Network Working Group M. Crispin Internet-Draft University of Washington Intended status: Proposed Standard May 2, 2007 Expires: November 2, 2007 Document: internet-drafts/draft-crispin-collation-unicasemap-04.txt i;unicode-casemap - Simple Unicode Collation Algorithm Status of this Memo By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. A revised version of this document will be submitted to the RFC editor as an Informational Document for the Internet Community. A revised version of this draft document will be submitted to the RFC editor as a Proposed Standard for the Internet Community. Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested, and should be sent to ietf-imapext@IMC.ORG. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Abstract This document describes "i;unicode-casemap", a simple case-insensitive collation for Unicode strings. It provides equality, substring and ordering operations. Introduction The "i;ascii-casemap" collation described in [COMPARATOR] is quite simple to implement and provides case-independent comparisons for the 26 Latin alphabetics. It is specified as the default and/or baseline comparator in some application protocols, e.g., [IMAP-SORT]. It is possible, with a modest extension, to provide a more sophisticated collation with greater multilingual applicability than "i;ascii-casemap". This collation, "i;unicode-casemap", is intended to be an alternative to, and preferred over, "i;ascii-casemap". It does not replace the "i;basic" collation described in [BASIC]. 1. Unicode Casemap Collation Description The "i;unicode-casemap" collation is a simple collation which operates on [UNICODE] strings and is case-insensitive in its treatment of characters. It provides equality, substring and ordering operations. All input is valid. The algorithm that describes the behavior of this collation is specified for Unicode input encoded in [UTF-8]. This is for ease of description only. An implementation is free to use another internal storage format for Unicode strings, as long as it produces the same result as produced by the algorithm specified in this document for any set of Unicode strings. As this collation algorithm is specified for UTF-8 strings, strings in other character sets and/or encodings can not be used with this collation unless they are first converted to UTF-8. Any input that is already in UTF-8 must be checked for invalid UTF-8 sequences, such as overlong sequences. A UTF-8 string that is generated from a sequence of Unicode characters according to the rules in [UTF-8] will not contain such invalid sequences. For the equality and ordering operations, each input UTF-8 string is prepared by converting it to "titlecased canonicalized UTF-8", using UnicodeData.txt distributed by [UNICODE], as follows on a per-character basis: (1) If the codepoint has a titlecase property in UnicodeData.txt (this is normally the same as the uppercase property) the codepoint is converted to the titlecased codepoint. (2) If the codepoint has a decomposition property of any type in UnicodeData.txt the codepoint is converted to the decomposed codepoints (effectively Normalization Form KD). (3) The resulting codepoint(s) is/are appended to the titlecased canonicalized UTF-8 string. The resulting two titlecased canonicalized UTF-8 strings are then treated as in i;octet for equality and ordering. Care should be taken when using OS-supplied functions to implement this collation as it is not locale sensitive. Functions such as strcasecmp and toupper are sometimes locale sensitive and may inconsistently casemap letters. The i;unicode-casemap collation is well suited to use with many Internet protocols and computer languages. Use with natural language is often inappropriate; even though the collation apparently supports languages such as Swahili and English, in real-world use it tends to mis-sort a number of types of string: o people and place names containing scripts that are not collated according to "alphabetical order". o words with characters that have diacriticals. However, i;unicode-casemap generally does a better job than i;ascii-casemap for most (but not all) languages. For example, German umlaut letters will sort correctly, but some Scandinavian letters will not. o names such as "Lloyd" (which in Welsh sorts after "Lyon", unlike in English), o strings containing other non-letter symbols; e.g., euro and pound sterling symbols, quotation marks other than '"', dashes/hyphens, etc. 2. Unicode Casemap Collation Registration <?xml version='1.0'?> <!DOCTYPE collation SYSTEM 'collationreg.dtd'> <collation rfc="XXXX" scope="local" intendedUse="common"> <identifier>i;unicode-casemap</identifier> <title>Unicode Casemap</title> <operations>equality order substring</operations> <specification>RFC XXXX</specification> <owner>IETF</owner> <submitter>firstname.lastname@example.org</submitter> </collation> 3. Security Considerations Collations will normally be used with UTF-8 strings. Thus the security considerations for [UTF-8], [STRINGPREP] and [UNICODE-SECURITY] also apply and are normative to this specification. 4. IANA Considerations The i;unicode-casemap collation defined in section 2 should be added to the registry of collations defined in [COMPARATOR]. 5. Normative References The following documents are normative to this document: [COMPARATOR] Newman, C., "Internet Appplication Protocol Collation Registry", RFC 4790, February 2007. [STRINGPREP] Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Preparation of Internationalized Strings ("stringprep")", RFC 3454, December 2002. [UTF-8] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. [UNICODE] <http://www.unicode.org>, UnicodeData.txt Although the UnicodeData.txt file referenced here is part of the Unicode standard, it is subject to change as new characters are added to Unicode and errors are corrected in Unicode revisions. As a result, it may be less stable than might otherwise be implied by the standards status of this specification. [UNICODE-SECURITY] Davis, M. and M. Suignard, "Unicode Security Considerations", February 2006, <http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr36/>. 6. Informative References: [BASIC] Newman, C., Duerst, M., and Gulbrandsen, A., "i;basic - the Unicode Collation Algorithm", draft-gulbrandsen-collation-basic, Work in Progress. [IMAP-SORT] Crispin, M. "Internet Message Access Protocol - SORT and THREAD Extensions", draft-ietf-imapext-sort, Work in Progress (in RFC Editor queue). Appendices Author's Address Mark R. Crispin Networks and Distributed Computing University of Washington 4545 15th Avenue NE Seattle, WA 98105-4527 Phone: +1 (206) 543-5762 EMail: MRC@CAC.Washington.EDU Full Copyright Statement Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. This document and the information contained herein are provided on an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Intellectual Property The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf- email@example.com. Acknowledgement Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Internet Society.