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Network Working Group                                          X. de Foy
Internet-Draft                          InterDigital Communications, LLC
Intended status: Informational                                   J. Hong
Expires: 26 November 2020                                      Y-G. Hong
                                                                    ETRI
                                                             M. Kovatsch
                                    Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH
                                                             E. Schooler
                                                                   Intel
                                                             D. Kutscher
                               University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer
                                                             25 May 2020


         IoT Edge Computing: Initiatives, Projects and Products
           draft-defoy-t2trg-iot-edge-computing-background-00

Abstract

   Many IoT applications have requirements that cannot be met by
   the traditional Cloud.  As a result, the IoT is driving the Internet
   toward Edge computing.  This draft reviews initiatives, projects and
   products related to IoT Edge Computing.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 26 November 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2020 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.






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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Open Source Projects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Gateway/CPE Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Edge Cloud Management Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.3.  Related Projects  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Products  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  IoT Gateways  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Edge Cloud Platforms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Standards Initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  ETSI Multi-access Edge Computing  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.2.  Edge Computing Support in 3GPP  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  OpenFog and Industrial Internet Consortium  . . . . . . .   8
     4.4.  Related Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.1.  Named Function Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.2.  5G-CORAL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   This list of open-source or commercial products, standard initiatives
   and research projects aims to provide an overview of the IoT edge
   computing.

   It has been developped in support of [IOT-EDGE].  This other draft
   studies challenges and functions associated with IoT edge computing,
   and provides further background information on IoT, cloud computing
   and edge computing.

   Our goal is to be representative rather than exhaustive.  Please help
   us complete this overview by communicating with us about entries we
   have missed.







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2.  Open Source Projects

2.1.  Gateway/CPE Platforms

   EdgeX Foundry, Home Edge, Edge Virtualization Engine are Linux
   Foundation projects ([Linux_Foundation_Edge]) aiming to provide a
   platform for edge computing devices.

   Such an open source platform can, for example, host proprietary
   programs currently run on IoT gateway products (Section 3).

   EdgeX Foundry develops an edge computing framework running on the IoT
   gateway.

   Home Edge develops an edge computing framework especially dedicated
   to home computing devices, controlling home appliances, sensors,
   etc., and enabling AI applications, especially distributed and
   parallel machine learning.

   The Edge Virtualization Engine (EVE) project develops a
   virtualization platform (for VMs and containers) designed to run
   outside of the datacenter, in an edge network; EVE is deployed on
   bare-metal hardware.

   Computing devices:  Hardware support for EdgeX and EVE is similar:
      they support x86 and ARM-based computing devices; A typical target
      can be a Linux Raspberry Pi with 1GB RAM, 64bit CPU, 32GB storage.

   Service platform:  EdgeX uses a micro-service architecture.  Micro-
      services on the gateway are connected together, and to outside
      applications, through REST, or messaging technologies such as
      MQTT, AMQP and 0MQ.  The gateway can communicate with external
      backend applications or other gateways (north-south in tiered
      deployments or east-west in more distributed deployments).
      Gateway-device communication can use a wide range of IoT
      protocols.  "Export services" enable on-gateway and off-gateway
      clients to register as recipient for data from devices.  Core
      services are microservices that deal with persisting data from
      devices or alternatively "streaming" device data through, without
      persistence (core data service); managing information about the
      IoT devices, including their sensors, how to communicate with
      them, etc. (metadata service); and actual communication with IoT
      devices, on behalf of other on-gateway or off-gateway services
      (command service).  A rule engine provides an API to register
      actions in response to conditions typically including an IoT
      device ID, sensor values to check, thresholds, etc.  The
      scheduling micro service deals with organizing the removal of data
      persisted on the gateway.  Alerts and notifications microservice



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      can be used to dispatch alert/notifications from internal or
      external sources to interested consumers including backend
      servers, or human operators through email or SMS.

   Edge cloud applications:  Target applications for EdgeX include
      Industrial IoT (e.g., IoT sensor data and actuator control mixed
      with augmented reality application for technicians).  Home Edge
      focuses on smart home use cases, including using AI lifestyle and
      safety applications.

2.2.  Edge Cloud Management Platforms

   This set of open-source projects setup and manage clouds of
   individual edge computing devices.

   StarlingX ([StarlingX]) extends OpenStack to provide virtualization
   platform management for edge clouds, which are distributed (in the
   range of 100 compute devices), secure and highly available.

   Akraino Edge Stack, another project from the Linux Fundation Edge
   [Linux_Foundation_Edge], has a wider scope of developing a management
   platform adapted for the edge (e.g., covering 1000 plus locations),
   aiming for zero-touch provisioning, and zero-touch lifecycle
   management.

   Computing devices:  Compute devices are typically Linux-based
      application servers or more constrained devices.

   Service platform:  StarlingX adds new management services to
      OpenStack by leveraging building blocks such as Ceph for
      distributed storage, Kubernetes for orchestration.  The new
      services are for management of configuration (enabling auto-
      discovery and configuration), faults, hosts (enabling host failure
      detection and auto-recovery), services (providing high
      availability through service redundancy and multi-path
      communication) and software (enabling updates).

   Edge cloud applications:  An edge computing platform may support a
      wide range of use cases.  E.g., autonomous vehicles, industrial
      automation and robotics, cloud RAN, metering and monitoring,
      mobile HD video, content delivery, healthcare imaging and
      diagnostics, caching and surveillance, augmented/virtual reality,
      small cell services for high density locations (stadiums),
      universal CPE applications, retail.







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2.3.  Related Projects

   Open Edge Computing ([OpenEdgeComputing]) is an initiative from
   universities, manufacturers, infrastructure providers and operators,
   enabling efficiently offloading cloudlets (VMs) to the edge.
   Computing devices are typically powerful, well-connected servers
   located in mobile networks (e.g., collocated with base stations or
   aggregation sites).  The service platform is built on top of
   OpenStack++, an extension of OpenStack to support cloudlets.  This
   project is mentioned here as a related project because of its edge
   computing focus, and potential for some IoT use cases.  Nevertheless,
   its primary use cases are typically non-IoT related, such as
   offloading processing-intensive applications from a mobile device to
   the edge.

3.  Products

3.1.  IoT Gateways

   Multiple products are marketed as IoT gateways (Amazon Greengrass,
   Microsoft Azure IoT Edge, Google Cloud IoT Core, and gateway
   solutions from Bosh and Siemens).  They are typically composed of a
   software frameworks that can run on a wide range of IoT gateway
   hardware devices to provide local support for cloud services, as well
   as some other local IoT gateway features such as relaying
   communication and caching content.  Remote cloud is both used for
   management of the IoT gateways, and for hosting customer application
   components.  Some IoT gateway products (Amazon Snowball) have a
   primary purpose of storing edge data on premises, to enable
   physically moving this data into the cloud without incurring digital
   data transfer cost.

   Computing devices:  Typical computing devices run Linux, Windows or a
      Real-Time OS over an ARM or x86 architecture.  The level of
      service support on the computing device can range from low-level
      packages giving maximum control to embedded developers, to high-
      level SDKs.  Typical requirements can start at 1GHz and 128MB RAM,
      e.g., ranging from Raspberry Pi to a server-level appliance.

   Service platform:  IoT gateways can provide a range of service
      including: running stateless functions; routing messages between
      connected IoT devices (using a wide range of IoT protocols);
      caching data; enabling some form of synchronization between IoT
      devices; authenticating and encrypting device data.  Association
      between IoT devices and gateway based can require a device
      certificate.





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   Edge cloud applications:  Pre-processing of IoT data for later
      processing in the cloud is a major driver.  Use cases include
      industrial automation, farming, etc.

3.2.  Edge Cloud Platforms

   Services such as MobileEdgeX provide a platform for application
   developers to deploy software (e.g., as software containers) on edge
   networks.

   Computing devices:  Bare metal and virtual servers provided by mobile
      network operators are used as computing devices.

   Service platform:  The service platform provides end device location
      service, using GPS data obtained from platform software deployed
      in end devices, correlated with location information obtained from
      the mobile network.  The service platform manages the deployment
      of application instances (containers) on servers close to end
      devices, using a declarative specification of optimal location
      from the application provider.

   Edge cloud applications:  Use cases include autonomous mobility,
      asset management, AI-based systems (e.g., quality inspection,
      assistance systems, safety and security cameras) and privacy-
      preserving video processing.  There are also non-IoT use cases
      such as augmented reality and gaming.

4.  Standards Initiatives

4.1.  ETSI Multi-access Edge Computing

   The ETSI MEC industry standardization group develops specifications
   that enable efficient and seamless integration of applications from
   vendors, service providers, and 3rd parties across multi-vendor MEC
   platforms ([ETSI_MEC_03]).

   Basic principles followed include: leveraging NFV infrastructure;
   being compliant with 3GPP systems; focusing on orchestration, MEC
   services, applications and platforms.

   Phase 1 (2015-2016) focused on basic platform services.  Phase 2
   (2017-2019) focuses on: supporting non-3GPP radio access
   technologies, especially WiFi; supporting a distributed, multi-
   operator and multi-vendor architecture; supporting non-VM based
   virtualization such as containers and PaaS.






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   Computing devices:  Computing devices are typically application
      servers, attached to an eNodeB or at a higher level of aggregation
      point, and provide service to end users.

   Service platform:  The mobile edge platform offers an environment
      where the mobile edge applications can discover, advertise,
      consume and offer mobile edge services.  The platform can provide
      certain native services such as radio network information,
      location, bandwidth management etc.  The platform manager is
      responsible for managing the life cycle of applications including
      informing the mobile edge orchestrator of relevant application
      related events, managing the application rules and requirements
      including service authorizations, traffic rules, DNS
      configuration.

   Edge cloud applications:  Some of the use cases for MEC
      ([ETSI_MEC_02]) are IoT-related, including: security and safety
      (face recognition and monitoring), sensor data monitoring, active
      device location (e.g., crowd management), low latency vehicle-to-
      infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2X, e.g., hazard
      warnings), video production and delivery, camera as a service.

4.2.  Edge Computing Support in 3GPP

   The 3GPP standards organization included edge computing support in 5G
   [_3GPP.23.501].  Integration of MEC and 5G systems has been studied
   in ETSI as well [ETSI_MEC_WP_28].

   Computing devices:  From 3GPP standpoint, a mobile device may access
      any computing device located in a local data network, i.e.,
      traffic is steered towards the local data network where the
      computing device is located.

   Service platform:  An external party may influence steering, QoS and
      charging of traffic towards the computing device.  Session and
      service continuity can ensure that edge service is maintained when
      a client device moves.  The network supports multiple-anchor
      connections, which makes it possible to connect a client device to
      both a local and a remote data network.  The client device can be
      made aware of the availability of a local area data network, based
      on its location.

   Edge cloud applications:  Edge cloud applications in 3GPP can help
      support the major use cases envisioned for 5G, including massive
      IoT and V2X.






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4.3.  OpenFog and Industrial Internet Consortium

   The OpenFog Consortium (now merged with the Industrial Internet
   Consortium) aims to standardize industrial IoT, fog, and edge
   computing.  It produced a reference architecture for the fog
   ([OpenFog]), which has been published as IEEE standard P1934 in 2018.
   This work continues within the Industrial Internet Consortium.

   Computing devices:  Fog nodes include computational, networking,
      storage and acceleration elements.  This includes nodes collocated
      with sensors and actuators, roadside or mobile nodes involved in
      V2X connectivity.  Fog nodes should be programmable and may
      support multi-tenancy.  Fog computing devices must employ a
      hardware-based immutable root of trust, i.e., a trusted hardware
      component which receives control at power-on.

   Service platform:  The service platform is structured around
      "pillars" including: security end-to-end, scalability by adding
      internal components or adding more fog nodes,openness in term of
      discovery of/by other nodes and networks, autonomy from
      centralized clouds (for discovery, orchestration and management,
      security and operation) and hierarchical organization of fog
      nodes.

   Edge cloud applications:  Major use cases include smart cars and
      traffic control, visual security and surveillance, smart cities.

4.4.  Related Standards

   The IEEE Fog Computing and Networking Architecture Framework Working
   Group [IEEE-1934] published the OpenFog architecture as an IEEE
   document, and plan to do further work on taxonomy, architecture
   framework, and compliance guidelines.

5.  Research Projects

5.1.  Named Function Networking

   Named Function Networking ([Sifalakis]) is a research project that
   aims to extend ICN concepts (especially named data networking) to
   have the network orchestrate computation.  Interests are sent for a
   combination of function and argument names, instead of using the
   content name in NDN.

   Computing devices:  NFN-capable switches are collocated with
      computing devices.





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   Service platform:  NFN enables accessing static data and dynamic
      computation results in one data-oriented framework, thus
      benefiting from usual ICN features such as data authenticity and
      caching, as well as enabling the network to perform various
      optimizations, e.g., moving data, code or both closer to
      requesters.  NFN also enables secure access to individual elements
      within Named Data Objects, e.g., for filtering or aggregation.

   Edge cloud applications:  Use cases include some form of MapReduce
      operations and service chaining.  NDN, on which NFN is based, has
      been studied in the context of IoT, where it can provide local
      trust management and rendezvous service.

5.2.  5G-CORAL

   The 5G-CORAL project ([_5G-CORAL]) aims to enable convergence of
   access across multiple radio access technologies using fog computing,
   using for this purpose an edge and fog computing system (EFS).

   Computing devices:  Computing devices used in 5G-CORAL include cloud
      and central data center servers, edge data center servers, and
      fixed or mobile "fog computing devices", which can be computing
      devices located in vehicles or factories, e.g., IoT gateways,
      mobile phones, cyber-physical devices, etc.

   Service platform:  5G-CORAL architecture is based on an integrated
      virtualized edge and fog computing system (EFS), that aims to be
      flexible, scalable and interoperable with other domains including
      transport (fronthaul, backhaul), core and clouds.  An
      Orchestration and Control System (OCS) enables automatic discovery
      of heterogeneous, multiple-owner resources, and federate them into
      a unified hosting environment.  OCS monitors resource usage to
      guarantee service levels.  Finally, OCS also includes
      orchestration and life cycle functions, including live migration
      and scaling.  Applications (user and third-party) both inside and
      outside the EFS subscribe to EFS services through APIs, with
      emphasis on IoT and cyber-physical functionalities.

   Edge cloud applications:  EFS-hosted services include analytics
      obtained from IoT gateways (e.g., LORA or eNodeB gateways),
      context information services from RATs, transport (fronthaul and
      backhaul) and core networks.  EFS-hosted functions include network
      performance acceleration functions, virtualized C-RAN functions
      for access nodes and possible end user devices.

6.  Informative References





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   [ETSI_MEC_02]
              ETSI, ., "Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC); Phase 2: Use
              Cases and Requirements", ETSI GS 002 , 2016,
              <https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/
              MEC/001_099/002/02.01.01_60/gs_MEC002v020101p.pdf>.

   [ETSI_MEC_03]
              ETSI, ., "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Framework and
              Reference Architecture", ETSI GS 003 , 2019,
              <https://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/
              MEC/001_099/003/02.01.01_60/gs_MEC003v020101p.pdf>.

   [ETSI_MEC_WP_28]
              ETSI, ., "MEC in 5G networks", White Paper , 2018,
              <https://www.etsi.org/images/files/ETSIWhitePapers/
              etsi_wp28_mec_in_5G_FINAL.pdf>.

   [IEEE-1934]
              IEEE, ., "FOG - Fog Computing and Networking Architecture
              Framework", Portal , 2019,
              <https://standards.ieee.org/standard/1934-2018.html>.

   [IOT-EDGE] Hong, J., Hong, Y-G., de Foy, X., Kovatsch, M., Schooler,
              E., and D. Kutscher, "IoT Edge Challenges and Functions",
              Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-hong-t2trg-iot-
              edge-computing, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-hong-
              t2trg-iot-edge-computing>.

   [Linux_Foundation_Edge]
              Linux Foundation, ., "Linux Foundation Edge", Portal ,
              2019, <https://www.lfedge.org/>.

   [OpenEdgeComputing]
              "Open Edge Computing", Portal , 2019,
              <http://openedgecomputing.org/>.

   [OpenFog]  "OpenFog Reference Architecture for Fog Computing",
              OpenFog Consortium , 2017.

   [Sifalakis]
              Sifalakis, M., Kohler, B., Scherb, C., and C. Tschudin,
              "An Information Centric Network for Computing the
              Distribution of Computations", Proceedings of the 1st
              International Conference on Information-centric networking
              (INC) , 2014.






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   [StarlingX]
              OpenStack Foundation, ., "StarlingX", Portal , 2019,
              <https://www.starlingx.io/>.

   [_3GPP.23.501]
              3GPP, ., "System Architecture for the 5G System", 3GPP TS
              23.501 , 2019,
              <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/23501.htm>.

   [_5G-CORAL]
              Horizon 2020 Programme, ., "5G Convergent Virtualised
              Radio Access Network Living at the Edge (5G-CORAL)
              Project", Portal , 2019, <http://5g-coral.eu/>.

Authors' Addresses

   Xavier de Foy
   InterDigital Communications, LLC
   1000 Sherbrooke West
   Montreal  H3A 3G4
   Canada

   Email: xavier.defoy@interdigital.com


   Jungha Hong
   ETRI
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon

   Email: jhong@etri.re.kr


   Yong-Geun Hong
   ETRI
   218 Gajeong-ro, Yuseung-Gu
   Daejeon

   Email: yghong@etri.re.kr


   Matthias Kovatsch
   Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH
   Riesstr. 25 C // 3.OG
   80992 Munich
   Germany

   Email: ietf@kovatsch.net



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   Eve Schooler
   Intel
   2200 Mission College Blvd.
   Santa Clara, CA,  95054-1537
   United States of America

   Email: eve.m.schooler@intel.com


   Dirk Kutscher
   University of Applied Sciences Emden/Leer
   Constantiaplatz 4
   26723 Emden
   Germany

   Email: ietf@dkutscher.net



































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