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Versions: 00 01 draft-tenoever-hrpc-research

Human Rights Protocol Considerations Research Group           D. Gillmor
Internet-Draft                                                      ACLU
Intended status: Informational                              N. ten Oever
Expires: April 18, 2016                                        Article19
                                                                A. Doria
                                                        October 16, 2015

             Human Rights Protocol Considerations Glossary


   This document presents a glossary of terms used to map between
   concepts common in human rights discussions and engineering
   discussions.  It is intended to facilitate work by the proposed Human
   Rights Protocol Considerations research group, as well as other
   authors within the IETF.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 18, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Glossary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Research Group Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.1.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.2.  URIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

   "There's a freedom about the Internet: As long as we accept the
      rules of sending packets around, we can send packets containing
      anything to anywhere."


   The Human Rights Protocol Consideration Proposed Research Group aims
   to research whether standards and protocols can enable, strengthen or
   threaten human rights, as defined in the Universal Declaration of
   Human Rights [UDHR] and the International Covenant ons Civil and
   Political Rights [ICCPR], specifically, but not limited to the right
   to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of assembly.

   Comunications between people working on human rights and engineers
   working on Internet protocols can be improved with a shared

   This document aims to provide a shared vocabulary to facilitate
   understanding of the intersection between human rights and Internet
   protocol design.

   Discussion on this draft at: hrpc@irtf.org //

   This document builds on the previous IDs published within the
   framework of the proposed hrpc research group [ID]

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2.  Glossary

   In the analysis of existing RFCs central design and technical
   concepts have been found which impact human rights.  This is an
   initial glossary of concepts that could bridge human rights discourse
   and technical vocabulary.  These definitions should be improved and
   further aligned with existing RFCs.

   Accessibility  Full Internet Connectivity as described in [RFC4084]
      to provide unfettered access to the Internet

      The design of protocols, services or implementation that provide
      an enabling environment for people with disabilities.

      The ability to receive information available on the Internet

   Anonymity  The condition of an identity being unknown or concealed.

   Anonymous  A state of an individual in which an observer or attacker
      cannot identify the individual within a set of other individuals
      (the anonymity set).  [RFC6973]

   Authenticity  The act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a
      single piece of data or entity.

   Censorship resistance  Methods and measures to prevent Internet

   Confidentiality  The non-disclosure of information to any unintended
      person or host or party

   Connectivity  The extent to which a device or network is able to
      reach other devices or networks to exchange data.  The Internet is
      the tool for providing global connectivity [RFC1958].

   Content-agnosticism  Treating network traffic identically regardless
      of content.

   Debugging  Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing
      the number of bugs, or defects, or malfunctions in a protocol or
      its implementation, thus making it behave as expected and analyse
      the consequences that might have emanated from the error.
      Debugging tends to be harder when various subsystems are tightly
      coupled, as changes in one may cause bugs to emerge in another.

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      The process through which people troubleshoot a technical issue,
      which may include inspection of program source code or device
      configurations.  Can also include tracing or monitoring packet

   Decentralized  Opportunity for implementation or deployment of
      standards, protocols or systems without one single point of

   End-to-End  The principal of extending characteristics of a protocol
      or system as far as possible within the system.  For example, end-
      to-end instant message encryption would conceal communications
      from one user's instant messaging application through any
      intermediate devices and servers all the way to the recipient's
      instant messaging application.  If the message was decrypted at
      any intermediate point-for example at a service provider-then the
      property of end-to-end encryption would not be present.

      One of the key architectural guidelines of the Internet is the
      end-to-end principle in the papers by Saltzer, Reed, and Clark
      [Saltzer] [Clark].  The end-to-end principle was originally
      articulated as a question of where best not to put functions in a
      communication system.  Yet, in the ensuing years, it has evolved
      to address concerns of maintaining openness, increasing
      reliability and robustness, and preserving the properties of user
      choice and ease of new service development as discussed by
      Blumenthal and Clark in [Blumenthal]; concerns that were not part
      of the original articulation of the end-to-end principle.

      communication that takes place between communication end-points of
      the same physical or logical functional level

   Federation  The possibility of connecting autonomous systems into a
      single distributed system.

   Heterogenity  The Internet is characterized by heterogeneity on many
      levels: devices and nodes, router scheduling algorithms and queue
      management mechanisms, routing protocols, levels of multiplexing,
      protocol versions and implementations, underlying link layers
      (e.g., point-to-point, multi-access links, wireless, FDDI, etc.),
      in the traffic mix and in the levels of congestion at different
      times and places.  Moreover, as the Internet is composed of
      autonomous organizations and internet service providers, each with
      their own separate policy concerns, there is a large heterogeneity
      of administrative domains and pricing structures.  As a result,
      heterogeneity principle is proposed in [RFC1958] to be supported
      by design.  [FIArch]

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   Integrity  Maintenance and assurance of the accuracy and consistency
      of data to ensure it has not been (intentionally or
      unintentionally) altered

   Internet censorship  Internet censorship is the intentional
      suppression of information originating, flowing or stored on
      systems connected to the Internet where that information is
      relevant for decision making to some entity.  [Elahi]

   Inter-operable  A property of a documented standard or protocol which
      allows different independent implementations to work with each
      other without any restricted negotiation, access or functionality.

   Internet Standards as an Arena for Conflict  Pursuant to the
      principle of constant change, since the function and scope of the
      Internet evolves, so does the role of the IETF in developing
      standards.  Internet standards are adopted on the basis of a
      series of criteria, including high technical quality, support by
      community consensus, and their overall benefit to the Internet.
      The latter calls for an assessment of the interests of all
      affected parties and the specifications' impact on the Internet's
      users.  In this respect, the effective exercise of the human
      rights of the Internet users is a relevant consideration that
      needs to be appreciated in the standardization process insofar as
      it is directly linked to the reliability and core values of the
      Internet.  [RFC1958] [RFC0226] [RFC3724]

   Internationalization (i13n)  The practice of the adaptation and
      facilitation of protocols, standards, and implementation to
      different languages and scripts.

   Open standards  Conform [RFC2606]: Various national and international
      standards bodies, such as ANSI, ISO, IEEE, and ITU-T, develop a
      variety of protocol and service specifications that are similar to
      Technical Specifications defined here.  National and international
      groups also publish "implementors' agreements" that are analogous
      to Applicability Statements, capturing a body of implementation-
      specific detail concerned with the practical application of their
      standards.  All of these are considered to be "open external
      standards" for the purposes of the Internet Standards Process.

   Openness  The quality of the unfiltered Internet that allows for free
      access to other hosts

   Permissionless innovation  The freedom and ability of to freely
      create and deploy new protocols on top of the communications
      constructs that currently exist

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   Privacy  The right of an entity (normally a person), acting in its
      own behalf, to determine the degree to which it will interact with
      its environment, including the degree to which the entity is
      willing to share its personal information with others.  [RFC4949]

      The right of individuals to control or influence what information
      related to them may be collected and stored and by whom and to
      whom that information may be disclosed.

      Privacy is a broad concept relating to the protection of
      individual autonomy and the relationship between an individual and
      society, including government, companies and private individuals.
      It is often summarized as "the right to be left alone" but it
      encompasses a wide range of rights including protections from
      intrusions into family and home life, control of sexual and
      reproductive rights, and communications secrecy.  It is commonly
      recognized as a core right that underpins human dignity and other
      values such as freedom of association and freedom of speech.

   The right to privacy is also recognized in nearly every national
   constitution and in most international human rights treaties.  It has
   been adjudicated upon both by international and regional bodies.  The
   right to privacy is also legally protected at the national level
   through provisions in civil and/or criminal codes.

   Reliable  Reliability ensures that a protocol will execute its
      function consistently and error resistant as described and
      function without unexpected result.  A system that is reliable
      degenerates gracefully and will have a documented way to announce
      degradation.  It also has mechanisms to recover from failure
      gracefully, and if applicable, allow for partial healing.

   Resilience  The maintaining of dependability and performance in the
      face of unanticipated changes and circumstances.

   Robustness  The resistance of protocols and their implementations to
      errors, and to involuntary, legal or malicious attempts to disrupt
      its mode of operations.  [RFC0760] [RFC0791] [RFC0793] [RFC1122]

   Scalable  The ability to handle increased or decreased workloads
      predictably within defined expectations.  There should be a clear
      definition of its scope and applicability.  The limits of a
      systems scalability should be defined.

   Stateless / stateful   In computing, a stateless protocol is a
      communications protocol that treats each request as an independent
      transaction that is unrelated to any previous request so that the
      communication consists of independent pairs of request and

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      response.  A stateless protocol does not require the server to
      retain session information or status about each communications
      partner for the duration of multiple requests.  In contrast, a
      protocol which requires keeping of the internal state on the
      server is known as a stateful protocol.  [WP-Stateless]

   Strong encryption / cryptography  Used to describe a cryptographic
      algorithm that would require a large amount of computational power
      to defeat it.  [RFC4949]

   Transparent:  "transparency" refers to the original Internet concept
      of a single universal logical addressing scheme, and the
      mechanisms by which packets may flow from source to destination
      essentially unaltered.  [RFC2775]

   The combination of reliability, confidentiality, integrity,
   anonymity, and authenticity is what makes up security on the Internet

    ( Reliability    )
   (  Confidentiality )
   (  Integrity       ) =  communication and information
   (  Authenticity    )                  security (technical)
    ( Anonymity      )

   The combination of End-to-End, Interoperability, resilience,
   reliability and robustness is what makes us connectivity on the

                        ( End-to-End      )
    connectivity =     (  Interoperability )
                      (   Resilience        )
                      (   Reliability       )
                      (   Robustness        )
                       (  Autonomy         )
                        ( Simplicity      )

3.  Security Considerations

   As this draft concerns a research document, there are no security

4.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

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5.  Research Group Information

   The discussion list for the IRTF Human Rights Protocol Considerations
   proposed working group is located at the e-mail address hrpc@ietf.org
   [1].  Information on the group and information on how to subscribe to
   the list is at https://www.irtf.org/mailman/listinfo/hrpc

   Archives of the list can be found at: https://www.irtf.org/mail-

6.  References

6.1.  Informative References

              Berners-Lee, T. and M. Fischetti, "Weaving the Web,",
              HarperCollins p 208, 1999.

              Blumenthal, M. and D. Clark, "Rethinking the design of the
              Internet: The end-to-end arguments vs. the brave new
              world", ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, Vol. 1,
              No. 1, August 2001, pp 70-109. , 2001.

   [Clark]    Clark, D., "The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet
              Protocols", Proc SIGCOMM 88, ACM CCR Vol 18, Number 4,
              August 1988, pp. 106-114. , 1988.

   [Elahi]    Elahi, T. and I. Goldberg, "CORDON - A taxonomy of
              Internet Censorship Resistance Strategies", 2012,

   [FIArch]   "Future Internet Design Principles", January 2012,

   [ICCPR]    United Nations General Assembly, "International Covenant
              on Civil and Political Rights", 1976,

   [ID]       ten Oever, N., Doria, A., and J. Varon, "Proposal for
              research on human rights protocol considerations", 2015,

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   [RFC0226]  Karp, P., "Standardization of host mnemonics", RFC 226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC0226, September 1971,

   [RFC0760]  Postel, J., "DoD standard Internet Protocol", RFC 760, DOI
              10.17487/RFC0760, January 1980,

   [RFC0791]  Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, DOI
              10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981,

   [RFC0793]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, RFC
              793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC1122, October 1989,

   [RFC1958]  Carpenter, B., Ed., "Architectural Principles of the
              Internet", RFC 1958, DOI 10.17487/RFC1958, June 1996,

   [RFC2606]  Eastlake 3rd, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS
              Names", BCP 32, RFC 2606, DOI 10.17487/RFC2606, June 1999,

   [RFC2775]  Carpenter, B., "Internet Transparency", RFC 2775, DOI
              10.17487/RFC2775, February 2000,

   [RFC3724]  Kempf, J., Austein., R., Ed., and IAB, "The Rise of the
              Middle and the Future of End-to-End: Reflections on the
              Evolution of the Internet Architecture", RFC 3724, DOI
              10.17487/RFC3724, March 2004,

   [RFC4084]  Klensin, J., "Terminology for Describing Internet
              Connectivity", BCP 104, RFC 4084, DOI 10.17487/RFC4084,
              May 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4084>.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", FYI
              36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007,

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   [RFC6973]  Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
              Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
              Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, DOI
              10.17487/RFC6973, July 2013,

   [Saltzer]  Saltzer, J., Reed, D., and D. Clark, "End-to-End Arguments
              in System Design", ACM TOCS, Vol 2, Number 4, November
              1984, pp 277-288. , 1984.

   [UDHR]     United Nations General Assembly, "The Universal
              Declaration of Human Rights", 1948,

              "Debugging", n.d., <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

              "Stateless protocol", n.d.,

6.2.  URIs

   [1] mailto:hrpc@ietf.org

Authors' Addresses

   Daniel Kahn Gillmor

   EMail: dkg@fifthhorseman.net

   Niels ten Oever

   EMail: niels@article19.org

   Avri Doria

   EMail: avri@apc.org

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