entirely wasted. The only
   potential downside to the pull option is the delay required for the
   demand-loading of information.

   (It's also probably worth noting that many issues that some people
   have with the mapping approach of LISP, such as the total mapping
   database size, etc are the same - if not worse - for push as they are
   for pull.)

   Finally, for IPv4, as the address space becomes more highly used, it
   will become more fragmented - i.e. there will tend to be more,
   smaller, entries. For a routing table, which every router has to
   hold, this is problematic. For a demand-loaded mapping table, it is
   not bad. Indeed, this was the original motivation for LISP
   ([RFC4984]) - although many other useful and desirable uses for it
   have since been enumerated (see [Introduction], Section
   "Applications").

   For all of these reasons, as long as there is locality of reference
   (i.e. most ITRs will use only a subset of the entire set), it makes
   much more sense to use the a pull model, than the classic push one
   heretofore seen widely at the internetwork layer (with a pull
   approach thus being somewhat novel - and thus unsettling to many - to
   people who work at that layer).

   It may well be that some sites (e.g. large content providers) may
   need non-standard mechanisms - perhaps something more of a 'push'
   model. This remains to be determined, but it is certainly feasible.

6.2. Caching of Mappings

   It should be noted that the caching spoken of here is likely not
   classic caching, where there is a fixed/limited size cache, and
   entries have to be discarded to make room for newly needed entries.
   The economics of memory being what they are, there is no reason to
   discard mappings once they have been loaded (although of course
   implementations are free to chose to do so, if they wish to).

   This leads to another point about the caching of mappings: the
   algorithms for management of the cache are purely a local issue. The
   algorithm in any particular ITR can be changed at will, with no need
   for any coordination. A change might be for purposes of
   experimentation, or for upgrade, or even because of environmental
   variations - different environments might call for different cache
   management strategies.

   The local, unsynchronized replacability of the cache management
   scheme is the architectural aspect of the design; the exact
   algorithm, which is engineering, is not.

6.3. Amount of State

   {{To be written.}} [Iannone]

   -- Mapping cache size
   --- Mention studies
   -- Delegation cache size (in MRs)
   --- Mention studies
   -- Any others?

6.4. Scalability of The Indexing Subsystem

   LISP initially used an indexing subsystem called ALT. [ALT] ALT was
   relatively easy to construct from existing tools (GRE, BGP, etc), but
   it had a number of issues that made it unsuitable for large-scale
   use. ALT is now being superseded by DDT. [DDT]

   The basic structure and operation of DDT is identical to that of
   TREE, so the extensive simulation work done for TREE applies equally
   to DDT, as do the conclusions drawn about TREE's superiority to ALT.
   [Jakab]

   From an architectural point of view, the main advantage of DDT is
   that it enables client side caching of information about intermediate
   nodes in the resolution hierarchy, and also enables direct
   communication with them. As a result, DDT has much better scaling
   properties than ALT.

   The most important result of this change is that it avoids a
   concentration of resolution request traffic at the root of the
   indexing tree, a problem which by itself made ALT unsuitable for a
   global-scale system. The problem of root concentration (and thus
   overload) is almost unavoidable in ALT (even if masses of 'bypass'
   links are created).

   ALT's scalability also depends on enforcing an intelligent
   organization that aincreases aggregation. Unfortunately, the current
   backbone routing BGP system shows that there is a risk of an organic
   growth of ALT, one which does not achieve aggregation. DDT does not
   display this weakness, since its organization is inherently
   hierarchical (and thus inherently aggregable).

   The hierarchical organization of DDT also reduces the possibility for
   a configuration error which interferes with the operation of the
   network (unlike the situation with the current BGP DFZ). DDT
   security mechanisms can also help produce a high degree of
   robustness, both against misconfiguration, and deliberate attack.
   The direct communication with intermediate nodes in DDT also helps to
   quickly locate problems when they occur, resulting in better
   operational characteristics.

   Next, since in ALT mapping requests must be transmitted through an
   overlay network, a significant share of requests can see
   substantially increased latencies. Simulation results in the TREE
   work clearly showed, and quantified, this effect.

   The simulations also showed that the nodes composing the ALT and DDT
   networks for a mapping database of full Internet size could have
   thousands of neighbours. This is not an issue for DDT, but would
   almost certainly have been problematic for ALT nodes, since handling
   that number of simultaneous BGP sessions would likely to be
   difficult.

7. Security

   LISP does not yet have an overarching security architecture. Many
   parts of the system have been hardened, but more on a case-by case
   basis, rather than from an overall perspective. (This is in part due
   to the 'just enough' approach to security initially taken in LISP;
   see [Introduction], Section "Just Enough Security".)

   This section represents an attempt to produce a more broadly-based
   view of security in LISP; it mostly resulted from an attempt to add
   security to the DDT indexing system ([DDT]), but the analysis is is
   general enough to apply to LISP broadly.

   The _good_ thing about the Internet is that it brings the world to
   your doorstep - masses of information from all around the world are
   instantly available on your computing device. The _bad_ thing about
   the Internet is that it brings the world to your doorstep - including
   legions of crackers, thieves, and general scum and villainy. Thus,
   any node may be the target of fairly sophisticated attack - often
   automated (thereby reducing the effort required of the attacker to
   spread their attack as broadly as possible).

   Security in LISP faces many of the same challenges as security for
   other parts of the Internet: good security usually means work for the
   users, but without good security, things are vulnerable.

   The Internet has seen many very secure systems devised, only to see
   them fail to reach wide adoption; the reasons for that are complex,
   and vary, but being too much work to use is a common thread. It is
   for this reason that LISP attempts to provide 'just enough' security
   (see [Introduction], Section "Just Enough Security").

7.1. Basic Philosophy

   To square this circle, of needing to have very good security, but of
   it being too difficult to use very good security, the general concept
   is for LISP to have a series of 'graded' security measures available,
   with the 'ultimate' security mechanisms being very high-grade indeed.

   The concept is to devise a plan in which LISP can simultaneously
   attempt to have not just 'ultimate' security, but also one or more
   'easier' modes, ones which will be easier to configure and use. This
   'easier' mode can be both an interim system (with the full powered
   system available for when it it needed), as well as the system used
   in sections of the network where security is less critical (following
   the general rule that the level of any security should generally be
   matched to what is being protected).

   The challenge is to do this in a way that does not make the design
   more complex, since it has to include both the 'full strength'
   mechanism(s), and the 'easier to configure' mechanism(s). This is
   one of the fundamental tradeoffs to struggle with: it is easy to
   provide 'easier to configure' options, but that may make the overall
   design more complex.

   As far as making it hard to implement to begin with (also something
   of a concern initially, although obviously not for the long term): we
   can make it 'easy' to deploy initially by simply not implementing/
   configuring the heavy-duty security early on. (Provided, of course,
   that the packet formats, etc, needed to support such security are all
   included in the design to begin with.)

7.2. Design Guidance

   In designing the security, there are a small number of key points
   that will guide the design:

   - Design lifetime
   - Threat level

   How long is the design intended to last?  If LISP is successful, a
   minimum of a 50-year lifetime is quite possible. (For comparison,
   IPv4 is now 34 at the time of writing this, and will be around for at
   least several decades yet, if not longer; DNS is 28, and will
   probably last indefinitely.)

   How serious are the threats it needs to meet?  As mentioned above,
   the Internet can bring the worst crackers from anywhere to any
   location, in a flash. Their sophistication level is rising all the
   time: as the easier holes are plugged, they go after others. This
   will inevitably eventually require the most powerful security
   mechanisms available to counteract their attacks.

   Which is not to say that LISP needs to be that secure _right away_.
   The threat will develop and grow over a long time period. However,
   the basic design has to be capable of being _securable_ to the
   expanded degree that will eventually be necessary. However,
   _eventually_ it will need to be as securable as, say, DNS - i.e. it
   _can_ be secured to the same level, although people may chose not to
   secure their LISP infrastructure as well as DNSSEC potentially does.
   [RFC4033]

   In particular, it should be noted that historically many systems have
   been broken into, not through a weakness in the algorithms, etc, but
   because of poor operational mechanics. (The well-known 'Ultra'
   breakins of the Allies were mostly due to failures in operational
   procedure. [Welchman]) So operational capabilities intended to
   reduce the chance of human operational failure are just as important
   as strong algorithms; making things operationally robust is a key
   part of 'real' security.

7.2.1. Security Mechanism Complexity

   Complexity is bad for several reasons, and should always be reduced
   to a minimum. There are three kinds of complexity cost: protocol
   complexity, implementation complexity, and configuration complexity.
   We can further subdivide protocol complexity into packet format
   complexity, and algorithm complexity. (There is some overlap of
   algorithm complexity, and implementation complexity.)

   We can, within some limits, trade off one kind of complexity for
   others: e.g. we can provide configuration _options_ which are simpler
   for the users to operate, at the cost of making the protocol and
   implementation complexity greater. And we can make initial (less
   capable) implementations simpler if we make the protocols slightly
   more complex (so that early implementations don't have to implement
   all the features of the full-blown protocol).

   It's more of a question of some operational convenience/etc issues -
   e.g. 'How easy will it be to recover from a cryptosystem
   compromise'. If we have two ways to recover from a security
   compromise, one which is mostly manual and a lot of work, and another
   which is more automated but makes the protocol more complicated, if
   compromises really are very rare, maybe the smart call _is_ to go
   with the manual thing - as long as we have looked carefully at both
   options, and understood in some detail the costs and benefits of
   each.

7.3. Security Overview

   First, there are two different classes of attack to be considered:
   denial of service (DoS, i.e. the ability of an intruder to simply
   cause traffic not to successfully flow) versus exploitation (i.e. the
   ability to cause traffic to be 'highjacked', i.e. traffic to be sent
   to the wrong location).

   Second, one needs to look at all the places that may be attacked.
   Again, LISP is a relatively simple system, so there are not that many
   parts to examine. The following are the things we need to secure:

   - Lookups
   - Indexing
   - Mappings

7.3.1. Securing Lookups

   {{To be written.}} Nonces, [SecurityReq]

7.3.2. Securing The Indexing Subsystem

   It is envisioned that DDT will be highly securable, with all the
   delegations cryptographiclly secured via public-private signatures,
   very similar to the way DNS is ([RFC4033]).

   The detailed mechanisms will be based on DNS's; this has the obvious
   benefit that all the lessons of DNS's years of practical experience
   with deployment, operations, etc, as well as the improvements to the
   basic design of DNS Security to provide a secure but usable system
   can be taken into account. However, DDT's security will also apply
   the thinking above, about making a 'versio' which is easier to use
   available.

   {{To be written.}}

7.3.3. Securing Mappings

   There are two approaches to securing the provision of mappings. The
   first, which is of course not completely satisfactory, is to only
   secure the channel between the ITR and the entities involved in
   providing mappings for it. (See above, Section 7.3.1)

   The second is to secure the mappings themselves, by signing them 'at
   birth' (much the same way in which DNS Security operates).
   [RFC4033]. There was an attempt early on to suggest such a system
   for LISP ([SecurityAuth]), but it was not adopted (although the
   particular proposal was rather complex).

   In the long run, the latter approach would obviously be superior,
   since it would be almost immune to any compromises of the mapping
   distribution system. {{Tie-in to space allocation security}}

7.4. Securing the xTRs

   --- Cache management
   --- Unsoliticed Map-Replies are _very bad_ - must go through
       mapping system to verify that the sender is authoritative for
       that range of EIDs

8. Robustness

   -- Depends on deployment as well as design
   -- Architected, visible replication of state/data
   -- Overlapping mechanisms (ref redundancy as key for robustness)

9. Fault Discovery/Handling

   Any global communication system must be robust, and to be robust, it
   must be able to discover and handle problems. LISP's general
   philosophy of robustness is usually to have overlapping, simple
   mechanisms to discover and repair problems.

10. Optimization


   -- Philosophy
   -- Piggybacking
   -- 'Wiretapping' return mappings
   --- Security is an issue on that

11. Open Issues

   Although much work has been done on LISP, and it operates
   satisfactorily in a reasonably large initial deployment, there are a
   few potentially problematic issues which remain. It is not clear if
   they will be issues which need to be dealt, since they have not
   proven to be obstacles so far, but it is worth listing them.

   We can divide them in _local_ issues, i.e. ones which can be solved
   on a node-by-node basis, without requiring co-ordinated change, and
   systemic issues, which are obviously more problematic, since they
   could require co-ordinated changes to the protocols.

11.1. Local Open Issues

11.1.1. Missing Mapping Packet Queueing

   Currently, some (all?)  ITRs discard packets when they need a
   mapping, but have not loaded one yet, thereby causing the applicaton
   to have to retransmit their opening packet. True, many ARP
   implementations use the same strategy, but the average APR cache will
   only ever contain a few mappings, so it will not be so noticeable as
   with the mapping cache in an ITR, which will likely contain
   thousands.

   Obviously, they could queue the packets while waiting to load the
   mapping, but this presents a number of subtle implementation issues:
   the ITR must make sure that it does not queue too many packets, etc.

   In particular, if such packets are queued, this presents a potential
   DoS attack vector, unless the code is carefully written with that
   possibility in mind.

11.1.2. Mapping Cache Management Algorithm

   Relatively little work has been done on sophisticated mapping cache
   management algorithms; in particular, the issue of which mapping(s)
   to drop if the cache reaches some maximum allowed size.

   This particular issue has also been identified as another potential
   DoS attack vector.

11.2. Systemic Open Issues

11.2.1. Mapping Database Provider Lock-in

   This refers to the fact that if one does not like the entity which is
   providing the indexing for the part of the address space which one's
   EIDs are allocated out of, there isn't probably isn't any way to
   switch to an alternative provider.

   It is not clear that this is a real probem, though - the fact that
   all DNS top-level zones only have a single registry has not been a
   problem, nor has the fact that if one doesn't like the service the
   registry offers, one can't take one's DNS name to another registry.

   Doing anything about it would also be difficult. Although it is
   _technically_ possible to duplicate any node in the delegation tree,
   and in theory such duplicates could be provided by different
   providers, it is not clear that such an arrangement would make
   _business_ sense.

   For instance, if the holder of 10.1.1/24 decides they do not like the
   entity providing indexing for 10.1/16 (call them E1), and ask another
   entity (E2) to provide alternative service for 10.1/16, two problems
   arise. First, E1 is _still_ going to have to maintain the correct
   data for 10.1.1/24, and response to queries asking about them.
   Second, E2 will similarly have to maintain data for, and reply to
   queries about, all the other space-holders in 10.1/16 - even though
   they will likely not have any business relationship with them.

11.2.2. Automated ETR Synchronization

   LISP requires that all the ETRs which are authoritative for the
   mappings for a particular address block return the same mapping data.
   In particular, their idea of the 'liveness' of all the ETRs should be
   identical, and correct.

   At the moment, this is mostly a manual process, although liveness
   information can be currently be gathered from some IGPs.

11.2.3. EID Reachability

   At the moment, LISP assumes that if an ETR is reachable from a given
   ITR, all destination EIDs behind that ETR are reachable from that
   ETR. There is no way to detect if any are not, nor to switch to an
   alternate ETR.

   It is not clear that this is a problem that needs attention. The
   same has been true for all border routers for many years now, and
   there does not seem to be any general mechanism to deal with it
   (Although some BGP implementations may advertize changes in
   reachability status if what they are seeing from their IGP changes.)

11.2.4. Detect and Avoid Broken ETRs

   {{To be written}}

12. Acknowledgments

   The author would like thank all the members of the core LISP group
   for their willingness to allow him to add himself to their effort,
   and for their enthusiasm for whatever assistance he has been able to
   provide. He would also like to thank (in alphabetical order) Vina
   Ermagan, Vince Fuller, and Joel Halpern for their careful review of,
   and helpful suggestions for, this document. Grateful thanks also to
   Vince Fuller for help with XML.

   A final thanks is due to John Wrocklawski for the author's
   organizational affiliation. This memo was created using the xml2rfc
   tool

13. IANA Considerations

   This document makes no request of the IANA.

14. Security Considerations

   This memo does not define any protocol and therefore creates no new
   security issues.

15. References

15.1. Normative References

   [DDT]           V. Fuller, D. Lewis, and D. Farinacci, "LISP
                   Delegated Database Tree", draft-fuller-lisp-ddt-01
                   (work in progress), March 2012.

   [Future]        J. N. Chiappa, "Potential Long-Term Developments With
                   the LISP System", draft-chiappa-lisp-evolution-00
                   (work in progress), July 2012.

   [Introduction]  J. N. Chiappa, "An Introduction to the LISP Location-
                   Identity Separation System",
                   draft-chiappa-lisp-introduction-00 (work in
                   progress), July 2012.

   [SecurityAuth]  R. Gagliano, "A Profile for Endpoint Identifier
                   Origin Authorizations (IOA)",
                   draft-rgaglian-lisp-iao-00 (work in progress),
                   March 2009.

   [SecurityReq]   F. Maino, V. Ermagan, A. Cabellos, D. Saucez, and
                   O. Bonaventure, "LISP-Security (LISP-SEC)",
                   draft-ietf-lisp-sec-02 (work in progress),
                   March 2012.

   [AFI]           IANA, "Address Family Indicators (AFIs)", Address
                   Family Numbers, January 2011, <http://www.iana.org/
                   assignments/address-family-numbers>.

15.2. Informative References

   [RFC1631]       K. Egevang and P. Francis, "The IP Network Address
                   Translator (NAT)", RFC 1631, May 1994.

   [RFC1992]       I. Castineyra, J. N. Chiappa, and M. Steenstrup, "The
                   Nimrod Routing Architecture", RFC 1992, August  1996.

   [RFC3031]       E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon,
                   "Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture",
                   RFC 3031, January 2001.

   [RFC4033]       R. Arends, R. Austein, M. Larson, D. Massey, and
                   S. Rose, "DNS Security: Introduction and
                   Requirements", RFC 4033, March 2005.

   [RFC4423]       R. Moskowitz and P. Nikander, "Host Identity Protocol
                   (HIP) Architecture", RFC 4423, May 2006.

   [RFC4984]       D. Meyer, L. Zhang, and K. Fall, "Report from the IAB
                   Workshop on Routing and Addressing", RFC 4984,
                   September 2007.

   [RFC6115]       T. Li, Ed., "Recommendation for a Routing
                   Architecture", RFC 6115, February 2011.

                   Perhaps the most ill-named RFC of all time; it
                   contains nothing that could truly be called a
                   'routing architecture'.

   [RFC6127]       J. Arkko and M. Townsley, "IPv4 Run-Out and IPv4-IPv6
                   Co-Existence Scenarios", RFC 6127, May 2011.

   [ALT]           D. Farinacci, V. Fuller, D. Meyer, and D. Lewis,
                   "LISP Alternative Topology (LISP-ALT)",
                   draft-ietf-lisp-alt-10 (work in progress),
                   December 2011.

   [NERD]          E. Lear, "NERD: A Not-so-novel EID to RLOC Database",
                   draft-lear-lisp-nerd-09 (work in progress),
                   April 2012.

   [ILNP]          R.J. Atkinson and S.N. Bhatti, "ILNP Architectural
                   Description", draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-arch-05 (work in
                   progress), May 2012.

   [Chiappa]       J. N. Chiappa, "Endpoints and Endpoint Names: A
                   Proposed Enhancement to the Internet Architecture",
                   Personal draft (work in progress), 1999,
                   <http://www.chiappa.net/~jnc/tech/endpoints.txt>.

   [Jakab]         L. Jakab, A. Cabellos-Aparicio, F. Coras, D. Saucez,
                   and O. Bonaventure, "LISP-TREE: A DNS Hierarchy to
                   Support the LISP Mapping System", in 'IEEE Journal on
                   Selected Areas in Communications', Vol. 28, No. 8,
                   pp. 1332-1343, October 2010.

   [Iannone]       L. Iannone and O. Bonaventure, "On the Cost of
                   Caching Locator/ID Mappings", in 'Proceedings of the
                   3rd International Conference on emerging Networking
                   EXperiments and Technologies (CoNEXT'07)', ACM, pp.
                   1-12, December 2007.

   [McQuillan]     J. M. McQuillan, W. R. Crowther, B. P. Cosell,
                   D. C. Walden, and F. E. Heart, "Improvements in the
                   Design and Performance of the ARPA Network",
                   Proceedings AFIPS 1972 FJCC, Vol. 40, pp. 741-754.

   [Templin]       F. Templin, "LISP WG", LISP WG list
                   message, Message-ID: 39C363776A4E8C4A94691D2BD9D1C9A1
                   05B0AC71@XCH-NW-7V2.nw.nos.boeing.com, 13
                   March 2009,, <http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/
                   lisp/current/msg00269.html>.

   [Wasserman]     M. Wasserman, "IPv6 networking: Bad news for small
                   biz", IETF list message, Message-Id:
                   D11C4A34-7362-423E-A60E-476FC5D61D37@lilacglade.org,
                   5 April 2012, <https://www.ietf.org/ibin/
                   c5i?mid=6&rid=49&gid=0&k1=933&k2=62733&
                   tid=1340933524>.

   [Welchman]      G. Welchman, "The Hut Six Story", Allen Lane,
                   London, pg. 3, 1982.

                   A truly monumental book; the ground it covers ranges
                   from his work helping break German codes in World War
                   II to his experience with securing data packet
                   networks!

Appendix A. Glossary/Definition of Terms

   -  Address
   -  Locator
   -  EID
   -  RLOC
   -  ITR
   -  ETR
   -  xTR
   -  PITR
   -  PETR
   -  MR
   -  MS
   -  DFZ

Appendix B. Other Appendices

   -- Location/Identity Separation Brief History
   -- LISP History
   -- Old models (LISP 1, LISP 1.5, etc)
   -- Different mapping distribution models (e.g. LISP-NERD)
   -- Different mapping indexing models (LISP-ALT
      forwarding/overlay model),
      LISP-TREE DNS-based, LISP-CONS)

Author's Address

   J. Noel Chiappa
   Yorktown Museum of Asian Art
   Yorktown, Virginia
   USA

   EMail: jnc@mit.edu


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