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Network Working Group                                  T. Dreibholz, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                 S. Ferlin
Intended status: Informational                                   O. Alay
Expires: October 1, 2017                                   A. Elmokashfi
                                                            I. Livadariu
                                              Simula Research Laboratory
                                                                 X. Zhou
                                                       Hainan University
                                                          March 30, 2017


                MPTCP Experiences in the NorNet Testbed
             draft-dreibholz-mptcp-nornet-experience-03.txt

Abstract

   This document collects some experiences of Multi-Path TCP (MPTCP)
   evaluations in the NorNet testbed.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 1, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.2.  Multi-Path TCP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.3.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Testbed Evaluation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  The NorNet Testbed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Multi-Path TCP in NorNet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.3.  NetPerfMeter  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Research Results and Work in Progress . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Abbreviations

   o  TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

   o  MPTCP: Multi-Path TCP

1.2.  Multi-Path TCP

   The Multi-Path TCP (MPTCP) extension for the Transmission Control
   Protocol (TCP) has been defined in [3], [4], [1], [2], [5].  There
   are also detailed introductions provided for example by [8], [9] as
   well as lots of further information material on [6].  MPTCP is
   therefore not introduced in more detail here.

1.3.  Scope

   The scope of this document is to collect some experiences with the
   usage of MPTCP in the NorNet testbed, a large-scale Internet testbed
   for multi-homed systems.








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2.  Testbed Evaluation

2.1.  The NorNet Testbed

   The NorNet testbed (https://www.nntb.no) introduced in [11], [15],
   [10] is a programmable testbed platform with focus on the evaluation
   of multi-homed systems.  It consists of programmable nodes that are
   distributed all over Norway as well as further locations in other
   countries.  NotNet is built and operated by the Simula Research
   Laboratory and financed by Forskningsraedet (the Research Council of
   Norway) through their INFRASTRUKTUR program (project number 208798/
   F50).

   NorNet has two main components: NorNet Core and NorNet Edge.  NorNet
   Core consists of currently 20 programmable sites
   (https://www.nntb.no/pub/nornet-configuration/NorNetCore-Sites.html),
   most of them multi-homed to several network providers.  Details can
   be found in [12], [14], [11] and [16].  NorNet Edge consists of
   several hundreds of smaller nodes connected to all mobile broadband
   providers in Norway (http://robustenett.no/map), details can be found
   in [13].  Together, these two components offer a unique platform for
   experimental networking research.  NorNet is made available to the
   international networking research community.

   Further details on NorNet can be found on the NorNet website [17].

2.2.  Multi-Path TCP in NorNet

   The NorNet nodes are Linux-based and therefore run the Linux MPTCP
   implementation by Universite catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve (see
   [18]).  With support by all NorNet Core nodes (circa 100 nodes at
   currently 20 sites) and most NorNet Edge nodes (several hundreds),
   NorNet probably provides the world's largest MPTCP experimentation
   platform.

2.3.  NetPerfMeter

   NetPerfMeter [19], [7] is a network performance meter for the UDP,
   TCP, MPTCP, SCTP and DCCP transport protocols over IPv4 and IPv6.  It
   simultaneously transmits bidirectional flows to an endpoint and
   measures the resulting flow bandwidths and QoS.  The results are
   written as vector and scalar files.  NetPerfMeter is provided in
   NorNet to allow for transport protocol comparisons and transport
   protocol performance evaluations.







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3.  Research Results and Work in Progress

   So far, work has been done on evaluating MPTCP in the real-world
   Internet.  The following list is a short overview of current
   research:

   o  [20] examines the different properties of 3G paths (UMTS as well
      as CDMA2000) in NorNet Edge.  These results provide an overview of
      the QoS characteristics that can be expected by multi-path
      transport protocols (and particularly by MPTCP) on different
      paths.

   o  [21] analyzes the impact of buffer bloat on MPTCP connections over
      mobile broadband (2G, 3G) and WLAN paths.  Furthermore, it
      proposes and evaluates Multi-Path Transport Bufferbloat Mitigation
      (MPT-BM), a bufferbloat mitigation algorithm to improve MPTCP
      performance in buffer-bloated wireless networks.

   o  [22] examines the performance benefits of multi-path transport
      with MPTCP under heterogeneous wireless networks.  It furthermore
      introduces and evaluates the Dynamic Relative Path Scoring
      (DRePaS) algorithm that optimizes the path management in such
      setups.

   o  [23] examines the performance benefits of the state-of-the-art
      Linux MPTCP implementation in a large-scale NorNet setup, covering
      sites in multiple countries on different continents.  It
      particularly also shortly introduces the NetPerfMeter measurement
      tool that is used to perform the measurements, and particularly
      its extension for MPTCP.

   o  [24] examines how the IPv4/IPv6 identity duality can be utilized
      with MPTCP in order to improve performance even in case of only a
      single ISP connection.

   o  [25] provides an introduction to the NetPerfMeter tool for MPTCP
      experiments.

   o  [26] presents MPTCP's architecture and multi-path congestion
      control algorithm concepts.  Then, it examines three test
      scenarios in the NorNet testbed, particularly highlighting the
      performance difference between using uncoupled and coupled
      congestion controls in multi-homed, real-world Internet setups.

   o  [27] introduces a scanning infrastructure to search for MPTCP-
      capable hosts in the Internet.  In a study, it used the top-1M
      Alexa servers to test the platform and gain insight about server
      support for MPTCP.



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   o  [28] proposes a practical shared bottleneck detection (SBD)
      algorithm for MPTCP, namely MPTCP-SBD.  Through extensive
      emulations, it is shown that MPTCP-SBD outperforms all currently
      deployed MPTCP coupled congestion controls by accurately detecting
      bottlenecks resulting in throughput gains in the absence of shared
      bottlenecks, while remaining fair to TCP in shared bottlenecks
      scenarios.

   o  [29] proposes a send-window BLocking ESTimation scheduler, BLEST,
      which aims to minimise head-of-line-blocking in heterogeneous
      networks.  BLEST increases the potential for capacity aggregation
      by reducing the number of spurious retransmissions.

   o  [30] examines path management strategies for MPTCP in real-world,
      multi-homed Internet setups.  Particular goal is to highlight the
      performance impact of different path management and congestion
      control settings in such realistic scenarios.

   o  [31] analyses the actual buffer size requirements for MPTCP in
      heterogeneous, multi-homed Internet setups.  Particular goal is to
      provide some guidelines on buffer size requirements for achieving
      a reasonable throughput, while on the other hand not wasting
      resources.

4.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations on MPTCP are described in [3].

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

6.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Hakim Adhari, Fa Fu, Feng Zhou and
   Kun Wang for discussions and support.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [1]        Raiciu, C., Handley, M., and D. Wischik, "Coupled
              Congestion Control for Multipath Transport Protocols",
              RFC 6356, DOI 10.17487/RFC6356, October 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6356>.






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   [2]        Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., and O. Bonaventure,
              "TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with Multiple
              Addresses", RFC 6824, DOI 10.17487/RFC6824, January 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6824>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [3]        Bagnulo, M., "Threat Analysis for TCP Extensions for
              Multipath Operation with Multiple Addresses", RFC 6181,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6181, March 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6181>.

   [4]        Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., Barre, S., and J.
              Iyengar, "Architectural Guidelines for Multipath TCP
              Development", RFC 6182, DOI 10.17487/RFC6182, March 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6182>.

   [5]        Scharf, M. and A. Ford, "Multipath TCP (MPTCP) Application
              Interface Considerations", RFC 6897, DOI 10.17487/RFC6897,
              March 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6897>.

   [6]        Dreibholz, T., "Thomas Dreibholz's MPTCP Page",
              Online: http://www.iem.uni-due.de/~dreibh/mptcp/, 2016,
              <http://www.iem.uni-due.de/~dreibh/mptcp/>.

   [7]        Dreibholz, T., "NetPerfMeter - A TCP/MPTCP/UDP/SCTP/DCCP
              Network Performance Meter Tool", Online: https://www.uni-
              due.de/~be0001/netperfmeter/, 2016, <https://www.uni-
              due.de/~be0001/netperfmeter/>.

   [8]        Becke, M., "Revisiting the IETF Multipath Extensions on
              Transport Layer", November 2014,
              <http://duepublico.uni-duisburg-
              essen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-37631/
              Thesis_online.pdf>.

   [9]        Ruengeler, I., "SCTP - Evaluating, Improving and Extending
              the Protocol for Broader Deployment", December 2009,
              <http://duepublico.uni-duisburg-
              essen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-23465/
              Diss.pdf>.

   [10]       Dreibholz, T., "The NorNet Testbed for Multi-Homed Systems
              - Introduction and Status",  Invited Talk at Princeton
              University, Department of Computer Science, May 2014,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2730.pdf>.




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   [11]       Dreibholz, T., "NorNet at NICTA - An Introduction to the
              NorNet Testbed",  Invited Talk at National Information
              Communications Technology Australia (NICTA), January 2016,
              <https://www.simula.no/file/nicta2016-presentationpdf/
              download>.

   [12]       Gran, E., Dreibholz, T., and A. Kvalbein, "NorNet Core - A
              Multi-Homed Research Testbed", Computer Networks, Special
              Issue on Future Internet Testbeds Volume 61, Pages 75-87,
              ISSN 1389-1286, DOI 10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.035, March 2014,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2236.pdf>.

   [13]       Kvalbein, A., Baltrunas, D., Evensen, K., Xiang, J.,
              Elmokashfi, A., and S. Ferlin, "The NorNet Edge Platform
              for Mobile Broadband Measurements", Computer Networks,
              Special Issue on Future Internet Testbeds Volume 61, Pages
              88-101, ISSN 1389-1286, DOI 10.1016/j.bjp.2013.12.036,
              March 2014,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2434.pdf>.

   [14]       Dreibholz, T. and E. Gran, "Design and Implementation of
              the NorNet Core Research Testbed for Multi-Homed Systems",
              Proceedings of the 3nd International Workshop on Protocols
              and Applications with Multi-Homing Support (PAMS) Pages
              1094-1100, ISBN 978-0-7695-4952-1,
              DOI 10.1109/WAINA.2013.71, March 2013,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/threfereedinproceedingsreference.2012-12-20.7
              643198512.pdf>.

   [15]       Dreibholz, T., "Multi-Path Transport - From Simulations to
              Real-World Internet Measurements",  Keynote Talk at the
              Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Instituto de
              Investigacion Informatica de Albacete, February 2017,
              <https://www.simula.no/file/uclm2017-multipath-
              presentationpdf-1/download>.

   [16]       Dreibholz, T., "An Experiment Tutorial for the NorNet Core
              Testbed at the the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha",
               Tutorial at the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha,
              Instituto de Investigacion Informatica de Albacete,
              February 2017, <https://www.simula.no/file/uclm2017-
              nornet-tutorialpdf/download>.






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   [17]       Dreibholz, T., "NorNet - A Real-World, Large-Scale Multi-
              Homing Testbed", Online: https://www.nntb.no/, 2017,
              <https://www.nntb.no/>.

   [18]       Paasch, C. and S. Barre, "Multipath TCP implementation in
              the Linux kernel", Online: http://www.multipath-tcp.org,
              2016, <http://www.multipath-tcp.org>.

   [19]       Dreibholz, T., Becke, M., Adhari, H., and E. Rathgeb,
              "Evaluation of A New Multipath Congestion Control Scheme
              using the NetPerfMeter Tool-Chain", Proceedings of the
              19th IEEE International Conference on Software,
              Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM) Pages
              1-6, ISBN 978-953-290-027-9, September 2011,
              <https://www.wiwi.uni-due.de/fileadmin/fileupload/I-
              TDR/SCTP/Paper/SoftCOM2011.pdf>.

   [20]       Ferlin, S., Dreibholz, T., Alay, Oe., and A. Kvalbein,
              "Measuring the QoS Characteristics of Operational 3G
              Mobile Broadband Networks", Proceedings of the 4th
              International Workshop on Protocols and Applications with
              Multi-Homing Support (PAMS) Pages 753-758,
              ISBN 978-1-4799-2652-7, DOI 10.1109/WAINA.2014.123, May
              2014, <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2516.pdf>.

   [21]       Ferlin, S., Dreibholz, T., and Oe. Alay, "Tackling the
              Challenge of Bufferbloat in Multi-Path Transport over
              Heterogeneous Wireless Networks", Proceedings of the IEEE/
              ACM International Symposium on Quality of
              Service (IWQoS) Pages 123-128, ISBN 978-1-4799-4852-9,
              DOI 10.1109/IWQoS.2014.6914310, May 2014,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2722.pdf>.

   [22]       Ferlin, S., Dreibholz, T., and Oe. Alay, "Multi-Path
              Transport over Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Does it
              really pay off?", Proceedings of the IEEE Global
              Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) Pages 5005-5011,
              ISBN 978-1-4799-3512-3, December 2014,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/Simula.simula.2884.pdf>.









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   [23]       Dreibholz, T., Zhou, X., and F. Fa, "Multi-Path TCP in
              Real-World Setups - An Evaluation in the NorNet Core
              Testbed",  5th International Workshop on Protocols and
              Applications with Multi-Homing Support (PAMS), March 2015,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/files/pams2015-mptcp-web.pdf>.

   [24]       Livadariu, I., Ferlin, S., Alay, Oe., Dreibholz, T.,
              Dhamdhere, A., and A. Elmokashfi, "Leveraging the IPv4/
              IPv6 Identity Duality by using Multi-Path Transport",
               Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Global Internet
              Symposium (GI), April 2015,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/files/gis2015_0.pdf>.

   [25]       Dreibholz, T., "NetPerfMeter: A Network Performance
              Metering Tool",  Multipath TCP Blog, September 2015,
              <http://blog.multipath-tcp.org/blog/html/2015/09/07/
              netperfmeter.html>.

   [26]       Fa, F., Zhou, X., Dreibholz, T., Wang, K., Zhou, F., and
              Q. Gan, "Performance Comparison of Congestion Control
              Strategies for Multi-Path TCP in the NorNet Testbed",
              Proceedings of the 4th IEEE/CIC International Conference
              on Communications in China (ICCC) Pages 607-612,
              ISBN 978-1-5090-0243-6, November 2015,
              <https://www.simula.no/sites/www.simula.no/files/
              publications/files/fufa-mptcp-web.pdf>.

   [27]       Mehani, O., Holz, R., Ferlin, S., and R. Boreli, "An Early
              Look at Multipath TCP Deployment in the Wild", Proceedings
              of the 6th International Workshop on Hot Topics in Planet-
              Scale Measurement ISBN 978-1-4503-3534-8,
              DOI 10.1145/2798087.2798088, 2015,
              <https://www.nicta.com.au/
              pub?doc=8791?filename=Mehani2015.pdf>.

   [28]       Ferlin, S., Alay, Oe., Hayes, D., Dreibholz, T., and M.
              Welzl, "Revisiting Congestion Control for Multipath TCP
              with Shared Bottleneck Detection",  Proceedings of the
              35th IEEE International Conference on Computer
              Communications (INFOCOM), April 2016.









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   [29]       Ferlin, S., Alay, Oe., Mehani, O., and R. Boreli, "BLEST:
              Blocking Estimation-Based MPTCP Scheduler for
              Heterogeneous Networks", Proceedings of the IFIP
              Networking Conference Pages 431-439,
              DOI 10.1109/IFIPNetworking.2016.7497206, May 2016,
              <http://dl.ifip.org/db/conf/networking/
              networking2016/1570234725.pdf>.

   [30]       Wang, K., Dreibholz, T., Zhou, X., Fu, F., Tan, Y., Cheng,
              X., and Q. Tan, "On the Path Management of Multi-Path TCP
              in Internet Scenarios based on the NorNet Testbed",
              Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on
              Advanced Information Networking and
              Applications (AINA) ISBN 978-1-5090-6028-3, March 2017,
              <https://www.simula.no/file/kunwang-paper-webpdf/
              download>.

   [31]       Zhou, F., Dreibholz, T., Zhou, X., Fu, F., Tan, Y., and Q.
              Gan, "The Performance Impact of Buffer Sizes for Multi-
              Path TCP in Internet Setups", Proceedings of the IEEE
              International Conference on Advanced Information
              Networking and Applications (AINA) ISBN 978-1-5090-6028-3,
              March 2017, <https://www.simula.no/file/fengzhou-mptcp-
              webpdf/download>.

Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Dreibholz (editor)
   Simula Research Laboratory, Networks Department
   Martin Linges vei 17
   1364 Fornebu, Akershus
   Norway

   Phone: +47-6782-8200
   Fax:   +47-6782-8201
   Email: dreibh@simula.no
   URI:   http://www.iem.uni-due.de/~dreibh/














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   Simone Ferlin
   Simula Research Laboratory, Networks Department
   Martin Linges vei 17
   1364 Fornebu, Akershus
   Norway

   Phone: +47-4072-0702
   Fax:   +47-4072-0702
   Email: ferlin@simula.no
   URI:   https://www.simula.no/people/ferlin


   Ozgu Alay
   Simula Research Laboratory, Networks Department
   Martin Linges vei 17
   1364 Fornebu, Akershus
   Norway

   Phone: +47-9848-5362
   Fax:   +47-9848-5362
   Email: ozgu@simula.no
   URI:   https://www.simula.no/people/ozgu


   Ahmed Elmokashfi
   Simula Research Laboratory, Networks Department
   Martin Linges vei 17
   1364 Fornebu, Akershus
   Norway

   Phone: +47-474-52-315
   Fax:   +47-6782-8201
   Email: ahmed@simula.no
   URI:   https://www.simula.no/people/ahmed


   Ioana Alexandrina Livadariu
   Simula Research Laboratory, Networks Department
   Martin Linges vei 17
   1364 Fornebu, Akershus
   Norway

   Phone: +47-453-98-686
   Fax:   +47-6782-8201
   Email: ioana@simula.no
   URI:   https://www.simula.no/people/ioana





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   Xing Zhou
   Hainan University, College of Information Science and Technology
   Renmin Avenue 58
   570228 Haikou, Hainan
   China

   Phone: +86-898-66279141
   Email: zhouxing@hainu.edu.cn
   URI:   http://www.hainu.edu.cn/stm/xinxi/2011330/10409758.shtml










































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