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Network Working Group                                        Yuping Diao
Internet-Draft                              Guangdong Commercial College
Intended status: standard                                  Yongping Diao
Expires: December 13, 2012                                 China Telecom
                                                               Ming Liao
                                                            China Mobile
                                                           June 13, 2012


               DNS Extension for Autonomous Internet(AIP)
                        draft-diao-aip-dns-00.txt

Abstract

   With the reality of Internet, Autonomous Internet technology
   in this article constructs independent autonomous extensible domain
   name architecture and domain name hierarchy through current domain
   name architecture, provides independent root DNS server, inner/outer
   DNS resolution mechanism for each autonomous internet network system,
   and provides reformation and transition solution from current
   Internet to realize autonomy even in unilateral action.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 13, 2012.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.








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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     1.1.  Specification of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
   2.  Autonomous Internet DNS Design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.1.  AIP DNS Design Goal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     2.2.  AIP DNS Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     2.3.  AIP DNS Architecture and Transformation . . . . . . . . . . 6
   3.  AIP DNS Resolution Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     3.1.  Domain Name Resolution within AIP Network . . . . . . . . . 7
     3.2.  Domain Name Resolution between AIP Networks . . . . . . . . 8
   4.  Conclusion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
































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1.  Introduction

   Internet Domain Name System (DNS) distributes domain name and IP
   address for the host on the Internet. DNS automatically translates
   the domain name into IP address when user accesses Internet using
   domain name. In current Internet domain name hierarchy, the root
   DNS server authorizes and distributes all sub-layer DNS servers.
   And by default it is to request the root DNS server service when any
   other DNS servers receive a non local domain name resolution request.
   DNS supports the Internet running normally. But its central control
   method is not suitable to autonomy and scalability and can't keep up
   with the fast development of Internet. To national internet network,
   owning its independent root DNS server and realize autonomy in
   Internet is a problem not only for the cost but also for the
   technical difficulty. It is almost impossible in current DNS
   architecture.

1.1.  Specification of Requirements

   In this document, several words are used to signify the requirements
   of the specification.  These words are often capitalized.  The key
   words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD",
   "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document
   are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2.  Autonomous Internet DNS Design

2.1.     AIP DNS Design Goal

   Based on Internet practice, autonomous internet (AIP) techinology
   should even unilaterally transform the Internet into Autonomous
   Internet (AIP) without protocol change, using mode change, transition
   period. In the same time, Autonomous Internet system architecture
   designed should be safe and extensible; the reformation is the least
   possibly and the transition is smooth and feasible.

   To achieve the goal of Internet autonomy, AIP technology will
   construct an independent autonomous extensible domain name system and
   hierarchy based on current DNS, so that each AIP network has its own
   independent domain name hierarchy and root DNS servers; It provides
   the domain name resolution mechanism inner/outer AIP network system,
   so that the internal domain name resolution is no longer via the DNS
   outside this AIP network. Thus, the new generation Internet which
   uses the AIP technology will become a multi-polar system and provide
   full self-control ability to each AIP network.






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2.2.     AIP DNS Hierarchy

   The main rules of the Autonomous Internet DNS are defined as
   following:

   Rule 1: Each AIP network itself has a complete set of Domain Name
   System, which support traditional domain name resolution within the
   AIP.

   Rule 2: Each AIP network has its own numbered name that is different
   from the others. The numbered name is taken as the default domain
   name suffix when the internal domain name of this AIP network is
   cited by external AIP network. And any IP node's external domain
   name is consist of its internal domain name and its AIP network
   default domain name suffix.

   Rule 3: When communicate between AIP networks, the access to IP node
   of external AIP network must use the IP node's external domain name.

   AIP Domain name system is autonomous, extensible.

   +------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
   |Root            ""            | |            ""           Root |
   |       _________|________     | |    _________|________        |
   |      /    /    |    \   \    | |   /    /    |    \   \       |
   |Top  edu  com  org  gov ex(i)<+-+>ex(i) com            cn   Top|
   |           /\            /\   | |       /\                     |
   |          /  \          /  \  | |      /  \                    |
   |Second baidu yahoo    com  cn | |   baidu yahoo          Second|
   |                /\            | |          /\                  |
   |               /  \           | |         /  \                 |
   |Host         www  mail        | |       www  mail          Host|
   |        AIP Network A         | |        AIP Network B         |
   +------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
         Figure 1: Autonomous Internet domain name hierarchy

   According to the goal and DNS rules of AIP, the AIP domain name
   hierarchy of AIP can be designed as Fig. 1. In this figure, network
   A, B and ... are AIP networks; Domain node "www.yahoo.com" in network
   B is expressed as "www.yahoo.com.B" for its external domain name.
   At the same time, each AIP network domain name hierarchy tree adds
   the top-level domain name "ex(i)", so as to map the other external
   AIP network domain name hierarchy trees accessible from this AIP
   network. When ex(i)=B, it means the other AIP network B is accessible
   from this AIP network.






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2.3.     AIP DNS Architecture and Transformation

   According to the AIP DNS, we can construct AIP DNS architecture show
   as Fig. 2. Each AIP DNS has its root DNS servers, which are
   responsible for all the DNS resolution in this AIP network. Other DNS
   servers of this AIP point to these root DNS servers by default.
                                   .
   +-------------------------------.-------------------------------+
   |+---------+                    .                               |
   ||Root DNS <--------------------+                               |
   ||         |                    .\                              |
   |+----^----+                    . +-----------------------+     |
   |     |                         .                         |     |
   |+----v----+                    .                    +----v----+|
   ||   DNS   |                    .                    |   DNS   ||
   ||  (.us)  |                    .                    |  (.cn)  ||
   |+----^----+                    .                    +----^----+|
   |     |                         .                         |     |
   |+----v----+                    .                    +----v----+|
   ||  Host   |                    .                    |   Host  ||
   || N1(G1)  |                    .                    |  N2(G2) ||
   |+---------+                    .                    +---------+|
   |                            Internet                           |
   +-------------------------------.-------------------------------+
                                  \./
                                   V
   +------------------------------+ +------------------------------+
   |+----------+      +----------+| |+----------+      +----------+|
   || Root DNS <------>  AIP DNS <+-+>  AIP DNS <------> Root DNS ||
   ||   (A)    |      |   GW A   || ||   GW B   |      |   (B)    ||
   |+----^-----+      +----^-----+| |+----^-----+      +----^-----+|
   |     |                        | |                       |      |
   |+----v-----+                  | |                  +----v-----+|
   ||    DNS   |                  | |                  |    DNS   ||
   ||(.us/.com)|                  | |                  |(.cn/.com)||
   |+----^-----+                  | |                  +----^-----+|
   |     |                        | |                       |      |
   |+----v-----+                  | |                  +----v-----+|
   ||   Host   |                  | |                  |   Host   ||
   || Na1(Ga1) |                  | |                  | Nb2(Gb2) ||
   |+----------+                  | |                  +----------+|
   |    Internet/AIP network A    | |         AIP network B        |
   +------------------------------+ +------------------------------+

          Figure 2: AIP DNS architecture and transformation






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   Each AIP network is almost the same as the current Internet, and the
   internal domain name resolution and IP node communication have not
   any change. The only change is that the destination domain name need
   add domain name suffix of the destination AIP network when IP nodes
   communicate between different AIP networks. Therefore, each AIP
   network will add a device called "AIP DNS gateway" (AIP DNS GW) to
   support domain name resolution between AIP networks. On one hand, it
   forwards its external DNS resolution request to the destination AIP
   network, returns the DNS resolution result to internal requester;
   On the other hand, it receives DNS resolution request from external
   AIP networks, feedback the DNS resolution result to the external AIP
   network requester, which at first it would get the internal DNS
   resolution result according to the traditional way.

   In order to realize the transition from Internet to Autonomous
   Internet, each partition of current Internet should first realize
   possible self-government and gradually reduce its dependence on the
   foreign domain names, such as COM, NET et al.

   Then to each AIP network, we can establish a new autonomous DNS, or
   Upgrade one part of current Internet DNS (core part or non core part)
   to a new autonomous DNS.

   Unilateral action: It is not likely the whole Internet can be
   transformed synchronally in one time. In order not to affect existing
   domain name resolution before the Internet core part transforms into
   an AIP network, any country can set up an AIP DNS independently and
   connect to the Internet through the original link; or any two
   countries in agreement can set up their AIP networks and connect to
   each others. There is something different in the unilateral action.
   On one hand, the upgrade work is including of new added local AIP
   network root DNS server to construct an independent DNS, and an AIP
   DNS GW deployment to support domain name resolution between AIP
   networks. On the other hand, it is necessary to add a pre-transformed
   AIP DNS GW in each AIP network connecting to the Internet (core part)
   DNS instead of the original transformation requirement for Internet
   core part. The pre-transformed AIP DNS GW would initiatively add the
   domain name suffix to the domain name from the existing Internet
   (core part), which is the only difference from normal AIP DNS GW.

3.  AIP DNS Resolution Procedure

3.1.  Domain Name Resolution within AIP Network

   Within each AIP network, domain name resolution keeps traditional
   method.





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3.2.  Domain Name Resolution between AIP Networks

   Between AIP networks, external domain name of destination IP node
   should be provided for domain name resolution. Assume that a host in
   AIP network A has domain name Na1 and global IP address Ga1. Another
   host in AIP network B has domain name Nb2=www.yahoo.com, whose
   external domain name is www.yahoo.com.B. Fig. 3 shows the DNS query
   procedure between AIP network A and B when host Na1 request for the
   domain name resolution of host Nb2. This domain name resolution
   procedure between AIP networks is described as following:

   Host    DNS   Root DNS  AIP DNS :AIP DNS  Root DNS   DNS
   Na1     (A)      (A)      GW A  :  GW B     (B)      (B)
   |        |        |        |    :   |        |        |
   |-Nb2.B->|        |        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |-Nb2.B->|        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |<.......|        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |------Nb2.B----->|    :   |        |        |
   |        |        |        |-Nb2.B->|        |        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |--Nb2-->|        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |<.......|        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |-------Nb2------>|
   |        |        |        |    :   |<----------------|
   |        |        |        |<-------|        |        |
   |        |<----------------|    :   |        |        |
   |<-------|        |        |    :   |        |        |
   |        |        |        |    :   |        |        |
        Internet/AIP network A     :           AIP network B

         Figure 3: DNS query procedure between AIP networks

   Step 1:  Source host Na1 request for the resolution of external
   domain name "Nb2.B", and send the query to local DNS server through
   host's resolver.

   Step 2: When receive the query, Local DNS server inquire its cache
   and return the result. But if there is no record for the query, local
   DNS server would send query to root DNS server of local AIP network
   A.

   Step 3: Root DNS server of local AIP network A return a primary DNS
   server IP address of queried domain (sub-domain of AIP network A's
   root domain name, here is B, which mirrors external DNS hierarchy of
   another AIP network B) to local DNS server, namely the IP address of
   AIP DNS GW A in AIP network A.




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   Step 4: Local DNS server send the query to the returned DNS server
   (AIP DNS GW A) IP address again.

      1) When receive the query, AIP DNS GW A inquire its cache and
      return the result. But if there is no record for the query, AIP
      DNS GW A would send query to AIP DNS GW B in AIP network B.

      2) When receive the query, AIP DNS GW B inquire its cache and
      return the result. But if there is no record for the query, AIP
      DNS GW B would get rid of the local AIP network domain name suffix
      ".B" from external domain name "Nb2.B", then send query with th
      internal domain name "Nb2" to root DNS server of local AIP network
      B.

        3) Root DNS server of local AIP network B return a primary DNS
        server IP address of queried domain (sub-domain of root domain
        name, such as COM) to AIP DNS GW B.

        4) AIP DNS GW B sends the query to the last step 3) returned DNS
        server IP address again. After receive the query, this DNS server
        inquire (its cache) and return the corresponding record or the
        corresponding lower-level DNS server IP address.

        5) AIP DNS GW B repeats last step 4) until it finds the correct
        record, namely the IP address Gb2 of the domain name Nb2.

        6) AIP DNS GW B turns the internal domain name "Nb2" into externa
        domain name "Nb2.B" in the returned result by adding local AIP
        network domain name suffix "B", and then caches the result and
        return the result to AIP DNS GW A.

   Step 5: AIP DNS GW A caches the returned result and return the result
   to local DNS server.

   Step 6: Local DNS server caches the returned result and returns the
   result to source host Na1.

   Therefore, host Na1 (Ga1) now can communicate with host Nb2 (Gb2)
   after it gets the IP address of the destination host Nb2.

4.  Conclusion

   Autonomous Internet DNS provides a technology to realize Internet
   autonomy, which can own independent root DNS server even in
   unilateral action. And it could be realized in high independence,
   extensible usage, the least cost and non transition period. It is
   hopeful to establish future autonomous extensible multi-polar
   Internet and resolve the autonomous problem of Internet.



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5.  Security Considerations

   There is no additional security requirement than current domain name
   system. Security issues are not discussed in this memo.


6.  IANA Considerations

   As described by AIP DNS rule 2 in Section 2.2, different AIP network
   default domain name suffix needs to be assigned by IANA.


7.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank everybody for their valuable opinion
   and evaluation to this document.


8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC 791]  Postel, J., ed., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet
              Program Protocol Specification", RFC 791, September 1981.

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - Implementation and
              Specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1706]  B. Manning, and R. Colella, "DNS NSAP Resource Records",
              RFC 1706, October 1994.

   [RFC3596]  S. Thomson, C. Huitema, V. Ksinant, and M. Souissi, "DNS
              Extensions to Support IP Version 6", RFC 3596, October
              2003.

   [RFC2782]  A. Gulbrandsen, P. Vixie, and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              February 2000.





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Authors' Addresses

   Yuping Diao
   Information Institute of Guangdong Commercial College,
   21 Luntou Road, Haizhu District,
   Guangzhou 510320, China.

   Email: teacherdddd@yahoo.com.cn


   Yongping Diao
   China Telecom-Guangzhou Institute,
   109 West Zhongshan Ave,
   Guangzhou 510630, China.

   Phone: +86 20 38639732
   Email: diaoyp@yahoo.com


   Ming Liao
   China Mobile Group Guangdong Co., Ltd. Guangzhou Branch,
   610 Tianhe North Road,
   Guangzhou 510631, China.

   Email: 644247110@qq.com


























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