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Mboned                                                          T. Chown
Internet-Draft                                 University of Southampton
Intended status: Informational                             July 11, 2011
Expires: January 12, 2012


                     Multicast Filtering Practices
               draft-chown-mboned-multicast-filtering-01

Abstract

   Operators of multicast networks may apply various filters to
   multicast traffic at boundary routers or on MSDP peerings.  The aim
   of this text is to document existing filtering practices, with a view
   to generating some discussion towards producing guidance on best
   filtering practice.

Status of this Memo

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2.  Border and MSDP Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3.  Organisational filtering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   4.  Subnet filtering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
   5.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   9.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9







































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1.  Introduction

   Multicast filtering can be applied at a multicast boundary or on an
   MSDP peering as a means to prevent unintended leakage of multicast
   traffic beyond its desired scope.  An informal discussion of
   filtering practices suggested that those practices vary from
   organisation to organisation.  The aim of this text is to gather and
   document commonly used existing filtering practices.  Whether it is
   then possible to draw up a definitive best practice is to be
   determined; it is quite possible that due to the shifting nature of
   the target that a point-in-time recommendation would quickly be
   overtaken by events.  For example, the recent addition of unicast
   prefix-based IPv4 multicast addresses [RFC6034] meant that filtering
   of all of 234.0.0.0/8 became undesirable.  However, general
   principles may remain valid over time.

   For sites on academic research networks, some examples of filtering
   recommendations already exists, e.g. in documentation [I2multicast]
   from the Internet2 Multicast WG, and in the JANET IPv4 Multicast
   Guide [JANETmulticast].  There is also a more specific proposal for
   the Rutgers network [RutgersProposal], which includes a good
   discussion of organisational-local scope address usage within its
   network as a whole.

   When determining filtering policies, one needs to consider how strict
   to be; some ranges are not supposed to be used, but there may be no
   harm per se in accepting them.  There are certainly some ranges that
   should not be filtered, such as the newly assigned 234.0.0.0/8 range
   mentioned above, and the GLOP range under 233.0.0.0/8.

   An additional resource is the registry of IPv4 multicast address
   space held by IANA [IANAmulticast].  This registry should be a
   definitive guide to the formal use of ranges of addresses within the
   overall IPv4 multicast address space.  A similar registry is
   maintained for IPv6 multicast address space [IANA6multicast].

   This text is a very early draft, aimed at soliciting feedback, both
   on content and whether the goal of the draft is actually worthwhile.
   Different sites may have different requirements.  There may also be
   issues with handling scope boundaries that need to be considered.  So
   there may be general principles that could be captured in a document
   such as this, even if specific filtering rules are not included.


2.  Border and MSDP Filtering

   In this section we summarise IPv4 multicast addresses that are
   commonly filtered at site borders or on MSDP peerings.  Based on



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   responses we received from a couple of multicast community lists, it
   wasn't clear which filters are applied on border routers and which on
   MSDP SA messages.  Some sites apply minimal traffic filters, but
   heavier MSDP filtering.

   A site may choose to filter on addresses or on observed TTLs; it is
   now general practice to filter on addresses rather than the TTL
   filtering that was common a long time ago.

   Some sites choose to route multicast around their unicast firewalls,
   for performance or other operational reasons, but this shouldn't
   alter the requirement to filter groups appropriately where necessary.

   In this section we draw on the small number contributions so far; we
   hope to get more inputs in time.  In general, many 224.0.0.*
   addresses that are used by infrastructure are typically blocked, as
   well as some addresses that are global scope but should not be, like
   Ghostcast.

   The following list includes multicast IPv4 addresses that are being
   filtered based on the union of responses received so far (hence the
   apparent duplication of certain prefixes).  The list of filters
   applied by all respondents would be somewhat shorter.




























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   224.0.1.1       NTP
   224.0.1.2       SGI-Dogfight
   224.0.1.3       Rwhod
   224.0.1.8       SUN NIS+
   224.0.1.20      any private experiment
   224.0.1.22      SVRLOC
   224.0.1.24      microsoft-ds
   224.0.1.25      nbc-pro
   224.0.1.35      SVRLOC-DA
   224.0.1.38      Retrospect
   224.0.1.39      cisco-rp-announce
   224.0.1.40      cisco-rp-discovery
   224.0.1.41      gatekeeper
   224.0.1.60      hp-device-disc
   224.0.1.65      iapp
   224.0.1.76      IAPP lucaent-avaya-ap
   224.0.2.1       rwho
   224.0.2.2       SUN RPC
   224.0.2.3       EPSON-disc-set
   224.0.23.1      Ricoh-device-ctrl
   224.0.23.2      Ricoh-device-ctrl
   224.1.0.1       Cisco Aironet
   224.1.0.38      Retrospect
   224.2.0.2       Altiris Rapideploy
   224.2.0.3       Altiris Rapideploy
   224.77.0.0/16   Norton Ghost
   224.101.101.101 Sun Sunray
   225.1.2.3       Altiris Development Server and Deployment Agent
   226.77.0.0/16   Norton Ghost
   229.55.150.208  Norton Ghost
   231.0.0.0/8     ?
   234.21.81.1     Limewire
   234.42.42.0/30  ImageCast
   234.42.42.32/31 ImageCast
   234.42.42.40/30 ImageCast
   234.142.142.42/31       ImageCast
   234.142.142.44/30       ImageCast
   234.142.142.48/28       ImageCast
   234.142.142.64/26       ImageCast
   234.142.142.128/29      ImageCast
   234.142.142.136/30      ImageCast
   234.142.142.140/31      ImageCast
   234.142.142.142 ImageCast
   239.0.0.0/8     Scoped groups
   239.252.0.0/14  Scoped groups
   239.234.5.6     ECopy ShareScan

   One site gave figures for matches/hits on its filters; it may be



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   interesting to gather such statistics at other sites.

   Different networks make different use of the scoped address space
   under 239.0.0.0/8, which may lead to different organisational filters
   in different scenarios.  Organisation-local scope IPv4 multicast
   addressing is described in [RFC2365].

   The SSM range 232.0.0.0/8 should not be carried in MSDP peerings;
   this is an example of different policy applied at the site border to
   an MSDP peering.  Usually the filters are probably the same though.

   As a general principle, multicast sourced from private address ranges
   [RFC1918] or from 169.254.0.0/16, 192.0.2.0/24 or 127.0.0.0/8 should
   be dropped, regardless of the multicast destination.

   In certain cases, rate limiting may be desirable, where complete
   filtering might not, e.g. in mitigating against SAP [RFC2974] storms,
   or against unintended MSDP SA bursts.

   Where BSR is deployed, a site should consider dropping BSR packets at
   its border, both BSR messages and C-RP messages.  Except for
   Embedded-RP it probably makes sense to drop PIM register messages at
   the site border, unless a site's RP is external.


3.  Organisational filtering

   As described in [RutgersProposal], a site may use multiple
   organisational scopes within its site, which may use different blocks
   from 239.0.0.0/8, and thus require appropriate filtering at
   boundaries, e.g. between metropolitan campuses.


4.  Subnet filtering

   Two respondents are currently filtering uPNP between subnets, and one
   is filtering mDNS.  One reason for the uPNP filtering was due to
   issues with errant Ricoh printers which flood announcements with too-
   large TTLs.

   Subnet filtering may help protect against other forms of
   misconfigured client subnets.  One site has networks that consist of
   multiple edge routers, where the outside 'LAN side' is strictly meant
   to be for local subnets only, and all intranet comms are to go
   through the 'WAN interface'.  They have had cases where multihomed
   client networks were misconfigured, cross-connecting IP subnets with
   layer 2 boxes.  To prevent multiplication of multicasts, they
   configure all edge routers in the intranet to accept multicast



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   packets from the 'LAN side' only if the source IP of the multicast
   packets belongs to the IP subnet of that LAN.  So it's a simple
   filter, with no scaling issues.

   At least one site is filtering multicast traffic from its wireless
   links; this is presumably streamed video or audio content.  Multicast
   support is required on wireless links for IPv6 operation.  At layer
   2, multicast IPv6 Router Advertisements may be filtered on ports that
   do not have known routers attached.

   One site is running per-subnet boundary filters on its wired
   multicast-enabled subnets.  The list below reflects these.  One could
   add local scope relative addresses, though in practice the latter
   would all fall under 239.255.0.0/16 if it is the smallest scope group
   applied to a subnet.


   224.0.1.1       NTP
   224.0.1.2       SGI-Dogfight
   224.0.1.3       Rwhod
   224.0.1.8       SUN NIS+
   224.0.1.24      microsoft-ds
   224.0.1.25      nbc-pro
   224.0.1.60      hp-device-disc
   224.0.1.76      IAPP
   224.0.2.1       rwho
   224.0.2.2       SUN RPC
   234.21.81.1     Limewire
   239.255.0.0/16  subnet scope

   The importance of such subnet filtering may depend on TTLs used.


5.  Conclusions

   This text is a very drafty first version of a document aimed to
   summarise the use of multicast filtering practices in the wild.  It
   includes filters at various boundaries as well as MSDP SA filters.
   Further feedback on the text, and the practices reported to date is
   welcomed.


6.  Security Considerations

   There are no extra security consideration for this document.






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7.  IANA Considerations

   There are no extra IANA consideration for this document.


8.  Acknowledgments

   The author would like to thank the following people for their
   contributions to this text: Scott Bertilson, Alan Buxey, Bruce
   Curtis, Andy Gatward, Bob Gerdes, Jeffry J. Handal, Lonnie Leger,
   Bert Manfredi, Garry Peirce, William F. Maton Sotomayor, and Stig
   Venaas.


9.  Informative References

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2365]  Meyer, D., "Administratively Scoped IP Multicast", BCP 23,
              RFC 2365, July 1998.

   [RFC2974]  Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session
              Announcement Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000.

   [RFC6034]  Thaler, D., "Unicast-Prefix-Based IPv4 Multicast
              Addresses", RFC 6034, October 2010.

   [JANETmulticast]
              Price, D., "IPv4 Multicast on JANET", 2006, <http://
              www.ja.net/documents/publications/technical-guides/
              ipv4-multicast-web.pdf>.

   [IANA6multicast]
              "IPv6 Multicast Address Space Registry", <http://
              www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-multicast-addresses/
              ipv6-multicast-addresses.xml>.

   [IANAmulticast]
              "IPv4 Multicast Address Space Registry", <http://
              www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses/
              multicast-addresses.xml>.

   [RutgersProposal]
              "iDRAFT Proposal for RUNet Administratively Scoped
              Multicast", <http://www.td.rutgers.edu/documentation/
              Papers/Administratively_Scoped_Multicast_Proposal.pdf>.



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   [I2multicast]
              "Enabling IP Multicast with Internet2", <http://
              noc.net.internet2.edu/i2network/multicast-cookbook.html>.


Author's Address

   Tim Chown
   University of Southampton
   Highfield
   Southampton, Hampshire  SO17 1BJ
   United Kingdom

   Email: tjc@ecs.soton.ac.uk





































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