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Versions: 00 01 draft-ernst-nemo-terminology

IETF INTERNET-DRAFT                                        Thierry Ernst
                                                  WIDE Project and INRIA
                                                           Hong-Yon Lach
                                                           Motorola Labs
                                                               July 2002

                  Network Mobility Support Terminology
                  draft-ernst-monet-terminology-01.txt




Status of This Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
   groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

Abstract

   This document proposes a terminology for defining the problem faced
   by network mobility. Network mobility is concerned with situations
   where an entire network changes its point of attachment to the
   Internet and thus its reachability in the topology. We shall refer to
   such a network as a mobile network. Network mobility support is to
   maintain session continuity between nodes in the mobile network and
   nodes in the global Internet.










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                                 Contents

Status of This Memo

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Terminology
   2.1. Architecture Components
   2.2. Nested Mobility
   2.3. Miscellaneous Terms

3. Characteristics / Observations

4. Changes since last version of the draft

Acknowledgments

References

Author's Addresses

 1. Introduction

   A mobile network is an entire network, moving as a unit, which
   changes its point of attachment to the Internet and thus its
   reachability in the topology. A mobile network may be composed by one
   or more IP-subnets and is connected to the global Internet via one or
   more Mobile Routers (MR). Nodes behind the MR primarily comprise
   fixed nodes (nodes unable to change their point of attachment while
   maintaining ongoing sessions), and additionally mobile nodes (nodes
   able to change their point of attachment while maintaining ongoing
   sessions). The internal configuration of the mobile network is
   assumed to be relatively stable with respect to the MR.

   If network mobility is not explicitly supported by some mechanisms
   once a MR changes its point of attachment, existing sessions between
   CNs and nodes behind the MR are broken, and connectivity to the
   global Internet is lost. In addition, fixed nodes behind the MR may
   experiment dog-leg routing, whereas multiple levels of mobility may
   cause multiple dog-leg routing. Traditional work on mobility support
   as conducted in the Mobile IP working group is to provide continuous
   Internet connectivity to mobile hosts only (host mobility support)
   and are unable to support network mobility. It is thus proposed to
   create a NEMO working group that would specify solutions for network
   mobility support (the proposed name for the working group was renamed
   from MONET to NEMO).



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   Cases of mobile networks include networks attached to people
   (Personal Area Network or PAN, i.e. a network composed by all
   Internet appliances carried by people, like a PDA, a mobile phone, a
   digital camera, a laptop, etc.) and networks of sensors deployed in
   aircrafts, boats, busses, cars, trains, etc. An airline company that
   provides permanent on-board Internet access is an example of a mobile
   network. This allows passengers to use their laptops (this scenario
   is mentioned in [Tanenbaum96] under section 1.2.4 and section 5.5.8;
   [Perkins98] under section 5.12; [Solomon98] under section 11.2; and
   [RFC2002] section 4.5), PDA, or mobile phone to connect to remote
   hosts, download music or video, browse the web. Passengers could
   themselves carry a network with them (a PAN). At the same time, air
   control traffic could be exchanged between the aircraft and air
   traffic control stations (this scenario has already been investigated
   by Eurocontrol, the European Organization for the safety of air
   navigation, [Quinot98]). During a transatlantic flight, the aircraft
   changes its point of attachment to the Internet and may be reachable
   by distinct Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Over the oceans, the
   aircraft gets connected to the Internet through a geostationary
   satellite; over the ground, it's through a radio link. Handoffs do
   typically not occur very often (a radio link may cover 400-500
   kilometers). Another similar scenario mentioning ships and aircrafts
   can be found in [RFC1726, section 5.15]. Similarly, a bus, the
   metropolitan public transport, or the taxi company could allow
   passengers to connect their PAN to the Internet via the embarked
   network, therefore ensuring, while on-board, an alternative to the
   metropolitan cellular network, in terms of price or available
   bandwidth, access control, etc. Meanwhile, a number of Internet
   appliances deployed in the mobile network are used to collect traffic
   and navigation data from the Internet while sensors within the mobile
   network collect and transmit to the Internet live information, like
   the current number of passengers, expected time to arrival, the
   amount of petrol left in the tank, etc. For a number of reasons
   (network management, security, performance,...), it is desirable to
   interconnect the Internet appliances deployed in cars, trains, busses
   by means of, for instance, an Ethernet cable, instead of connecting
   them individually and directly to the Internet, therefore exhibiting
   the need to displace an entire network.

   To describe such kind of scenarios, we need to agree on a
   terminology.  However, there is presently no existing terminology to
   define the issues, goals, architecture elements, problems and
   requirements pertaining to the scenarios outlined here above, but one
   is needed. It is therefore the object of this document to propose
   such a new terminology and to highlight some characteristics of
   mobile networks.

   The material presented in this document is based on [Ernst01] and on



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   our former internet-draft that was submitted in July 2001 [OLD-draft]
   for the consideration of the Mobile IP Working Group. In addition to
   the present terminology, this former draft was also presenting a set
   of requirements and issues as an attempt to clarify the problem
   caused by network mobility. We decided to split this former document
   in two because requirements are more subject to discussion and
   disagreements than the terminology on which we must agree on to base
   our discussion. Our proposed requirements can therefore now be found
   in [REQUIREMENTS-1]. Additional requirements may be found in
   [REQUIREMENTS-2] and [REQUIREMENTS-3]. A comprehensive description of
   the problem and issues posed by network mobility is discussed in
   [SCOPE]. More information may be found on the MONET web page [WEB-
   MONET].


 2. Terminology

   The new terms we introduce comply with the terminology already
   defined in the IPv6 [RFC2460] and Mobile IPv6 [MIPv6] specifications.
   Although our terminology is primarily targeted toward IPv6, it is not
   necessarily limited to it. This list comprises terms that appeared on
   the mailing list for the purpose of explaining the problem scope.
   Some of them may only be useful for the purpose of defining the
   problem scope and functional requirements of network mobility
   support. Definitions will have to be refined once we agree on the
   problem scope.

   The first section introduces terms to define the architecture
   components; the second introduces terms to discuss nested mobility;
   the last section introduces a number of other terms useful to discuss
   requirements.

  2.1. Architecture Components

   Mobile Network

      An entire network, moving as a unit, which dynamically changes its
      point of attachment to the Internet and thus its reachability in
      the topology. The mobile network is connected to the global
      Internet via one or more mobile router(s) (MR). The internal
      configuration of the mobile network is assumed to be relatively
      stable with respect to the MR and is not a matter of concern.

   Mobile Network Node (MNN)

      Any host or router located within the mobile network, either
      permanently or temporarily. A MNN could be any of a MR, LFN, VMN,
      or LMN. The distinction between LFN, LMN and VMN is necessary to



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      discuss issues related to mobility management and access control,
      but does not preclude that mobility should be handled differently.
      Nodes are classified according to their function and capabilities.

            ____
           |    |
           | CN |
           |____|
          ___|____________________
         |                        |
         |                        |
         |       Internet         |
         |                        |
         |________________________|
            __|_            __|_
           |    |  Access  |    |
           | AR |  Router  | AR |
           |____|          |____|
        ______|__ foreign   __|_____________ home
                  link               __|_    link
                                    |    |
                                    | MR | Mobile Router
                                    |____|
                              _________|_______  internal
                               __|__     __|__   link
                              |     |   |     |
                              | MNN |   | MNN | Mobile Network Nodes
                              |_____|   |_____|

                            Figure 1: Terminology

   Mobile Router (MR)

      A router which changes its point of attachment to the Internet and
      which acts as a gateway to route packets between the mobile
      network and the rest of the Internet. The MR is NEMO-enabled and
      maintains the Internet connectivity for the mobile network. It has
      at least two interfaces, an egress interface, and an ingress
      interface. When transmitting a packet to the Internet (i.e.
      outside), it forwards it through the egress interface; when
      transmitting it withing the mobile network (i.e. inside), it
      forwards it through the ingress interface.

   Local Fixed Node (LFN)

      A standard IPv6 node, either a host (LFH) or a router (LFR), that
      belongs to the mobile network and which has no mobility support
      capabilities at all (i.e. it isn't NEMO-enabled nor



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      MIPv6-enabled).


                    ____
                   |    |
                   | CN |
                   |____|
                  ___|____________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                    __|_         _____|_____________ home
                   |    |                     _|__   link
                   | MN ]                 |  |    |
                   |____|                 |__| MR | Mobile Router
                                          |  |____|
                                          |   __|_____________ internal
                                          |   __|__     __|__  link 1
                                  _____   |  |     |   |     |
                                 |     |__|  | LFN |   | LMN |
                                 | LFN |  |  |_____|   |_____|
                                 |_____|  |
                                          | internal
                                            link 2

                Figure 2: Larger Mobile Network with 2 subnets

   Local Mobile Node (LMN)

      A mobile node, either a host (LMH) or a router (LMR), that belongs
      to the mobile network (i.e. its home link is within the mobile
      network). It is MIPv6-enabled and may be NEMO-enabled.

   Visiting Mobile Node (VMN)

      A mobile node, either a host (VMH) or a router (VMR), that doesn't
      belong to the mobile network (i.e. its home link is not within the
      mobile network), and which gets attached to a link within the
      mobile network and obtains an address on that link. It is
      MIPv6-enabled and may be NEMO-enabled.





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                    ____
                   |    |
                   | CN |
                   |____|
                  ___|____________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                    __|_         _____|_____________ home
                   |    |                     _|__   link
                   | MN |                 |  |    |
                   |____|         _____   |__| MR | Mobile Router
                                 |     |__|  |____|
                           |-->  | LMN |  |   __|_____________ internal
                           |     |_____|  |   __|__       |     link 1
                           |      _____   |  |     |
                           |     |     |__|  | LFN |
                           |     | LFN |  |  |_____|      |
                           |     |_____|  |               |
                           |              | internal      |
                           |                 link 2       |
                           |------------------------------|

                        Figure 3: LMN changing subnet


   Node behind the MR

      Any MNN in a mobile network that is not a MR for this mobile
      network.

   Correspondent Node (CN)

      Any node that is communicating with one or more MNNs located in
      the same mobile network. A CN could itself be located within the
      mobile network.

   Access Router (AR)

      Any subsequent point of attachment of the MR at the network layer.
      Basically, a router on the home link or the foreign link.




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   Home subnet prefix

      A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
      address which identifies the MR's home link within the Internet
      topology (i.e. the IP subnet prefix corresponding to the mobile
      node's home address, as defined in [MIPv6]).

   Foreign subnet prefix

      A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
      address which identifies the MR's foreign link within the Internet
      topology.

   Mobile Network Prefix

      A bit string that consists of some number of initial bits of an IP
      address which identifies the entire mobile network within the
      Internet topology. All MNNs necessarily have an address named
      after this prefix.

   Egress Interface of a MR

      The interface attached to the home link if the MR is at home, or
      attached to a foreign link if the MR is in a foreign network.

   Ingress Interface of a MR

      The interface attached to a link inside the mobile network. This
      interface is configured with the Mobile Network Prefix.


   The terminology is summarized in fig.1 to 3. Fig.1 shows a single
   mobile subnetwork. Fig.2. shows a larger mobile network comprising
   several subnetworks. Fig.3 illustrates a LMN changing its point of
   attachment within the mobile network.



  2.2. Nested Mobility

   We speak about nested mobility when there are more than one level of
   mobility, i.e. when a VMN gets attached to the mobile network. A MNN
   acts as an Access Router for this VMN.

   If the VMN is actually a VMR with nodes behind it, this is a mobile
   network which gets attached to a larger mobile network. The former is
   a sub-MONET, and the latter the parent-MONET.  It is generally
   assumed that the sub-MONET and the parent-MONET become a single



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   aggregated mobile network, i.e. the sub-MONET is indeed a subservient
   of the larger MONET in terms of getting address space.

   The MR(s) used to directly connect the aggregated mobile network to
   the fixed Internet is referred to as the Top-Level Mobile Router
   (TLMR) The terms upstream-MONET, downstream-MONET, and root-MONET
   have also been introduced.


                    ____
                   |    |
                   | CN |
                   |____|
                  ___|____________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                                _____|_____________ home
                     |                        _|__   link
                     |                    |  |    |
                     |            _____   |__| MR | Mobile Router
                     |           |     |__|  |____|
                     ----------> | VMN |  |   __|_____________ internal
                                 |_____|  |   __|__     __|__  link 1
                                  _____   |  |     |   |     |
                                 |     |__|  | LFN |   | LMN |
                                 | LFN |  |  |_____|   |_____|
                                 |_____|  |
                                          | internal
                                            link 2

      Figure 4: Nested Mobility: single VMN that attaches to a mobile network


      As for an instance of nested mobility, when a passenger carrying a
      mobile phone (VMN) or a PAN (sub-MONET) gets Internet access from
      the public access network deployed in the bus (parent-MONET).
      Fig.4 and 5. illustrate nested mobility. In fig.4, a single VMN
      gets attached to the mobile network. In fig 5, a VMR carrying an
      entire network, thus a sub-MONET.





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                    ____
                   |    |
                   | CN |
                   |____|
                  ___|____________________
                 |                        |
                 |                        |
                 |       Internet         |
                 |                        |
                 |________________________|
                    __|_            __|_
                   |    |  Access  |    |
                   | AR |  Router  | AR |
                   |____|          |____|
                                _____|_____________ home
                                              _|__   link
                                          |  |    |
                               |  _____   |__| MR | Mobile Router (TLMR)
                               |_|     |__|  |____|
                               | | VMR |  |   __|_____________ internal
                               | |_____|  |   __|__     __|__  link 1
                       _____   |          |  |     |   |     |
                      |     |  |          |  | LFN |   | LMN |
                      | LFN |__|          |  |_____|   |_____|
                      |_____|  |          |
                               |          | internal
                                            link 2
                      <------------------> <--------------------------->
                          sub-MONET                 parent-MONET
      Figure 5: Nested Mobility: sub-MONET that attaches to a larger
                                mobile network




  2.3. Miscellaneous Terms

   NEMO-enabled node

      a node that has been extended with NEtwork MObility support
      capabilities and may take special actions based on that. (Details
      of the capabilities are not known yet, but it will be based on
      enhancements to Mobile IPv6 [MIPv6] and may be implementing some
      sort of Route Optimization).

   MIPv6-enabled node

      A mobile node that implements the "MN Operation" of Mobile IPv6



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      [MIPv6]. I.e. A node that only implements the "CN Operation" of
      Mobile IPv6 is NOT considered MIPv6-enabled.

   Multihoming

      Multihoming, as currently defined by the IETF, covers site-
      multihoming [MULTI6] and host multihoming. Within host-
      multihoming, a host may be either:

         - multi-addressed: multiple source addresses to choose between
         on a given interface; all IPv6 nodes are multi-addressed due to
         the presence of link-local addresses on all interfaces.

         - multi-interfaced: multiple interfaces according to [RFC2460]
         definition.

         - multi-linked: just like multi-interfaced but all interfaces
         are NOT connected to the same link.

         - multi-sited: when using IPv6 site-local address and attached
         to different sites

      What is meant by a multihomed-MONET is not clear and is left for
      open discussion. It depends on the possible configurations covered
      by the revised problem scope. Future discussion will assess if a
      MR may fall in all the above described cases and if multiple MRs
      may be used to connect the mobile network to the Internet.

   Local-Area Mobility

      Mobility within a single administrative domain, i.e. between
      subnetworks topologically close in the IP hierarchy. In the
      literature, and depending on the definition of ``closeness'', this
      is also termed intra-site mobility, intra-domain mobility, local
      mobility or micro-mobility. As an instance of Local-Area Mobility,
      the displacement of a node within a limited vicinity of adjacent
      subnetworks, like in a campus, that belong to the same
      organization or between ARs that belong to the same ISP.

   Wide-Area Mobility

      Mobility across domain boundaries, i.e. between subnetworks
      topologically distant in the IP hierarchy. In the literature, and
      depending on the definition of ``remoteness'', this is also termed
      inter-site mobility, inter-domain mobility, or global mobility, or
      macro-mobility. As an instance of Wide-Area Mobility, displacement
      of a node between distinct ISPs or organizations, or between
      widely separated sites of a single organization.



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   Idle MNN

      A MNN that does not engage in any communication.

   Idle Mobile Network

      A mobile network that does not engage in any communication outside
      the network may be considered as idle from the point of view of
      the Internet. This doesn't preclude that MNNs are themselves idle.
      Internal traffic between any two MNNs located in the same mobile
      network is not concerned by this statement.








































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 3. Observations

   Structure of the mobile network

      A MR changing its point of attachment does not cause the MNNs
      behind the MR to change their own physical point of attachment.
      Thus, the internal structure of a mobile network is not modified
      as a result of the mobile network changing its point of
      attachment. MNNs may or may not notice such a displacement, but
      they must not be required to be NEMO-enabled. However, MNNs MAY
      appear to move from the point of view of an observer in the
      Internet.  In addition, the internal structure of the mobile
      network is assumed to be relatively stable (no dynamic change of
      the topology).

   Mobile Router is a transit point

      All packets sent from a CN to a MNN necessarily transit through a
      MR.

   Size of the mobile network

      A mobile network may comprise one or more subnets. Its size could
      scale from a sole subnet with a few IP devices, such as in the
      case of a PAN, to a collection of subnets with hundreds of IP
      devices, such as in a train.

   Large number of CNs

      A mobile network may have a very large number of CNs.  For
      instance, each passenger in a train may be considered a MNN.  Each
      of them may be communicating with a few CNs. As a result, the
      total number of CNs could be several times as large as the number
      of MNNs and scale up to a few thousands.

   Sparseness of the CNs

      CNs are typically sparsely distributed in the Internet and belong
      to distinct administrative domains.

   Handoff frequency

      Mobile networks may not move with the same speed and frequency.
      For instance, a PAN connected to the Internet via a 802.11b WLAN
      (e.g. user in a shopping mall) is likely to change its point of
      attachment very frequently, while an aircraft or a boat may be
      connected to the Internet via the same satellite link for a couple
      of hours. Obviously, mobile networks may not move at all for a



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      large amount of time.

   Dog-leg Routing

      As a result of mobility, routing between a CN in the global
      Internet and a mobile node may not be optimal. Packets usually
      transit via the home link of the mobile node if no routing
      optimization is explicitly performed. In network mobility,
      multiple dog-leg routing may be introduced by nested mobility. In
      this case, packets intended to a VMN may first transit by the
      VMN's home link, then being rerouted to the MR's home link.

   Ad-Hoc Network

      An Ad-hoc network as defined in the IETF MANET Working Group is
      not to be confused with a mobile network. An ad-hoc network is an
      autonomous system made of mobile nodes (i.e. routers) connected by
      wireless links. The routers are free to move randomly and to
      organize themselves arbitrary. Topologies are highly dynamic. In a
      mobile network, some routers may effectively move arbitrary, but
      this not a common case. However, an Ad-hoc network connected to
      the Internet and that changes its point of attachment may be
      considered as a special instance of a mobile network.

      Network mobility support (NEMO) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networking
      (MANET) have not the same objectives. Network mobility support
      aims at providing Internet reachability to nodes in the mobile
      network and at maintaining session continuity after the mobile
      network has changed its point of attachment in the topology. On
      the other hand, MANET aims at maintaining routes between highly
      dynamic nodes.


   Routers in the Mobile Network

      All routers in the Internet are considered to run a number of
      protocols such as a routing protocol, Neighbor Discovery, ICMP,
      and others. This also applies to routers in the mobile network,
      including the MR.












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4. Changes from previous draft

   - updated definition of LFN, LMN, VMN, mobile network, mobile network
   prefix, CN

   - added terms NEMO-enabled and MIPv6-enabled.

   - added a section (2.2) for terminology specific to nested mobility:
   root-MONET, parent-MONET, sub-MONET, upstream, downstream.

   - added a paragraph about multihoming

   - removed mobile IP-subnet.

   - added comments about Ad-Hoc network in section 3

   - added comments about multiple dog-leg routing in section 3

Acknowledgments

   The first author would like to thank both Motorola Labs Paris and
   INRIA Rhône-Alpes, for the opportunity to bring this topic to the
   IETF, and particularly Claude Castelluccia (INRIA) for its advices,
   suggestions, and direction. We also acknowledge Alexandru Petrescu
   (Motorola), Christophe Janneteau (Motorola), Hesham Soliman
   (Ericsson) and Mattias Petterson (Ericsson) for their comments on
   this draft. We also thank people on the MONET mailing list for their
   discussion which helped to improve this draft.























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References

   [Ernst01]        Thierry Ernst
                    "Network Mobility Support in IPv6", PhD Thesis,
                    University Joseph Fourier Grenoble, France. October
   2001.

   [MIPv6]          David B. Johnson and C. Perkins.
                    "Mobility Support in IPv6".
                    Internet Draft draft-ietf-mobileip-ipv6-14.txt, July
   2001.
                    Work in progress.

   [MULTI6]         B. Black, V. Gill and J. Abley
                    "Requirements for IPv6 Site-Multihoming
   Architectures"
                    draft-ietf-multi6-multihoming-requirements-03
                    May 2002. Work in progress

   [OLD-draft]      Thierry Ernst, Hong-Yon Lach, Claude Castelluccia
                    "Network Mobility Support in IPv6: Problem Statement
   and
                    Requirements",
                    Internet-Draft draft-ernst-mobileip-monetv6-00.txt,
   July 2001.
                    Expired.

   [Perkins98]      C. E. Perkins.
                    "Mobile IP, Design Principles and Practices."
                    Wireless Communications Series. Addison-Wesley,
   1998.
                    ISBN 0-201-63469-4.

   [Quinot98]       Thomas Quinot.
                    "An IPv6 architecture for Aeronautical
   Telecommunication Network"
                    Master's thesis,
                    Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications
   Paris,
                    EUROCONTROL - European Organization for the Safety
   of Air Navigation
                    ISA project (IPv6, Satellite communication and
   ATMode for ATN),
                    1998. http://www.eurocontrol.fr/.

   [RFC1726]        C. Partridge
                    "Technical Criteria for Choosing IP the Next
   Generation (IPng)",



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                    IETF RFC 1726 section 5.15, December 1994.

   [RFC2460]        S. Deering and R. Hinden.
                    "Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification".
                    IETF RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2002]        C. Perkins (Editor).
                    "IP Mobility Support".
                    IETF RFC 2002,October 1996.

   [REQUIREMENTS-1] Thierry Ernst, Hong Yon Lach
                    "Requirements for Network Mobility Support",
                    Internet-Draft draft-ernst-monet-
   requirements-00.txt,
                    February 2001. Work in progress.

   [REQUIREMENTS-2] Hong-Yon Lach, Christophe Janneteau, Alexandru
   Petrescu
                    "Mobile Network Scenarios, Scope and Requirements",
                    Internet-Draft draft-lach-monet-requirements-00.txt,
                    February 2002. Work in progress.

   [REQUIREMENTS-3] T.J. Kniveton
                    draft-kniveton-monet-requirements.txt, February
   2002.
                    Work in progress.

   [SCOPE]          Hesham Soliman
                    "Problem Scope",
                    Internet-Draft draft-soliman-monet-scope-00.txt,
                    February 2002. Work in progress.

   [Solomon98]      J. D. Solomon.
                    "Mobile IP, The Internet Unplugged".
                    Prentice Hall Series in Computer Networking and
   Distributed Systems.
                    Prentice Hall PTR, 1998. ISBN 0-13-856246-6.

   [Tanenbaum96]    Andrew Tanenbaum
                    "Computer Networks",
                    Prentice-Hall, Third Edition. 1996

   [WEB-MONET]      NEMO web page
                    http://www.nal.motlabs.com/monet







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INTERNET-DRAFT    Network Mobility Support Terminology         July 2002


Author's Addresses

    Questions about this document can be directed to the authors:


      Thierry Ernst,
      French  National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control
      Visiting Researcher at WIDE Project
      Jun Murai lab. Faculty of Environmental Information,
      Keio University.
      5322 Endo, Fujisawa-shi, Kanagawa 252-8520, Japan.
      Phone : +81-466-49-1100
      Fax   : +81-466-49-1395
      E-mail: ernst@sfc.wide.ad.jp
      Web: http://www.sfc.wide.ad.jp/~ernst/

      Hong-Yon Lach
      Motorola Labs Paris, Lab Manager,
      Networking and Applications Lab (NAL)
      Espace Technologique - Saint Aubin
      91193 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
      Phone: +33-169-35-25-36
      Email: Hong-Yon.Lach@crm.mot.com




























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