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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 RFC 6759

     IPFIX Working Group                                    B. Claise
     Internet-Draft                                         P. Aitken
     Intended Status: Informational                    N.ir Ben-Dvora
     Expires: April 16, 2011                      Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                     October 16, 2010
     
     
                    Export of Application Information in IPFIX
                 draft-claise-export-application-info-in-ipfix-00
     
     
     Status of this Memo
     
        This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance
        with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
     
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet
        Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working
        groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
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        This Internet-Draft will expire on April 16, 2011.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Copyright Notice
     
        Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
        document authors.  All rights reserved.
     
        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
        Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
        publication of this document.  Please review these documents
        carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with
        respect to this document.  Code Components extracted from this
        document must include Simplified BSD License text as described
        in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided
        without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.
     
     
     
     Abstract
     
        This document specifies an extension to the IP Flow Information
        eXport (IPFIX) protocol specification in [RFC5101] and the IPFIX
        information model specified in [RFC5102] to export application
        information.
     
     
     Conventions used in this document
     
        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
        NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
        "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described
        in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     Table of Contents
     
     
        1. Overview................................................. 4
           1.1. IPFIX Documents Overview............................ 4
        2. Introduction............................................. 4
        2.1. Application Information Use Case....................... 6
        3. Terminology.............................................. 7
           3.1. New Terminology..................................... 7
        4. applicationTag Information Element Specification......... 7
           4.1. Existing Classification Engine IDs.................. 9
           4.2. Options Template Record for the Application Name... 11
           4.3. Resolving IANA L4 port collisions.................. 11
        5. Application Tag Examples................................ 13
           5.1. Example 1: Layer 2 Protocol........................ 13
           5.2. Example 2: Standardized IANA Layer 3 Protocol...... 14
           5.3. Example 3: Cisco Systems Proprietary Layer 3 Protocol15
           5.4. Example 4: Standardized IANA Layer 4 Port.......... 17
           5.5. Example 4: Layer 7 Application..................... 18
           5.6. Example: port Obfuscation.......................... 19
           5.7. Example: Application Mapping Options Template...... 20
        6. IANA Considerations..................................... 21
           6.1. applicationDescription............................. 21
           6.2. applicationTag..................................... 22
           6.3. applicationName.................................... 22
        7. Security Considerations................................. 22
        8. References.............................................. 22
           8.1. Normative References............................... 22
           8.2. Informative References............................. 23
        9. Acknowledgement......................................... 23
        10. Authors' Addresses..................................... 24
        Appendix A.  Additions to XML Specification of IPFIX
        Information Elements....................................... 25
     
     
     
     List of Figures
     
     
        Figure 1: applicationTag Information Element ............... 8
        Figure 2: Selector ID encoding ............................. 9
        Table 1: Existing Classification Engine IDs ............... 10
        Table 2: IANA layer 4 port collisions ..................... 12
        Table 3: Resolving layer 4 UDP ports ...................... 12
     
     
     
     
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     1. Overview
     
     1.1. IPFIX Documents Overview
     
      The IPFIX Protocol [RFC5101] provides network administrators with
      access to IP Flow information.
     
      The architecture for the export of measured IP Flow information
      out of an IPFIX Exporting Process to a Collecting Process is
      defined in the IPFIX Architecture [RFC5470], per the requirements
      defined in RFC 3917 [RFC3917].
     
      The IPFIX Architecture [RFC5470] specifies how IPFIX Data Records
      and Templates are carried via a congestion-aware transport
      protocol from IPFIX Exporting Processes to IPFIX Collecting
      Processes.
     
      IPFIX has a formal description of IPFIX Information Elements,
      their name, type and additional semantic information, as specified
      in the IPFIX information model [RFC5102].
     
      In order to gain a level of confidence in the IPFIX
      implementation, probe the conformity and robustness, and allow
      interoperability, the Guidelines for IPFIX Testing [RFC5471]
      presents a list of tests for implementers of compliant Exporting
      Processes and Collecting Processes.
     
      The Bidirectional Flow Export [RFC5103] specifies a method for
      exporting bidirectional flow (biflow) information using the IP
      Flow Information Export (IPFIX) protocol, representing each Biflow
      using a single Flow Record.
     
      The "Reducing Redundancy in IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) and
      Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Reports" [RFC5473] specifies a bandwidth
      saving method for exporting Flow or packet information, by
      separating information common to several Flow Records from
      information specific to an individual Flow Record: common Flow
      information is exported only once.
     
     
     
     2. Introduction
     
      Today service providers and network administrators are looking for
      visibility into the packet content rather than just the packet
      header.  Some network devices Metering Processes inspect the
      packet content and identify the applications that are utilizing
     
     
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      the network traffic.  Applications in this context are defined as
      the user processes that exchange packets between them (such as the
      web applications, peer to peer applications,  file transfer, e-
      mail applications, etc.)
     
      The application identification is based on different kind of
      methods or even a combination of such methods:
      1. L2 protocols (such as ARP, PPP, LLDP)
      2. IP protocols (such as ICMP, IGMP, GRE)
      3. TCP or UDP ports (such as HTTP, Telnet, FTP)
      4. Application headers
      5. Packet content signatures
      6. Traffic behavior
     
      The exact application identification methods are part of the
      Metering Process internals that aims to provide an accurate
      identification with a minimum false identification.  This task
      requires a sophisticated Metering Process since the protocols do
      not behave in a standard manner.
      1. Applications use port obfuscation where the application run on
        different port than the IANA assigned one.  For example a HTTP
        server might run a TCP port 23 (assigned to telnet in [IANA-
        PORTS])
      2. IANA does not accurately reflect how certain ports are
        "commonly" used today.  Some ports are reserved, but the
        application either never became prevalent or is not in use
        today.
      3. The signatures become more and more complex
     
      For that reason, such Metering Processes usually detect
      application based on multiple mechanisms in parallel.  Detecting
      applications based only on port matching might wrongly identify
      the traffic.  Note that this example stresses the need for the
      engine strength.  If the Metering Process is capable of detecting
      applications more accurately it is considered as stronger and more
      accurate.
     
      Similarly, a reporting mechanism that uses L4 port based
      applications only, such as L4:<known port>, would have a similar
      issues.  The reporting system should be capable of reporting the
      applications classified using all types for mechanisms.  In
      particular applications that does not have any IANA port
      definition.  While a mechanism to export application information
      should be defined, the L4 port being in use must be exported using
      the destination port (destinationTransportPort at [IANA-IPFIX]) in
      the corresponding NetFlow record.
     
     
     
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      Cisco Systems uses the IPFIX application tag as described in
      section 4. to export the application information with the IPFIX
      protocol [RFC5101].
     
      Application could be defined at different OSI layers, from the
      layer 2 to the layer 7. Examples: Cisco Discovery Protocol is
      layer 2 application, ICMP is layer 3 application [IANA-PROTO],
      HTTP is layer 4 application [IANA-PORTS], and skype is layer 7.
     
      While an ideal solution would be an IANA registry for applications
      above (or inside the payload of) the well known ports [IANA-
      PORTS], this solution is not always possible as the some
      applications require well known specifications.  Therefore, some
      reverse engineering is required, as well as a ubiquitous language
      for application signature.  Clearly not realistic.
     
      As this specification focuses on the application information
      encoding, this document doesn't contain an application registry
      for non IANA applications.  However, a reference to the Cisco
      assigned numbers can be found at [CISCO].
     
     
     2.1. Application Information Use Case
     
      There are several use cases on which the application information
      is used:
     
      1. Network Visibility
     
        This is one of the main use cases for using the application
        information.  This use case is also called application
        visibility.  Network administrators are using such application
        visibility to understand the main network consumers, network
        trends and user behavior.
     
      2. Billing Services
     
        In some cases, network providers are willing to bill different
        applications differently.  For example, provide different
        billing for VoIP and Web browsing.
     
      3. Congestion Control
     
        While the traffic demand is increasing (mainly due to the high
        usage of peer to peer applications, video applications and web
        download applications),  the providers revenue doesn't grow.
        Providers are looking at a more efficient way to control and
     
     
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        prioritize the network utilization.  An application aware
        bandwidth control system is used to prioritize the traffic based
        on the applications, giving the critical applications priority
        over the non-critical applications.
     
      4. Security Functions
     
        Application knowledge is sometimes used in security functions in
        order to provide comprehensive functions such as Application
        based firewall,  URL filtering,  Parental control,  Intrusion
        detection,  etc.
     
      All of the above use cases require exporting of application
      information to provide the network function itself or to log the
      network function operation.
     
     
     3. Terminology
     
      IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined in
      Section 2 of the IPFIX protocol specification [RFC5101].  As in
      [RFC5101], these IPFIX-specific terms have the first letter of a
      word capitalized when used in this document.
     
     
     3.1. New Terminology
     
      Application Tag
     
          A unique identifier for an application.  The Application Tag
          consists of a Classification Engine ID and a Selector ID
          [RFC5476].
     
     
     4. applicationTag Information Element Specification
     
        This document specifies the applicationTag Information Element,
        which is composed of two parts:
     
            1. 8 bits of Classification Engine ID.
            2. m bits of Selector ID. The Selector ID length varies
               depending on the engine.
     
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Class. Eng. ID|         Selector ID  ...                      |
     
     
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     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                             ...                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
                  Figure 1: applicationTag Information Element
     
     
        Classification Engine ID
     
          A unique identifier for the engine which determined the
          Selector ID.  Thus the Classification Engine ID defines the
          context for the Selector ID.
     
        Selector ID
     
          A unique identifier of the application for a specific
          Classification Engine ID.
     
        Note that the Selector ID term is in sync with the PSAMP
        terminology.  See [RFC5476], Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Protocol
        Specifications.
     
        When an application is detected, the most granular application
        is encoded in the Application Tag: for example, ICMP would be
        encoded as layer 3 value 1, SNMP as layer 4 value 161, bittorent
        as layer 7 value 69.
     
        The overall length of the applicationTag Information Element may
        be specified either in the IPFIX Template Record or by using an
        IPFIX Variable-Length Information Element. The receiver /
        decoder must respect this length rather than using the
        Classification Engine ID to make an assumption about the
        Selector ID size.
     
        When exporting applicationTag information in IPFIX, the
        applicationTag SHOULD be encoded in a variable-length
        Information Element [RFC5101].  However, if a legacy protocol
        such as NetFlow version 9 is used, and this protocol doesn't
        support variable length Information Elements, then either
        multiple templates (one per applicationTag length), or a single
        template corresponding to the maximum sized applicationTag MUST
        be used. This avoids the need for multiple Template Records with
        different applicationTag lengths when the IPFIX variable length
        encoding [RFC5101] is not available.
     
        As a consequence, although some Application Tags can be encoded
        in a smaller number of bytes (eg, an IANA L3 protocol encoding
     
     
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        would take 2 bytes, while an IANA L4 port encoding would take 3
        bytes), nothing prevents an Exporting Process from exporting all
        Application Tags with a larger fixed length.
     
        Note that the Selector ID value is always encoded in the least
        significant bits as shown:
     
       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |Class. Eng. ID |            zero-valued upper-bits ...         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     ...  Selector ID                          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
                         Figure 2: Selector ID encoding
     
     
     4.1. Existing Classification Engine IDs
     
     
        The following Engine IDs have been allocated by Cisco Systems.
     
        Name      Valu     Description
                  e
                  0        Invalid.
        IANA-     1        The IANA protocol (layer 3) number is
        L3                  exported in the Selector ID.
                            See
                            http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-
                            numbers.
        CANA-     2        Cisco Systems proprietary layer 3
        L3                  definition. Cisco Systems can still export
                            its own layer 3 protocol numbers, while
                            waiting for IANA to assign it. The Selector
                            ID has a global significance for all Cisco
                            Systems devices under CANA governance.
                            Hopefully the same IDs will be maintained
                            after the IANA standardization.
        IANA-     3        IANA layer 4 well-known port number is
        L4                  exported in the Selector ID.
                            See http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-
                            numbers.
                            Note: as a flow is unidirectional, it
                            contains the destination port in a flow
                            from the client to the server.
        CANA-     4        Cisco Systems proprietary layer 4
     
     
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        L4                  definition. Cisco Systems can still export
                            its own layer 4 port numbers, while waiting
                            for IANA to assign it. The Selector ID has
                            global significance for all Cisco Systems
                            devices under CANA governance. Hopefully
                            the same ID will be maintained after the
                            IANA standardization. Example: IPFIX had
                            the port 4739 pre-assigned in the IETF
                            draft for years. While waiting for the IANA
                            registration, we could use this Selector
                            ID.
                  5        Reserved.
                  6        Reserved.
                  7        Reserved.
                  8        Reserved.
                  9        Reserved.
                  10       Reserved.
                  11       Reserved.
        CANA      12       The Selector ID represents the Cisco
        -L2                 Systems unique global layer 2 applications.
                            The Selector ID has a global significance.
        CANA      13       The Selector ID represents the Cisco
        -L7                 Systems unique global ID for the layer 7
                            applications. The Selector ID has global
                            significance for all Cisco Systems devices.
                  14       Reserved.
                  15       Reserved.
                  16       Reserved.
                  17
                  to       Available.
                  254
        MAX       255      255 is the maximum Engine ID.
     
                  Table 1: Existing Classification Engine IDs
     
        Note 1: "CANA = Cisco Systems Assigned Number Authority", Cisco
        Systems's version of IANA for internal IDs.
     
        Note 2: This is an extensible list, and new Classification
        Engine IDs may be allocated at any time. See [CISCO] for the
        latest version.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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     4.2. Options Template Record for the Application Name
     
        For engines which specify locally unique Application Tags (which
        means unique per engine and per router), an Options Template
        Record (see [RFC5101]) MUST be used to export the correspondence
        between the Application Tag, the Application Name, and the
        Application Description.  This is called the "options
        application-table".  For engines which specify globally unique
        Application Tags, an Options Template Record SHOULD be used to
        export the correspondence between the Application Tag, the
        Application Name and the Application Description, unless the
        mapping is hardcoded in the NetFlow Collector, or known out of
        band (for example, by polling a MIB).
     
     4.3. Resolving IANA L4 port collisions
     
        Even if the IANA L4 ports usually point to the same protocols
        for both UDP and TCP, there are some exceptions. 10 ports in the
        first 1K range of ports have different protocols assigned for
        TCP and UDP:
     
       exec            512/tcp    remote process execution;
       #                          authentication performed using
       #                          passwords and UNIX login names
       comsat/biff     512/udp    used by mail system to notify users
       #                          of new mail received; currently
       #                          receives messages only from
       #                          processes on the same machine
       login           513/tcp    remote login a la telnet;
       #                          automatic authentication performed
       #                          based on priviledged port numbers
       #                          and distributed data bases which
       #                          identify "authentication domains"
       who             513/udp    maintains data bases showing who's
       #                          logged in to machines on a local
       #                          net and the load average of the
       #                          machine
       shell           514/tcp    cmd
       #                          like exec, but automatic
       authentication
       #                          is performed as for login server
       syslog          514/udp
       oob-ws-https    664/tcp    DMTF out-of-band secure web services
       #                          management protocol
       #                          Jim Davis
       <jim.davis&wbemsolutions.com>
     
     
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       #                          June 2007
       asf-secure-rmcp 664/udp    ASF Secure Remote Management
       #                          and Control Protocol
       rfile           750/tcp
       kerberos-iv     750/udp    kerberos version iv
       submit          773/tcp
       notify          773/udp
       rpasswd         774/tcp
       acmaint_dbd     774/udp
       entomb          775/tcp
       acmaint_transd  775/udp
       busboy          998/tcp
       puparp          998/udp
       garcon          999/tcp
       applix          999/udp    Applix ac
     
                     Table 2: IANA layer 4 port collisions
     
     
        Instead of imposing the protocol (UDP/TCP) in the scope of the
        "options application-table" Options Template for all
        applications (on top of having the protocol as key-field in the
        Flow Record definition), we define that the L4 application is
        always TCP related, by convention.  So, whenever the collector
        has a conflict in looking up IANA, it would choose the TCP
        choice.  The following UDP L4 applications are assigned in the
        Cisco L7 Application Tag range (ie, under Classification Engine
        ID 13):
     
        comsat/biff     256/udp    used by mail system to notify users
        who             257/udp    maintains data bases showing who's
        syslog          41/udp
        asf-secure-rmcp 258/udp    ASF Secure Remote Management and
        #                          Control Protocol
        kerberos-iv     259/udp    kerberos version iv
        notify          260/udp
        acmaint_dbd     261/udp
        acmaint_transd  262/udp
        puparp          263/udp
        applix          264/udp    Applix ac
     
                      Table 3: Resolving layer 4 UDP ports
     
     
     
     
     
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     5. Application Tag Examples
     
      The following examples are created solely for the purpose of
      illustrating how the extensions proposed in this document are
      encoded.
     
     
     
     5.1. Example 1: Layer 2 Protocol
     
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, we can
        see that the layer 2 Classification Engine ID is 12:
     
        L2        12    The Selector ID represents the layer 2
                         applications. The Selector ID has a global
                         significance.
     
        From the list of layer 2 protocols at [cisco], we can see that
        PPP has the value 24:
     
        NAME    Selector ID
        ppp     24
     
        So, in the case of layer 2 protocol PPP, the Classification
        Engine ID is 12 while the Selector ID has the value 24.
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           |       12      |      24       |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        So the Application Tag has the value of 3097. Instead of
        representing the Application Tag in hexadecimal format, the
        format '12...24' is used for simplicity in the examples below.
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
     
     
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        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0, applicationTag='12...24',
              octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        The Collector has all the required information to determine that
        the application is PPP, because the Application Tag uses a
        global and well know registry, ie the IANA protocol number.
        The 24 value is globally unique within Cisco Systems for
        Classification Engine ID 12, so the Collector can determine
        which application is represented by the Application Tag by
        loading the registry out of band.
     
     
     5.2. Example 2: Standardized IANA Layer 3 Protocol
     
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, we can
        see that the IANA layer 3 Classification Engine ID is 1:
     
        IANA-       1      The IANA protocol (layer 3) number is
         L3                exported in the Selector ID.
                           See
                           http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-
                           numbers..
     
        From the list of IANA layer 3 protocols (see [IANA-PROTO]), we
        can see that ICMP has the value 1:
     
        Decimal    Keyword    Protocol                    Reference
        1          ICMP       Internet Control Message    [RFC792]
     
        So in the case of the standardized IANA layer 3 protocol ICMP,
        the Classification Engine ID is 1, and the Selector ID has the
        value of 1.
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
     
     
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           |       1       |       1       |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        So the Application Tag has the value of 257. Instead of
        representing the Application Tag in hexadecimal format, the
        format '1...1' is used for simplicity in the examples below.
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0, applicationTag='1...1',
              octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        The Collector has all the required information to determine that
        the application is ICMP, because the Application Tag uses a
        global and well know registry, ie the IANA L3 protocol number.
     
     
     5.3. Example 3: Cisco Systems Proprietary Layer 3 Protocol
     
        Assume that Cisco Systems has specified a new layer 3 protocol
        called "foo".
     
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, we can
        see that the Cisco Systems layer 3 Classification Engine ID is
        2:
     
        CANA-       2      Cisco Systems proprietary layer 3
         L3                definition. Cisco Systems can still export
                           its own layer 3 protocol numbers, while
                           waiting for IANA to assign it. The
                           Selector ID has a global significance for
                           all Cisco Systems devices under CANA
                           governance. Hopefully the same IDs will be
     
     
     
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                           maintained after the IANA standardization.
     
     
        A global registry within Cisco Systems specifies that the "foo"
        protocol has the value 90:
     
        Protocol    Protocol Id
        foo         90
     
        So in the case of Cisco Systems layer 3 protocol foo, the
        Classification Engine ID is 2, and the Selector ID has the value
        of 90.
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           |       2       |       90      |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        So the Application Tag has the value of 602. Instead of
        representing the Application Tag in hexadecimal format, the
        format '2..90' is used for simplicity in the examples below.
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0, applicationTag='2...90',
              octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        Along with this Flow Record, a new Options Template Record would
        be exported, as shown in Section 5.7.
     
     
     
     
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     5.4. Example 4: Standardized IANA Layer 4 Port
     
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, we can
        see that the IANA layer 4 Classification Engine ID is 3:
     
        IANA-       3      IANA layer 4 well-known port number is
         L4                exported in the selector ID.
                           See http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-
                           numbers.
     
                           Note: as a flow is unidirectional, it
                           contains the destination port in a flow
                           from the client to the server.
     
        From the list of IANA layer 4 ports (see [IANA-PORTS]), we can
        see that SNMP has the value 161:
     
        Keyword    Decimal    Description
        snmp       161/tcp    SNMP
        snmp       161/udp    SNMP
     
        So in the case of the standardized IANA layer 4 SNMP port, the
        Classification Engine ID is 3, and the Selector ID has the value
        of 161.
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
            0                   1
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           |       3       |      161      |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - protocol (key field)
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
     
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        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              protocol=17, ipDiffServCodePoint=0,
              applicationTag='3..161', octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        The Collector has all the required information to determine that
        the application is SNMP, because the Application Tag uses a
        global and well know registry, ie the IANA L4 protocol number.
     
     
     5.5. Example 4: Layer 7 Application
     
        In this example, the Metering Process has observes some Citrix
        traffic.
     
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, we can
        see that the L7 unique Engine ID is 13:
     
         L7        13    The Selector ID represents the Cisco Systems
                         unique global ID for the layer 7
                         application. The Selector ID has a global
                         significance for all Cisco Systems devices.
     
        Suppose that the Metering Process returns the ID 10000 for
        Citrix traffic.
     
        So, in the case of this Citrix application, the Classification
        Engine ID is 13 and the Selector ID has the value of 10000.
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      13       |                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                             10000                             |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        So the Application Tag has the value of '13..10000'.
     
     
     
     
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        Note that the figure shows that the Exporting Process exports
        the value 10000 in 7 bytes: this is pure speculation.  However,
        it doesn't matter as the applicationTag would be exported in a
        variable length Information Element.
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0, applicationTag='13...10000',
              octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        The 10000 value is globally unique within Cisco Systems, so the
        Collector can determine which application is represented by the
        Application Tag by loading the registry out of band.
     
        Along with this Flow Record, a new Options Template Record would
        be exported, as shown in Section 5.7.
     
     
     5.6. Example: port Obfuscation
     
        For example, a HTTP server might run a TCP port 23 (assigned to
        telnet in [IANA-PORTS]). If the Metering Process is capable of
        detecting HTTP in the same case, the Application Tag
        representation must contain HTTP. However, if the reporting
        application wants to determine whether or the default HTTP port
        80 or 8080 was used, it must export the destination port
        (destinationTransportPort at [IANA-IPFIX]) in the corresponding
        NetFlow record.
     
        In the case of a standardized IANA layer 4 port, the
        Classification Engine ID is 2, and the Selector ID has the value
        of 80 for HTTP (see [IANA-PORTS]).
     
        Therefore the Application Tag is encoded as:
     
     
     
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            0                   1                   2
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
           |       3       |             80                |
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     
        Flexible NetFlow creates a Template Record with a few
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application Tag.
        For example:
     
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field)
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field)
        - protocol (key field)
        - destinationTransportPort (key field)
        - applicationTag (key field)
        - octetTotalCount (non key field)
     
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above Template
        Record may contain:
     
            { sourceIPv4Address=1.1.1.1, destinationIPv4Address=2.2.2.2,
              protocol=17, destinationTransportPort=23,
              applicationTag='3..80', octetTotalCount=123456 }
     
        The Collector has all the required information to determine that
        the application is HTTP, but runs on port 23.
     
     
     5.7. Example: Application Mapping Options Template
     
        Along with the Flow Records shown in the above examples, a new
        Options Template Record would be exported to express the
        Application Name and Application Description associated with
        each Application Tag.
     
        The Options Template Record would contain the following
        Information Elements:
     
        1. Scope = applicationTag.
     
               From RFC 5101: "The scope, which is only available in the
               Options Template Set, gives the context of the reported
               Information Elements in the Data Records."
     
        2. applicationName.
     
        3. applicationDescription.
     
     
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        The Options Data Record associated with the examples above would
        contain, for example:
     
            { scope=applicationTag='2...90',
              applicationName="foo",
              applicationDescription="The Cisco foo protocol",
     
              scope=applicationTag='13...10000',
              applicationName="Citrix",
              applicationDescription="A Citrix application" }
     
        When combined with the example Flow Records above, these Options
        Template Records tell the NetFlow collector:
     
        1. A flow of 123456 bytes exists from sourceIPv4Address 1.1.1.1
        to destinationIPv4address 2.2.2.2 with a DSCP value of 0 and an
        applicationTag of '12...90', which maps to the "foo"
        application.
     
        2. A flow of 123456 bytes exists from sourceIPv4Address 1.1.1.1
        to destinationIPv4address 2.2.2.2 with a DSCP value of 0 and an
        Application Tag of '13...10000', which maps to the "Citrix"
        application.
     
     
     6. IANA Considerations
     
      This document specifies three new IPFIX Information Elements: the
      applicationDescription, applicationTag and the applicationName.
     
      New Information Elements to be added to the IPFIX Information
      Element registry at [IANA-IPFIX] are listed below.
     
      EDITOR'S NOTE: the XML specification in Appendix A must be updated
      with the elementID values allocated below.
     
     6.1. applicationDescription
     
      Name: applicationDescription
      Description:
        Specifies the description of an application.
      Abstract Data Type: string
      Data Type Semantics:
      ElementId: 94
      Status: current
     
     
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     6.2. applicationTag
     
      Name: applicationTag
      Description:
        Specifies an Application Tag.
        (EDITOR'S NOTE: reference this document).
      Abstract Data Type: octetArray
      Data Type Semantics: identifer
      ElementId: 95
      Status: current
     
     
     6.3. applicationName
     
      Name: applicationName
      Description:
        Specifies the name of an application.
      Abstract Data Type: string
      Data Type Semantics:
      ElementId: 96
      Status: current
     
     
     7. Security Considerations
     
      The same security considerations as for the IPFIX Protocol
      [RFC5101] apply.
     
     
     8. References
     
     8.1. Normative References
     
        [RFC2119] S. Bradner, Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement Levels, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
     
        [RFC5101] Claise, B., Ed., "Specification of the IP Flow
                Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange of
                IP Traffic Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 2008.
     
        [RFC5102] Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and
                J. Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information
                Export", RFC 5102, January 2008.
     
     
     
     
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     8.2. Informative References
     
     
        [RFC792] J. Postel, Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 792,
                September 1981.
     
        [RFC3917] Quittek, J., Zseby, T., Claise, B., and S. Zander,
                Requirements for IP Flow Information Export, RFC 3917,
                October 2004.
     
        [RFC5103] Trammell, B., and E. Boschi, "Bidirectional Flow
                Export Using IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC
                5103, January 2008.
     
        [RFC5470] Sadasivan, G., Brownlee, N., Claise, B., and J.
                Quittek, "Architecture for IP Flow Information Export",
                RFC 5470, March 2009.
     
        [RFC5471] Schmoll, C., Aitken, P., and B. Claise, "Guidelines
                for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Testing", RFC
                5471, March 2009.
     
     
        [RFC5473] Boschi, E., Mark, L., and B. Claise, "Reducing
                Redundancy in IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) and
                Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Reports", RFC 5473, March 2009.
     
        [RFC5476] Claise, B., Ed., "Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Protocol
                Specifications", RFC 5476, March 2009.
     
        [IANA-IPFIX] http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xhtml
     
        [IANA-PORTS] http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
     
        [IANA-PROTO] http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers
     
        [CISCO] http://www.cisco.com
     
     
     9. Acknowledgement
     
      The authors would like to thank their many colleagues across Cisco
      Systems who made this work possible.
     
     
     
     
     
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     10. Authors' Addresses
     
     
      Benoit Claise
      Cisco Systems Inc.
      De Kleetlaan 6a b1
      Diegem 1813
      Belgium
     
      Phone: +32 2 704 5622
      EMail: bclaise@cisco.com
     
     
     
      Paul Aitken
      Cisco Systems (Scotland) Ltd.
      96 Commercial Quay
      Commercial Street
      Edinburgh, EH6 6LX, United Kingdom
     
      Phone: +44 131 561 3616
      EMail: paitken@cisco.com
     
     
     
      Nir Ben-Dvora
      Cisco Systems Inc.
      32 HaMelacha St.,
      P.O.Box 8735, I.Z.Sapir
      South Netanya, 42504
      Israel
     
      Phone: +972 9 892 7187
      EMail: nirbd@cisco.com
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
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      Appendix A.  Additions to XML Specification of IPFIX Information
      Elements
     
        This appendix contains additions to the machine-readable
        description of the IPFIX information model coded in XML in
        Appendix A and Appendix B in [RFC5102].  Note that this appendix
        is of informational nature, while the text in section Error!
        Reference source not found.(generated from this appendix) is
        normative.
     
        The following field definitions are appended to the IPFIX
        information model in Appendix A of [RFC5102].
     
        <field name="applicationDescription"
                 dataType="string"
                 group="application"
                 elementId="94" applicability="all" status="current">
            <description>
              <paragraph>
                 Specifies the description of an application.
              </paragraph>
            </description>
          </field>
     
          <field name="applicationTag"
                 dataType="octetArray"
                 group="application"
                 dataTypeSemantics="identifer"
                 elementId="95" applicability="all" status="current">
            <description>
              <paragraph>
                 Specifies an Application Tag.
              </paragraph>
            </description>
          </field>
     
          <field name="applicationName"
                 dataType="string"
                 group="application"
                 elementId="96" applicability="all" status="current">
            <description>
              <paragraph>
                 Specifies the name of an application.
              </paragraph>
            </description>
          </field>
     
     
     
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