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INTERNET-DRAFT                                                 N. Elkins
Intended Status: Proposed Standard                       Inside Products
                                                            M. Ackermann
                                                           BCBS Michigan
                                                              K. Haining
                                                                 US Bank
                                                              S. Perdomo
                                                                    DTCC
                                                               W. Jouris
                                                         Inside Products
                                                                D. Boyes
                                                             Sine Nomine
Expires: November 30, 2013                                  May 30, 2013


       IPv6 Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option
               draft-elkins-6man-ipv6-pdm-dest-option-00


Abstract

   To diagnose problems for a number of Enterprise Data Center Operators
   (EDCO), two metrics are critical for timely end-to-end problem
   resolution, both real-time and after the fact, without impacting an
   operational production network. They are: packet sequence number and
   packet timestamp. Packet sequence number is required for diagnostics.
   Packet timestamp is required to calculate end-to-end response time.
   Current methods are inadequate for these purposes because they assume
   unreasonable access to intermediate devices, are cost prohibitive,
   require infeasible changes to a running production network, and / or
   do not provide timely data. This document solves these problems with
   a new destination option, the Performance and Diagnostic Metrics
   destination option (PDM).


Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
   Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html


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   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html


Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.



Table of Contents

   1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2  Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option . . . . .  3
     2.1  Destination Options Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.2  Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option . . .  4
     2.3  Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   3  Backward Compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   6  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.1  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     6.2  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7 Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8














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1  Introduction

   To diagnose problems for a number of Enterprise Data Center Operators
   (EDCO), two metrics are critical for timely end-to-end problem
   resolution, both real-time and after the fact, without impacting an
   operational production network. They are: packet sequence number and
   packet timestamp. Packet sequence number is required for diagnostics.
   Packet timestamp is required to calculate end-to-end response time.

   For background, please see Draft-Elkins-Packet-Sequence-Number-
   Needed-00 [PSNELK], Draft-Elkins-End-To-End-Response-Time-00
   [RSPELK], and Draft-Elkins-PDM-Recommended-Usage-00 [USEELK]. These
   drafts are companion documents to this document.  All three documents
   should be read together.

   As discussed in the above Internet Drafts, current methods are
   inadequate for these purposes because they assume unreasonable access
   to intermediate devices, are cost prohibitive, require infeasible
   changes to a running production network, and / or do not provide
   timely data.   This document provides a solution for these problems.

   As defined in RFC2460 [RFC2460], destination options are carried by
   the IPv6 Destination Options extension header.  Destination options
   include optional information that need be examined only by the IPv6
   node given as the destination address in the IPv6 header, not by
   routers in between.  This document detail the specifications for a
   new destination option, the Performance and Diagnostic Metrics
   destination option (PDM).

1.1  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


2  Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option

2.1  Destination Options Header

   The IPv6 Destination Options Header is used to carry optional
   information that need be examined only by a packet's destination
   node(s). The Destination Options Header is identified by a Next
   Header value of 60 in the immediately preceding header and is defined
   in RFC2460 [RFC2460].






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2.2  Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option

   The IPv6 Performance and Diagnostic Metrics Destination Option (PDM)
   is an implementation of the Destination Options Header (Next Header
   value = 60).

   It is used to facilitate diagnostics by including a packet sequence
   number and timestamp.

   The PDM destination option is encoded in type-length-value (TLV)
   format as follows:


   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Option Type  | Option Length | Packet Sequence Number        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +                         TimeStamp  (64-bit)                   +
   |                                                               |
   +                                                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   Option Type

   TBD = 0xXX (TBD)  [To be assigned by IANA] [RFC2780]

   Option Length

   8-bit unsigned integer. Length of the option, in octets, excluding
   the Option Type and Option Length fields. This field MUST be set to
   80.


   Packet Sequence Number

   16-bit unsigned integer.  This field will wrap. It is intended for
   human use.

   Initialized at 0 and monotonically incremented for protocol packet on
   the CONNECTION.

   Operating systems MUST implement a separate packet sequence number



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   counter per connection. Operating systems MUST NOT implement a single
   counter for all connections.

   Note: This is consistent with the current implementation of the IPID
   field in IPv4 for many, but not all, stacks.


   TimeStamp

   A 64-bit unsigned integer field containing a timestamp.  The value
   indicates the number of seconds since January 1, 1970, 00:00 UTC, by
   using a fixed point format.  In this format, the integer number of
   seconds is contained in the first 32 bits of the field, and the
   remaining 32 bits resolve to picoseconds.

   This follows timestamp formats used in Network Time Protocol (NTP)
   [RFC5905] and SEND [RFC3971]. A discussion of why NTP is used in
   preference to Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is in Draft-Elkins-End-
   To-End-Response-Time-00.txt.

   Implementation note: This format is compatible with the usual
   representation of time under UNIX, although the number of bits
   available for the integer and fraction parts in different Unix
   implementations vary.

   Option Type

   The two highest-order bits of the Option Type field are encoded to
   indicate specific processing of the option; for the PDM destination
   option, these two bits MUST be set to 00. This indicates the
   following processing requirements:

     00 - skip over this option and continue processing the header.

   RFC2460 [RFC2460] defines other values for the Option Type field.
   These MUST NOT be used in the PDM.  The other values are as follows:

         01 - discard the packet.

         10 - discard the packet and, regardless of whether or not the
   packet's Destination Address was a multicast address, send an ICMP
   Parameter Problem, Code 2, message to the packet's Source Address,
   pointing to the unrecognized Option Type.

         11 - discard the packet and, only if the packet's Destination
   Address was not a multicast address, send an ICMP Parameter Problem,
   Code 2, message to the packet's Source Address, pointing to the
   unrecognized Option Type.



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   In keeping with RFC2460 [RFC2460], the third-highest-order bit of the
   Option Type specifies whether or not the Option Data of that option
   can change en-route to the packet's final destination.

   In the PDM, the value of the third-highest-order bit MUST be 0.  The
   possible values are as follows:

         0 - Option Data does not change en-route

         1 - Option Data may change en-route

   The three high-order bits described above are to be treated as part
   of the Option Type, not independent of the Option Type.  That is, a
   particular option is identified by a full 8-bit Option Type, not just
   the low-order 5 bits of an Option Type.


   Header Placement

   The PDM destination option MUST be placed as follows:

      - Before the upper-layer header.  That is, this is the last
   extension header.

   This follows the order defined in RFC2460 [RFC2460]

              IPv6 header

              Hop-by-Hop Options header

              Destination Options header

              Routing header

              Fragment header

              Authentication header

              Encapsulating Security Payload header

              Destination Options header

              upper-layer header

   For each IPv6 packet header, the PDM MUST NOT appear more than once.
   However, an encapsulated packet MAY contain a separate PDM associated
   with each encapsulated IPv6 header.




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   The inclusion of a PDM in a packet affects the receiving node's
   processing of only this single packet. No state is created or
   modified in the receiving node as a result of receiving a PDM in a
   packet.

2.3  Implementation Considerations

   The PDM destination options extension header SHOULD be turned on by
   each stack on a host node.

   If implemented, each operating system MUST have a default
   configuration parameter, e.g. diag_header_sys_default_value=yes/no.
   The operating system MAY also have a dynamic configuration option to
   change the configuration setting as needed.

   If the PDM destination options extension header is used, then it MAY
   be turned on for all packets flowing through the host, applied to an
   upper-layer protocol (TCP, UDP, SCTP, etc), a local port, or IP
   address only.  These are at the discretion of the implementation.

   The PDM MUST NOT be changed dynamically via packet flow as this may
   create potential security violation or DoS attack by numerous packets
   turning the header on and off.

   As with all other destination options extension headers, the PDM is
   for destination nodes only. As specified above, intermediate devices
   MUST neither set nor modify this field.


3  Backward Compatibility

   The scheme proposed in this document is backward compatible with all
   the currently defined IPv6 extension headers. According to RFC2460
   [RFC2460], if the destination node does not recognize this option, it
   should skip over this option and continue processing the header.

4  Security Considerations

   The PDM MUST NOT be changed dynamically via packet flow as this
   creates a possibility for potential security violations or DoS
   attacks by numerous packets turning the header on and off.


5  IANA Considerations

   An option type must be assigned by IANA for the Performance and
   Diagnostic Metrics destination option.




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6  References

6.1  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [PSNELK]   Elkins, N., "Draft-Elkins-Packet-Sequence-Number-Needed-
              00", Internet Draft, May 2013.

   [RSPELK]   Elkins, N., "Draft-Elkins-End-To-End-Response-Time-00",
              Internet Draft, May 2013

   [USEELK]   Elkins, N., "Draft-Elkins-PDM-Recommended-Usage-00",
              Internet Draft, May 2013

6.2  Informative References

   [RFC2780]  Bradner, S. and V. Paxson, "IANA Allocation Guidelines For
              Values In the Internet Protocol and Related Headers",
              BCP 37, RFC 2780, March 2000.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Ed., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander,
              "SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC5905]  Mills, D., Martin, J., Ed., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch,
              "Network Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
              Specification", RFC 5905, June 2010.


7 Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Rick Troth and Fred Baker for their
   comments.

Authors' Addresses

   Nalini Elkins
   Inside Products, Inc.
   36A Upper Circle
   Carmel Valley, CA 93924
   United States
   Phone: +1 831 659 8360
   Email: nalini.elkins@insidethestack.com
   http://www.insidethestack.com



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   Michael S. Ackermann
   Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan
   P.O. Box 2888
   Detroit, Michigan 48231
   United States
   Phone: +1 310 460 4080
   Email: mackermann@bcbsmi.com
   http://www.bcbsmi.com

   Keven Haining
   US Bank
   16900 W Capitol Drive
   Brookfield, WI 53005
   United States
   Phone: +1 262 790 3551
   Email: keven.haining@usbank.com
   http://www.usbank.com

   Sigfrido Perdomo
   Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation
   55 Water Street
   New York, NY 10055
   United States
   Phone: +1 917 842 7375
   Email: s.perdomo@dtcc.com
   http://www.dtcc.com

   William Jouris
   Inside Products, Inc.
   36A Upper Circle
   Carmel Valley, CA 93924
   United States
   Phone: +1 925 855 9512
   Email: bill.jouris@insidethestack.com
   http://www.insidethestack.com

   David Boyes
   Sine Nomine Associates
   43596 Blacksmith Square
   Ashburn, VA 20147
   United States
   Phone: +1 703 723 6673
   dboyes@sinenomine.net
   http://www.sinenomine.net







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