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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 draft-ietf-dnsop-cookies

INTERNET-DRAFT                                           Donald Eastlake
Intended Status: Proposed Standard                                Huawei
Expires: July 21, 2014                                  January 22, 2014


                    Domain Name System (DNS) Cookies
                 <draft-eastlake-dnsext-cookies-04.txt>



Abstract

   DNS cookies are a lightweight DNS transaction security mechanism
   designed for incremental deployment.  They provide limited protection
   to DNS servers and resolvers against a variety of increasingly common
   denial-of-service and amplification/forgery or cache poisoning
   attacks by off-path attackers. DNS Cookies are tolerant of NAT, NAT-
   PT, and anycast.


Status of This Document

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited. Comments should be sent
   to the author or the DNSEXT mailing list <dnsext@ietf.org>.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html. The list of Internet-Draft
   Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.













D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 1]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


Table of Contents

      1. Introduction............................................3
      1.1 Contents of This Document..............................3
      1.2 Definitions............................................4

      2. Threats Considered......................................5
      2.1 Denial-of-Service Attacks..............................5
      2.1.1 DNS Amplification Attacks............................5
      2.1.2 DNS Server Denial-of-Service.........................5
      2.2 Cache Poisoning and Answer Forgery Attacks.............6

      3. Comments on Existing DNS Security.......................7
      3.1 Existing DNS Data Security.............................7
      3.2 DNS Message/Transaction Security.......................7
      3.3 Conclusions on Existing DNS Security...................7

      4. The COOKIE OPT Option...................................8
      4.1 Resolver Cookie........................................8
      4.2 Server Cookie..........................................9
      4.3 Error Code.............................................9

      5. DNS Cookies Protocol Description.......................11
      5.1 Originating Requests..................................11
      5.2 Responding to Requests................................11
      5.3 Processing Responses..................................11

      6. DNS Cookie Policies and Implementation.................13
      6.1 Resolver Policies and Implementation..................13
      6.2 Server Policies and Implementation....................14
      6.3 Resolver and Server Secret Rollover...................15
      6.4 Implementation Requirement............................15

      7. NAT Considerations and AnyCast Server Considerations...17
      8. Deployment.............................................19
      9. IANA Considerations....................................20

      10. Security Considerations...............................21
      10.1 Cookie Algorithm Considerations......................21

      Acknowledgements..........................................22
      Normative References......................................23
      Informative References....................................23
      Author's Address..........................................25








D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 2]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


1. Introduction

   As with many core Internet protocols, the Domain Name System (DNS)
   was originally designed at a time when the Internet had only a small
   pool of trusted users. As the Internet has grown exponentially to a
   global information utility, the DNS has increasingly been subject to
   abuse.

   This document describes DNS cookies, a lightweight DNS transaction
   security mechanism specified as an OPT [RFC6891] option.  This
   mechanism provides limited protection to DNS servers and resolvers
   against a variety of increasingly common abuses by off-path
   attackers.

   The DNS cookies mechanism has a default mode that supports
   incremental deployment. If only one party to a DNS transaction
   supports the mechanism, it does not provide a benefit or
   significantly interfere, but, if both support it, the additional
   security provided is automatically available.

   The DNS cookies mechanism is compatible with and can be used in
   conjunction with other DNS transaction forgery resistance measures
   such as those in [RFC5452].

   The DNS cookies mechanism is designed to work in the presence of NAT
   and NAT-PT boxes and guidance is provided herein on supporting the
   DNS cookies mechanism in anycast servers.



1.1 Contents of This Document

   In Section 2, we discuss the threats against which the DNS cookie
   mechanism provides some protection.

   Section 3 describes existing DNS security mechanisms and why they are
   not adequate substitutes for DNS cookies.

   Section 4 describes the COOKIE OPT option and Section 5 provides a
   protocol description including suggestions for calculating Resolver
   and Server Cookies.

   Section 6 gives further details on the processing of COOKIE OPT
   options by resolvers and server and policies for such processing.

   Section 7 discusses some NAT and anycast related DNS Cookies design
   considerations.

   Section 8 discusses incremental deployment considerations.



D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 3]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


   Sections 9 and 10 describe IANA and Security Considerations.



1.2 Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   An "off-path attacker", for a particular DNS resolver and server, is
   defined as an attacker who cannot observe the plain text of DNS
   requests and responses between that resolver and server.

   "Soft state" indicates information learned or derived by a host which
   may be discarded when indicated by the policies of that host but can
   be later re-instantiated if needed.  For example, it could be
   discarded after a period of time or when storage for caching such
   data becomes full. If operations requiring that soft state continue
   after it has been discarded, it will be automatically re-generated,
   albeit at some cost.

   "Silently discarded" indicates that there are no DNS protocol message
   consequences; however, it is RECOMMENDED that appropriate network
   management facilities be included in implementations, such as a
   counter of the occurrences of each type of such events.

   The term "IP address" is used herein in a length independent manner
   and refers to both IPv4 and IPv6.























D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 4]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


2. Threats Considered

   DNS cookies are intended to provide significant but limited
   protection against certain attacks by off-path attackers as described
   below. These attacks include denial-of-service, cache poisoning and
   answer forgery.



2.1 Denial-of-Service Attacks

   The typical form of the denial-of-service attacks considered herein
   is to send DNS requests with forged source IP addresses to a server.
   The intent can be to attack that server or some other selected host
   as described below.



2.1.1 DNS Amplification Attacks

   A request with a forged IP address generally causes a response to be
   sent to that forged IP address. Thus the forging of many such
   requests with a particular source IP address can result in enough
   traffic being sent to the forged IP address to interfere with service
   to the host at the IP address. Furthermore, it is generally easy in
   the DNS to create short requests that produce much longer responses,
   thus amplifying the attack.

   The DNS Cookies mechanism can severely limit the traffic
   amplification obtained by attackers off path for the server and the
   attacked host. Enforced DNS cookies would make it hard for an off
   path attacker to cause any more than rate-limited short error
   responses to be sent to a forged IP address so the attack would be
   reduced rather than amplified.  DNS cookies make it more effective to
   implement a rate limiting scheme for bad DNS cookie error responses
   from the server.  Such a scheme would further restrict selected host
   denial-of-service traffic from that server.



2.1.2 DNS Server Denial-of-Service

   DNS requests that are accepted cause work on the part of DNS servers.
   This is particularly true for recursive servers that may issue one or
   more requests and process the responses thereto, in order to
   determine their response to the initial request. And the situation
   can be even worse for recursive servers implementing DNSSEC
   ([RFC4033] [RFC4034] [RFC4035]) because they may be induced to
   perform burdensome public key cryptographic computations in attempts
   to verify the authenticity of data they retrieve in trying to answer


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 5]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


   the request.

   The computational or communications burden caused by such requests
   may not dependent on a forged IP source address, but the use of such
   addresses makes
      + the source of the requests causing the denial-of-service attack
        harder to find and
      + restriction of the IP addresses from which such requests should
        be honored hard or impossible to specify or verify.

   Use of DNS cookies should enables a server to reject forged queries
   from an off path attacker with relative ease and before any recursive
   queries or public key cryptographic operations are performed.



2.2 Cache Poisoning and Answer Forgery Attacks

   The form of the cache poisoning attacks considered is to send forged
   replies to a resolver. Modern network speeds for well-connected hosts
   are such that, by forging replies from the IP addresses of heavily
   used DNS servers for popular names to a heavily used resolver, there
   can be an unacceptably high probability of randomly coming up with a
   reply that will be accepted and cause false DNS information to be
   cached by that resolver (the Dan Kaminsky attack). This can be used
   to facilitate phishing attacks and other diversion of legitimate
   traffic to a compromised or malicious host such as a web server.

   With the use of DNS cookies, a resolver can generally reject such
   forged replies.






















D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 6]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


3. Comments on Existing DNS Security

   Two forms of security have been added to DNS, data security and
   message/transaction security.



3.1 Existing DNS Data Security

   DNS data security is one part of DNSSEC and is described in
   [RFC4033], [RFC4034], and [RFC4035] and updates thereto. It provides
   data origin authentication and authenticated denial of existence.
   DNSSEC is being deployed and can provide strong protection against
   forged data; however, it has the unintended effect of making some
   denial-of-service attacks worse because of the cryptographic
   computational load it can require and the increased size in DNS
   packets that it tends to produce.



3.2 DNS Message/Transaction Security

   The second form of security that has been added to DNS provides
   "transaction" security through TSIG [RFC2845] or SIG(0) [RFC2931].
   TSIG could provide strong protection against the attacks for which
   the DNS Cookies mechanism provide weak protection; however, TSIG is
   non-trivial to deploy in the general Internet because of the burden
   it imposes of pre-agreement and key distribution between resolver-
   server pairs, the burden of server side key state, and because it
   requires time synchronization between resolver and server.

   TKEY [RFC2930] can solve the problem of key distribution for TSIG but
   some modes of TKEY impose a substantial cryptographic computation
   loads and can be dependent on the deployment of DNS data security
   (see Section 3.1).

   SIG(0) [RFC2931] provides less denial of service protection than TSIG
   or, in one way, even DNS cookies, because it does not authenticate
   requests, only complete transactions.  In any case, it also depends
   on the deployment of DNS data security and requires computationally
   burdensome public key cryptographic operations.



3.3 Conclusions on Existing DNS Security

   The existing DNS security mechanisms do not provide the services
   provided by the DNS Cookies mechanism: lightweight message
   authentication of DNS requests and responses with no requirement for
   pre-configuration or server side state.


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 7]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


4. The COOKIE OPT Option

   COOKIE is an OPT RR [RFC6891] option that can be included no more
   than once in the RDATA portion of an OPT RR in DNS requests and
   responses.

   The option is encoded into 22 bytes as shown below.

                         1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |      OPTION-CODE = {TBD}      |     OPTION-LENGTH = 18        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +-                       Resolver Cookie                       -+
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +-                        Server Cookie                        -+
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          Error Code           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The 64-bit Resolver and Server Cookies are stored in little endian
   order and are determined as described below.



4.1 Resolver Cookie

   The Resolver Cookie SHOULD be a pseudo-random function of the server
   IP address and a secret quantity known only to the resolver. This
   resolver secret SHOULD have at least 64 bits of entropy [RFC4086bis]
   and be changed periodically (see Section 6.3). The selection of the
   pseudo-random function is a private matter to the resolver as only
   the resolver needs to recognize its own DNS cookies. An example
   method is the FNV-64 [FNV] of the server IP address and the resolver
   secret. That is

      Resolver Cookie = FNV-64 ( Resolver Secret | Server IP Address )

   where "|" indicates concatenation.

   A resolver MUST NOT use the same Resolver Cookie value for queries to
   all servers.






D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 8]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


4.2 Server Cookie

   The Server Cookie SHOULD be a pseudo-random function of the request
   source IP address, the request Resolver Cookie, and a secret quantity
   known only to the server. (See Section 7 for a discussion of why the
   Resolver Cookie is used as input to the Server Cookie but the Server
   Cookie is not used as an input to the Resolver Cookie.) This server
   secret SHOULD have 64 bits of entropy [RFC4086bis] and be changed
   periodically (see Section 6.3). The selection of the pseudo-random
   function is a private matter to the server as only the server needs
   to recognize its own DNS cookies. An example method is the FNV-64
   [FNV] of the request IP address, the Resolver Cookie, and the server
   secret. That is

      Server Cookie =
         FNV-64 ( Server Secret | Request IP Address | Resolver Cookie )

   where "|" represents concatenation.

   A server MUST NOT use the same Server Cookie value for responses to
   all resolvers.



4.3 Error Code

   The Error Code field MUST have one of the values listed below.

   Requests have a COOKIE OPT Error Code equal to one of the following
      two values:

         Zero, if the resolver believes the Server Cookie field is
            correct, or

         CKPING (Cookie PING), if the resolver does not know the correct
            value for the Server Cookie field.

      (In all cases, the RCODE in a DNS request header is zero.)

   Replies have a COOKIE OPT with an Error Code equal to one of the
      following five values:

         Zero, if the request they respond to had one COOKIE OPT with a
            correct Server Cookie.

         NOCOOKIE, in which case the DNS reply header RCODE field is
            Refused.

         BADCOOKIE, in which case the DNS reply header RCODE field is
            Refused.


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                 [Page 9]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


         MANYCOOKIE, in which case the DNS reply header RCODE field is
            FormErr.

         CKPINGR (Cookie PING Response), which case the DNS reply RCODE
            field might be any value (see Section 5.2).

      For more information on errors in replies see Section 6.

   For further discussion of the Resolver Cookie field, see Section 5.1.
   For further discussion of the Server Cookie field see Section 5.2.










































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 10]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


5. DNS Cookies Protocol Description

   The sections provide a general discussion of using DNS Cookies in the
   DNS Protocol. More details are provided in Section 6.



5.1 Originating Requests

   A DNS resolver that implements DNS cookies includes a DNS Cookie
   option in every DNS request it sends unless DNS cookies are disabled
   in that resolver. The DNS Cookie in a request includes a Resolver
   Cookie as discussed in Section 4.1, a Server Cookie cached as soft
   state associated with that server IP address from a previous DNS
   response, and a zero Error Code field.

   If the resolver has no cached Server Cookie for the server, then it
   sets the Server Cookie field to any value and sets the Error Code
   field to CKPING (Cookie Ping); this is the only case in which the
   Error Code field in a COOKIE OPT in a request is non-zero.



5.2 Responding to Requests

   The Server Cookie, when it occurs in a COOKIE OPT option in a
   request, is intended to weakly assure the server that the request
   came from a resolver at the source IP address used because the Server
   Cookie value is the value that server would send to that resolver in
   a response.

   A DNS server that implements DNS cookies and for which DNS cookies
   are not disabled always includes a DNS cookie in the response to a
   DNS request that includes such a cookie. If the request did not
   include a DNS cookie, inclusion of a DNS cookies in the response
   depends on the server mode for that resolved (see Section 6.2).  In
   the DNS Cookie that the server includes, the Resolver Cookie field is
   copied from that field in the request. If there was no cookie in the
   request, it may be set to any value. The Server Cookie field is set
   as discussed in Section 4.2 and the Error Code field is set as
   specified in Section 6.



5.3 Processing Responses

   The Resolver Cookie, when it occurs in a COOKIE OPT option in a DNS
   reply, is intended to weakly assure the resolver that the reply came
   from a server at the source IP address use in the response packet
   because the Resolver Cookie value is the value that resolver would


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 11]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


   send to that server in a request.

   A DNS resolver that implements DNS cookies and for which DNS cookies
   are not disabled examines response for DNS cookies and will discard
   the response if it contains an incorrect Resolver Cookie or has
   multiple cookies. If the COOKIE OPT option Resolver Cookie is correct
   and the Error Code field is not NOCOOKIE, MANYCOOKIES, it caches the
   Server Cookie provided even if the response is an error response. The
   rest of the response is then processed normally.











































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 12]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


6. DNS Cookie Policies and Implementation

   Obviously, DNS resolvers that do not implement DNS cookies do not
   include them in requests and ignore them in replies and DNS servers
   that do not implement DNS cookies ignore them in requests and do not
   include the in replies.

   DNS resolvers and servers that implement DNS cookies will adopt one
   of various policies regarding cookies. These policies SHOULD be
   logically settable on a per server IP address basis in resolvers and
   on a per resolver ( IP address, Resolver Cookie ) pair in servers.
   Thus a resolver can have different policies for different servers,
   based on the server IP address. And a server can have different
   policies for different resolvers, based on the resolver IP address
   and Resolver Cookie. Of course, the actual implementation of the
   configuration of these policies may be for blocks or classes of
   values or use sparse array techniques or the like.

   The policy in each case is either "Disabled", "Enabled", or
   "Enforced" as described below.



6.1 Resolver Policies and Implementation

   A resolver will logically have one of the following three modes of
   operation or "policies" for each DNS server as distinguished by
   server IP Address.

   Disabled:
      Never include a COOKIE OPT option in requests.
      Ignore COOKIE OPT options in replies.

   Enabled:
      Always include a COOKIE OPT option in requests. If a cached Server
         Cookie for the server is not available, the Server Cookie field
         can be set to any value and the COOKIE OPT Error Code field is
         set to CKPING (Cookie Ping); otherwise, the Error Code field is
         set to zero.
      Normally process replies without a COOKIE OPT option.
      Silently ignore replies with more than one COOKIE OPT option.
      Silently ignore replies with one COOKIE OPT option if it has an
         incorrect Resolver Cookie value.
      On receipt of a reply with one COOKIE OPT option carrying the
         correct Resolver Cookie value (even if it is a DNS error
         response), the DNS client performs normal response processing,
         including caching the received Server Cookie as soft state, and
         it MUST change to the Enforced policy for DNS requests to that
         DNS server IP address. This policy change to Enforced is
         treated as soft state with the same retention strategy as the


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 13]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


         Server Cookie value for that server. On discard of that state
         information, the policy for that DNS server IP address reverts
         to Enabled.

   Enforced:
      Always include a COOKIE OPT option in requests.
      Silently ignore all replies that do not include exactly one COOKIE
         OPT option having the correct Resolver Cookie value.
      On receipt of a reply with one COOKIE OPT option carrying the
         correct Resolver Cookie value (even if it is a DNS error
         response), the DNS client performs normal response processing,
         including caching the received Server Cookie. If a copy of the
         same Server Cookie value is already cached for that server,
         then its retention probability should be increased. For
         example, if a time out is being used for the discard to cached
         Server Cookies, that time out should be extended.



6.2 Server Policies and Implementation

   A server will logically have one of the following three modes of
   operation or "policies" for each DNS resolver as discussed below.

   Disabled:
      Ignore COOKIE OPT options in requests.
      Never include a COOKIE OPT option in replies.

   Enabled:
      Include a COOKIE OPT option in replies to requests that include a
         COOKIE OPT.
      Normally process requests without a COOKIE OPT option except that
         it is RECOMMENDED that the processing of burdensome requests
         and requests producing replies substantially longer than the
         request be significantly rate limited.
      Ignore, other than sending a FormErr/MANYCOOKIE error reply, any
         request with more than one COOKIE OPT option. Such replies MAY
         be rate limited and SHOULD be as short as practical.
      Ignore, other than sending a BADCOOKIE error reply, any request
         with one COOKIE OPT option if it has an incorrect Server Cookie
         unless the request COOKIE has an Error Code of CKPING (Cookie
         Ping) in which case the response has an Error Code of CKPINGR
         (Cookie Ping Response). Such replies MAY be rate limited and
         SHOULD be as short as practical.
      On receipt of a request with one COOKIE OPT option carrying the
         correct Server Cookie value and an Error Code of zero, the DNS
         server performs normal request processing and it SHOULD switch
         to the Enforced policy for DNS requests from that resolver IP
         address with that Resolver Cookie in the request. This policy
         change to Enforced is treated as soft state. On discard of that


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 14]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


         state information, the policy for that resolver IP and Resolver
         Cookie pair reverts to Enabled.

   Enforced:
      Always include a COOKIE OPT option in replies.
      Ignore requests without a COOKIE OPT option or with more than one
         COOKIE OPT option, other than returning a NOCOOKIE or
         MANYCOOKIE DNS error respectively. Such replies MAY be rate
         limited to any particular IP address and SHOULD be as short as
         practical.
      Ignore requests with one COOKIE OPT option if they have an
         incorrect Server Cookie, other than returning a BADCOOKIE error
         message, unless the request has an Error Code of CKPING in
         which case the response has an Error Code of CKPINGR. Such
         replies MAY be rate limited and SHOULD be as short as
         practical.
      If a request has one COOKIE OPT option with a correct Server
         Cookie and an Error Code of zero, perform normal processing of
         the request.



6.3 Resolver and Server Secret Rollover

   Resolvers and servers MUST NOT continue to use the same secret in new
   queries and responses, respectively, for more than 14 days and SHOULD
   NOT continue to do so for more than 1 day.  It is RECOMMENDED that a
   resolver keep the Resolver Cookie it is expecting in a reply
   associated with the outstanding query to avoid rejection of replies
   due to a bad Resolver Cookie right after a change in the Resolver
   Secret. It is RECOMMENDED that a server retain its previous secret
   for a period of time not less than 1 second or more than 3 minutes,
   after a change in its secret, and consider queries with Server
   Cookies based on its previous secret to have a correct Server Cookie
   during that time.

   Receiving a suddenly increased level of requests with bad Server
   Cookies or replies with bad Resolver Cookies would be a good reason
   to believe a server or resolver likely to be under attack and should
   consider more frequent rollover of its secret.



6.4 Implementation Requirement

   DNS resolvers and servers SHOULD implement DNS cookies.

   DNS resolvers SHOULD operate in and be shipped so as to default to
   the Enabled or Enforced mode for all servers.



D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 15]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


   DNS servers SHOULD operate in and be shipped so as to default to the
   Enabled or Enforced mode for all resolvers they are willing to
   service.

















































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 16]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


7. NAT Considerations and AnyCast Server Considerations

   In the Classic Internet, DNS Cookies could simply be a pseudo-random
   function of the resolver IP address and a sever secret or the server
   IP address and a resolver secret. You would want to compute the
   Server Cookie that way, so a resolver could cache its Server Cookie
   for a particular server for an indefinitely amount of time and the
   server could easily regenerate and check it. You could consider the
   Resolver Cookie to be a weak resolver signature over the server IP
   address that the resolver checks in replies and you could extend this
   weak signature to cover the request ID, for example, or any other
   information that is returned unchanged in the reply.

   But we have this reality called NAT [RFC3022], Network Address
   Translation (including, for the purposes of this document, NAT-PT,
   Network Address and Protocol Translation, which has been declared
   Historic [RFC4966]).  There is no problem with DNS transactions
   between resolvers and servers behind a NAT box using local IP
   addresses. Nor is there a problem with NAT translation of internal
   addresses to external addresses or translations between IPv4 and IPv6
   addresses, as long as the address mapping is relatively stable.
   Should the external IP address an internal resolver being mapped to
   change occasionally, the disruption is little more than when a
   resolver rolls-over its DNS COOKIE secret. And normally external
   access to a DNS server behind a NAT box is handled by a fixed mapping
   which forwards externally received DNS requests to a specific host.

   However, NAT devices sometimes also map ports. This can cause
   multiple DNS requests and responses from multiple internal hosts to
   be mapped to a smaller number of external IP addresses, such as one
   address.  Thus there could be many resolvers behind a NAT box that
   appear to come from the same source IP address to a server outside
   that NAT box.  If one of these were an attacker (think Zombie or
   Botnet), that behind-NAT attacker could get the Server Cookie for
   some server for the outgoing IP address by just making some random
   request to that server. It could then include that Server Cookie in
   the COOKIE OPT of requests to the server with the forged local IP
   address of some other host and/or resolver behind the NAT box.
   (Attacker possession of this Server Cookie will not help in forging
   responses to cause cache poisoning as such responses are protected by
   the required Resolver Cookie.)

   To fix this potential defect, it is necessary to distinguish
   different resolvers behind a NAT box from the point of view of the
   server. It is for this reason that the Server Cookie is specified as
   a pseudo-random function of both the request source IP address and
   the Resolver Cookie.  From this inclusion of the Resolver Cookie in
   the calculation of the Server Cookie, it follows that a stable
   Resolver Cookie, for any particular server, is needed. If, for
   example, the request ID was included in the calculation of the


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 17]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


   Resolver Cookie, it would normally change with each request to a
   particular server.  This would mean that each request would have to
   be sent twice: first to learn the new Server Cookie based on this new
   Resolver Cookie based on the new ID and then again using this new
   Resolver Cookie to actually get an answer. Thus the input to the
   Resolver Cookie computation must be limited to the server IP address
   and one or more things that change slowly such as the resolver
   secret.

   In principle, there could be a similar problem for servers, not due
   to NAT but due to mechanisms like anycast which may cause queries to
   a DNS server at an IP address to be delivered to any one of several
   machines. (External queries to a DNS server behind a NAT box usually
   occur via port forwarding such that all such queries go to one host.)
   However, it is impossible to solve this the way the similar problem
   was solved for NATed resolvers; if the Server Cookie was included in
   the calculation of the Resolver Cookie the same way the Resolver
   Cookie is included in the Server Cookie, you would just get an almost
   infinite series of errors as a request was repeatedly retried.

   For servers accessed via anycast to successfully support DNS COOKIES,
   the server clones must either all use the same server secret or the
   mechanism that distributes queries to them must cause the queries
   from a particular resolver to go to a particular server for a
   sufficiently long period of time that extra queries due to changes in
   Server Cookie resulting from accessing different server machines are
   not unduly burdensome.  (When such anycast accessed servers act as
   recursive servers or otherwise act as resolvers they normally use a
   different unique address to source their queries to avoid confusion
   in the delivery of responses.)

   For simplicity, it is RECOMMENDED that the same server secret be used
   by each DNS server in a set of anycast servers. If there is limited
   time skew in updating this secret in different anycast servers, this
   can be handled by a server accepting requests containing a Server
   Cookie based on either its old or new secret for the maximum likely
   time period of such time skew (see also Section 6.3).















D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 18]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


8. Deployment

   The DNS cookies mechanism is designed for incremental deployment and
   to complement the orthogonal techniques in [RFC5452]. Either or both
   techniques can be deployed independently at each DNS server and
   resolver.

   In particular, a DNS server or resolver that implements the DNS
   COOKIE mechanism and is in the Enabled mode will interoperate
   successfully with a DNS resolver or server that does not implement
   this mechanism although, of course, in this case it will not get the
   benefit of the mechanism. When such a server or resolver
   interoperates with a resolver or server which also implements the DNS
   cookies mechanism and is in Enabled or Enforced mode, this is
   recognized and, for that transaction partner, it latches up into the
   Enforced mode and gets the full benefit of the DNS cookies mechanism
   until this soft state lapses and it reverts to Enabled mode.



































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 19]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


9. IANA Considerations

   IANA will assign the following code points:

      The OPT option value for COOKIE is <TBD>.

      Three new DNS error codes are assigned values in the range above
      15 and below 3841 as listed below:

         NOCOOKIE is assigned the value TBD (23 suggested).
         BADCOOKIE is assigned the value TBD (24 suggested).
         MANYCOOKIE is assigned the value TBD (25 suggested).

      Two new DNS error codes are assigned in the range above 4095 and
      below 65535:

         CKPING (Cookie PING) is assigned the value TBD (4096
         suggested).

         CKPINGR (Cookie PING Response) is assigned the value RBD (4097
         suggested).































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 20]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


10. Security Considerations

   DNS Cookies provide a weak form of authentication of DNS requests and
   responses. In particular, they provide no protection at all against
   "on-path" adversaries; that is, they provide no protection against
   any adversary that can observe the plain text DNS traffic, such as an
   on-path router, bridge, or any device on an on-path shared link
   (unless the DNS traffic in question on that path is encrypted).

   For example, if a host is connected via an unsecured IEEE 802.11 link
   (Wi-Fi), any device in the vicinity that could receive and decode the
   802.11 transmissions must be considered "on-path". On the other hand,
   in a similar situation but one where 802.11 Robust Security (WPAv2)
   is appropriately deployed on the Wi-Fi network nodes, only the Access
   Point via which the host is connecting is "on-path".

   Despite these limitations, use of DNS Cookies on the global Internet
   is expected to provide a substantial reduction in the available
   launch points for the traffic amplification and denial of service
   forgery attacks described in Section 2 above.

   Should stronger message/transaction security be desired, it is
   suggested that TSIG or SIG(0) security be used (see Section 3.2);
   however, it may be useful to use DNS Cookies in conjunction with
   these features. In particular, DNS Cookies could screen out many DNS
   messages before the cryptographic computations of TSIG or SIG(0) are
   required and, if SIG(0) is in use, DNS Cookies could usefully screen
   out many requests given that SIG(0) does not screen requests but only
   authenticates the response of complete transactions.



10.1 Cookie Algorithm Considerations

   The cookie computation algorithm for use in DNS Cookies SHOULD be
   FNV-64 [FNV] or some stronger algorithm because an excessively weak
   or trivial algorithm could enable adversaries to guess cookies.
   However, in light of the weak plain-text token security provided by
   DNS Cookies, a strong cryptography hash algorithm is probably not
   warranted in many cases, and would cause an increased computational
   burden. Nevertheless there is nothing wrong with using something
   stronger, for example, HMAC-SHA256-64 [RFC6234], assuming a DNS
   processor has adequate computational resources available. DNS
   processors that feel the need for somewhat stronger security without
   a significant increase in computational load should consider more
   frequent changes in their resolver and/or server secret; however,
   this does require more frequent generation of a cryptographically
   strong random number [RFC4086bis].




D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 21]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


Acknowledgements

   The contributions of the following are gratefully acknowledged:

      Tim Wicinski















































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 22]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


Normative References

   [FNV] - G. Fowler, L. C. Noll, K.-P. Vo, D. Eastlake, "The FNV Non-
         Cryptographic Hash Algorithm", draft-eastlake-fnv, work in
         progress.

   [RFC2119] - Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
         Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC6891] - Damas, J., Graff, M., and P. Vixie, "Extension Mechanisms
         for DNS (EDNS(0))", STD 75, RFC 6891, April 2013.

   [RFC4086bis] - Eastlake, D., 3rd, Schiller, J., and S.  Crocker,
         "Randomness Requirements for Security", draft-eastlake-
         randomness3, work in progress.



Informative References

   [RFC2845] - Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake 3rd, D., and B.
         Wellington, "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS
         (TSIG)", RFC 2845, May 2000.

   [RFC2930] - Eastlake 3rd, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY
         RR)", RFC 2930, September 2000.

   [RFC2931] - Eastlake 3rd, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures
         ( SIG(0)s )", RFC 2931, September 2000.

   [RFC3022] - Srisuresh, P. and K. Egevang, "Traditional IP Network
         Address Translator (Traditional NAT)", RFC 3022, January 2001.

   [RFC4033] - Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
         Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033,
         March 2005.

   [RFC4034] - Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
         Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC
         4034, March 2005.

   [RFC4035] - Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
         Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions",
         RFC 4035, March 2005.

   [RFC4966] - Aoun, C. and E. Davies, "Reasons to Move the Network
         Address Translator - Protocol Translator (NAT-PT) to Historic
         Status", RFC 4966, July 2007.

   [RFC5452] - Hubert, A. and R. van Mook, "Measures for Making DNS More


D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 23]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


         Resilient against Forged Answers", RFC 5452, January 2009.

   [RFC6234] - Eastlake 3rd, D. and T. Hansen, "US Secure Hash
         Algorithms (SHA and SHA-based HMAC and HKDF)", RFC 6234, May
         2011.















































D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 24]


INTERNET-DRAFT                                               DNS Cookies


Author's Address

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Huawei Technologies
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Telephone:   +1-508-333-2270
   EMail:       d3e3e3@gmail.com



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   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.


























D. Eastlake 3rd                                                [Page 25]


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