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Versions: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 draft-ietf-lisp-lcaf

Network Working Group                                       D. Farinacci
Internet-Draft                                                  D. Meyer
Intended status: Experimental                              cisco Systems
Expires: April 15, 2011                                      J. Snijders
                                                            InTouch N.V.
                                                        October 12, 2010


                  LISP Canonical Address Format (LCAF)
                      draft-farinacci-lisp-lcaf-03

Abstract

   This draft defines a canonical address format encoding used in LISP
   control messages and in the encoding of lookup keys for the LISP
   Mapping Database System.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 15, 2011.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the BSD License.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Definition of Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  LISP Canonical Address Format Encodings  . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   4.  LISP Canonical Address Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.1.  Segmentation using LISP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.2.  Carrying AS Numbers in the Mapping Database  . . . . . . .  8
     4.3.  Convey Application Specific Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     4.4.  Assigning Geo Coordinates to Locator Addresses . . . . . . 10
     4.5.  Generic Database Mapping Lookups . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     4.6.  Applications for AFI List Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.6.1.  Binding IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       4.6.2.  Layer-2 VPNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.6.3.  ASCII Names in the Mapping Database  . . . . . . . . . 14
       4.6.4.  Using Recursive LISP Canonical Address Encodings . . . 15
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20




















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1.  Introduction

   The LISP architecture and protocols [LISP] introduces two new
   numbering spaces, Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) and Routing Locators
   (RLOCs) which are intended to replace most use of IP addresses on the
   Internet.  To provide flexibility for current and future
   applications, these values can be encoded in LISP control messages
   using a general syntax that includes Address Family Identifier (AFI),
   length, and value fields.

   Currently defined AFIs include IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, which are
   formatted according to code-points assigned in [AFI] as follows:

   IPv4 Encoded Address:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |            AFI = 1            |       IPv4 Address ...        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     ...  IPv4 Address         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   IPv6 Encoded Address:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |            AFI = 2            |       IPv6 Address ...        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     ...  IPv6 Address         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   This document describes the currently-defined AFIs the LISP protocol
   uses along with their encodings and introduces the LISP Canonical
   Address Format (LCAF) that can be used to define the LISP-specific
   encodings for arbitrary AFI values.








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2.  Definition of Terms

   Address Family Identifier (AFI):  a term used to describe an address
      encoding in a packet.  An address family currently defined for
      IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.  See [AFI] and [RFC1700] for details.  The
      reserved AFI value of 0 is used in this specification to indicate
      an unspecified encoded address where the the length of the address
      is 0 bytes following the 16-bit AFI value of 0.

   Unspecified Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |            AFI = 0            |    <nothing follows AFI=0>    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Endpoint ID (EID):   a 32-bit (for IPv4) or 128-bit (for IPv6) value
      used in the source and destination address fields of the first
      (most inner) LISP header of a packet.  The host obtains a
      destination EID the same way it obtains a destination address
      today, for example through a DNS lookup or SIP exchange.  The
      source EID is obtained via existing mechanisms used to set a
      host's "local" IP address.  An EID is allocated to a host from an
      EID-prefix block associated with the site where the host is
      located.  An EID can be used by a host to refer to other hosts.

   Routing Locator (RLOC):   the IPv4 or IPv6 address of an egress
      tunnel router (ETR).  It is the output of a EID-to-RLOC mapping
      lookup.  An EID maps to one or more RLOCs.  Typically, RLOCs are
      numbered from topologically-aggregatable blocks that are assigned
      to a site at each point to which it attaches to the global
      Internet; where the topology is defined by the connectivity of
      provider networks, RLOCs can be thought of as PA addresses.
      Multiple RLOCs can be assigned to the same ETR device or to
      multiple ETR devices at a site.















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3.  LISP Canonical Address Format Encodings

   IANA has assigned AFI value 16387 (0x4003) to the LISP architecture
   and protocols.  This specification defines the encoding format of the
   LISP Canonical Address (LCA).

   The first 4 bytes of an LISP Canonical Address are followed by a
   variable length of fields:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1     |     Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    Type       |     Rsvd2     |            Length             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Rsvd1:  this 8-bit field is reserved for future use and MUST be
      transmitted as 0 and ignored on receipt.

   Flags:  this 8-bit field is for future definition and use.  For now,
      set to zero on transmission and ignored on receipt.

   Type:  this 8-bit field is specific to the LISP Canonical Address
      formatted encodings, values are:

     Type 0:  Null Body Type

     Type 1:  AFI List Type

     Type 2:  Instance ID Type

     Type 3:  AS Number Type

     Type 4:  Application Data Type

     Type 5:  Geo Coordinates Type

     Type 6:  Opaque Key Type

   Rsvd2:  this 8-bit field is reserved for future use and MUST be
      transmitted as 0 and ignored on receipt.

   Length:  this 16-bit field is in units of bytes and covers all of the
      LISP Canonical Address payload, starting and including the byte
      after the Length field.  So any LCAF encoded address will have a
      minimum length of 8 bytes when the Length field is 0.  The 8 bytes
      include the AFI, Flags, Type, Reserved, and Length fields.  When



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      the AFI is not next to encoded address in a control message, then
      the encoded address will have a minimum length of 2 bytes when the
      Length field is 0.  The 2 bytes include the Flags, Type, and
      Length fields.















































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4.  LISP Canonical Address Applications

4.1.  Segmentation using LISP

   When multiple organizations inside of a LISP site are using private
   addresses [RFC1918] as EID-prefixes, their address spaces must remain
   segregated due to possible address duplication.  An Instance ID in
   the address encoding can aid in making the entire AFI based address
   unique.

   Another use for the Instance ID LISP Canonical Address Format is when
   creating multiple segmented VPNs inside of a LISP site where keeping
   EID-prefix based subnets is desirable.

   Instance ID LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 2    |     Rsvd2     |             4 + n             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                         Instance ID                           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length value n:  length in bytes of the AFI address that follows the
      Instance ID field including the AFI field itself.

   Instance ID:  the low-order 24-bits that can go into a LISP data
      header when the I-bit is set.  See [LISP] for details.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFI].

   This LISP Canonical Address Type can be used to encode either EID or
   RLOC addresses.













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4.2.  Carrying AS Numbers in the Mapping Database

   When an AS number is stored in the LISP Mapping Database System for
   either policy or documentation reasons, it can be encoded in a LISP
   Canonical Address.

   AS Number LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 3    |     Rsvd2     |             4 + n             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                           AS Number                           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length value n:  length in bytes of the AFI address that follows the
      AS Number field including the AFI field itself.

   AS Number:  the 32-bit AS number of the autonomous system that has
      been assigned either the EID or RLOC that follows.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFI].

   The AS Number Canonical Address Type can be used to encode either EID
   or RLOC addresses.  The former is used to describe the LISP-ALT AS
   number the EID-prefix for the site is being carried for.  The latter
   is used to describe the AS that is carrying RLOC based prefixes in
   the underlying routing system.


















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4.3.  Convey Application Specific Data

   When a locator-set needs to be conveyed based on the type of
   application or the Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) of a packet, the
   Application Data Type can be used.

   Application Data LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 4    |     Rsvd2     |             8 + n             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |       IP TOS, IPv6 TC, or Flow Label          |    Protocol   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           Local Port          |         Remote Port           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length value n:  length in bytes of the AFI address that follows the
      8-byte Application Data fields including the AFI field itself.

   IP TOS, IPv6 TC, or Flow Label:  this field stores the 8-bit IPv4 TOS
      field used in an IPv4 header, the 8-bit IPv6 Traffic Class or Flow
      Label used in an IPv6 header.

   Local Port/Remote Port:  these fields are from the TCP, UDP, or SCTP
      transport header.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFI].

   The Application Data Canonical Address Type is used for an EID
   encoding when an ITR wants a locator-set for a specific application.
   When used for an RLOC encoding, the ETR is supplying a locator-set
   for each specific application is has been configured to advertise.













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4.4.  Assigning Geo Coordinates to Locator Addresses

   If an ETR desires to send a Map-Reply describing the Geo Coordinates
   for each locator in its locator-set, it can use the Geo Coordinate
   Type to convey physical location information.

   Geo Coordinate LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 5    |     Rsvd2     |             8 + n             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |N|     Latitude Degrees        |    Minutes    |    Seconds    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |E|     Longitude Degrees       |    Minutes    |    Seconds    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |              AFI = x          |         Address  ...          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length value n:  length in bytes of the AFI address that follows the
      8-byte Longitude and Latitude fields including the AFI field
      itself.

   N: When set to 1 means North, otherwise South.

   Latitude Degrees:  Valid values range from 0 to 90. degrees above or
      below the equator (northern or southern hemisphere, respectively).

   Latitude Minutes:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   Latitude Seconds:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   E: When set to 1 means East, otherwise West.

   Longitude Degrees:  Value values are from 0 to 90 degrees right or
      left of the Prime Meridian.

   Longitude Minutes:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   Longitude Seconds:  Valid values range from 0 to 59.

   AFI = x:  x can be any AFI value from [AFI].

   The Geo Coordinates Canonical Address Type can be used to encode
   either EID or RLOC addresses.  When used for EID encodings, you can



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   determine the physical location of an EID along with the topological
   location by observing the locator-set.





















4.5.  Generic Database Mapping Lookups

   When the LISP Mapping Database system holds information accessed by a
   generally formated key (where the key is not the usual IPv4 or IPv6
   address), an opaque key may be desirable.

   Opaque Key LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 6    |     Rsvd2     |               n               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | Key Field Num |      Key Wildcard Fields      |   Key . . .   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                       . . . Key                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length value n:  length in bytes of the type's payload.  The value n
      is the number of bytes that follow this Length field.






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   Key Field Num:  the number of fields (minus 1) the key can be broken
      up into.  The width of the fields are fixed length.  So for a key
      size of 8 bytes, with a Key Field Num of 4 allows 4 fields of 2
      bytes in length.  Valid values for this field range from 0 to 15
      supporting a maximum of 16 field separations.

   Key Wildcard Fields:  describes which fields in the key are not used
      as part of the key lookup.  This wildcard encoding is a bitfield.
      Each bit is a don't-care bit for a corresponding field in the key.
      Bit 0 (the low-order bit) in this bitfield corresponds the first
      field, right-justified in the key, bit 1 the second field, and so
      on.  When a bit is set in the bitfield it is a don't-care bit and
      should not be considered as part of the database lookup.  When the
      entire 16-bits is set to 0, then all bits of the key are used for
      the database lookup.

   Key:  the variable length key used to do a LISP Database Mapping
      lookup.  The length of the key is the value n (shown above) minus
      3.





















4.6.  Applications for AFI List Type

4.6.1.  Binding IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses

   When header translation between IPv4 and IPv6 is desirable a LISP
   Canonical Address can use the AFI List Type to carry multiple AFIs in
   one LCA AFI.




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   Binded Address LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |     Flags     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 2    |     Rsvd2     |         2 + 4 + 2 + 16        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |            AFI = 1            |       IPv4 Address ...        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     ...  IPv4 Address         |            AFI = 2            |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                          IPv6 Address ...                     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address  ...                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     ...  IPv6 Address                         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes is fixed at 24 when IPv4 and IPv6 AFI
      encoded addresses are used.

   This type of address format can be included in a Map-Request when the
   address is being used as an EID, but the Mapping Database System
   lookup destination can use only the IPv4 address.  This is so a
   Mapping Database Service Transport System, such as LISP-ALT [ALT],
   can use the Map-Request destination address to route the control
   message to the desired LISP site.




















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4.6.2.  Layer-2 VPNs

   When MAC addresses are stored in the LISP Mapping Database System,
   the AFI List Type can be used to carry AFI 6.

   MAC Address LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |     Flags     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 1    |     Rsvd2     |             2 + 6             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |             AFI = 6           |    Layer-2 MAC Address  ...   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                    ... Layer-2 MAC Address                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes is fixed at 8 when MAC address AFI encoded
      addresses are used.

   This address format can be used to connect layer-2 domains together
   using LISP over an IPv4 or IPv6 core network to create a layer-2 VPN.
   In this use-case, a MAC address is being used as an EID, and the
   locator-set that this EID maps to can be an IPv4 or IPv6 RLOCs, or
   even another MAC address being used as an RLOC.

4.6.3.  ASCII Names in the Mapping Database

   If DNS names or URIs are stored in the LISP Mapping Database System,
   the AFI List Type can be used to carry an ASCII string where it is
   delimited by length 'n' of the LCAF Length encoding.

   ASCII LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |     Flags     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 1    |     Rsvd2     |             2 + n             |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |             AFI = 17          |      DNS Name or URI  ...     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+






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   Length value n:  length in bytes AFI=17 field and the null-terminated
      ASCII string (the last byte of 0 is included).

4.6.4.  Using Recursive LISP Canonical Address Encodings

   When any combination of above is desirable, the AFI List Type value
   can be used to carry within the LCA AFI another LCA AFI.

   Recursive LISP Canonical Address Format:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 1    |     Rsvd2     |         4 + 8 + 2 + 4         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           AFI = 16387         |    Rsvd1      |    Flags      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Type = 4    |     Rsvd2     |              12               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   IP TOS, IPv6 QQS or Flow Label              |    Protocol   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |           Local Port          |         Remote Port           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |            AFI = 1            |       IPv4 Address ...        |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |     ...  IPv4 Address         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Length:  length in bytes is fixed at 18 when an AFI=1 IPv4 address is
      included.

   This format could be used by a Mapping Database Transport System,
   such as LISP-ALT [ALT], where the AFI=1 IPv4 address is used as an
   EID and placed in the Map-Request destination address by the sending
   LISP system.  The ALT system can deliver the Map-Request to the LISP
   destination site independent of the Application Data Type AFI payload
   values.  When this AFI is processed by the destination LISP site, it
   can return different locator-sets based on the type of application or
   level of service that is being requested.










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5.  Security Considerations

   There are no security considerations for this specification.  The
   security considerations are documented for the protocols that use
   LISP Canonical Addressing.  Refer to the those relevant
   specifications.













































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6.  IANA Considerations

   The Address Family AFI definitions from [AFI] only allocate code-
   points for the AFI value itself.  The length of the address or entity
   that follows is not defined and is implied based on conventional
   experience.  Where the LISP protocol uses LISP Canonical Addresses
   specifically, the address length definitions will be in this
   specification and take precedent over any other specification.

   An IANA Registry for LCAF Type values will be created.  The values
   that are considered for use by the main LISP specification [LISP]
   will be in the IANA Registry.  Other Type values used for
   experimentation will be defined and described in this document.






































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7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1700]  Reynolds, J. and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1700,
              October 1994.

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

7.2.  Informative References

   [AFI]      IANA, "Address Family Identifier (AFIs)", ADDRESS FAMILY
              NUMBERS http://www.iana.org/numbers.html, Febuary 2007.

   [ALT]      Fuller, V., Farinacci, D., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "LISP
              Alternative Topology (LISP+ALT)",
              draft-ietf-lisp-alt-04.txt (work in progress), March 2010.

   [LISP]     Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis,
              "Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)",
              draft-ietf-lisp-09.txt (work in progress), October 2010.




























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Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Vince Fuller, Gregg Schudel, Jesper
   Skriver, and Luigi Iannone for their technical and editorial
   commentary.

   Thanks also goes to Terry Manderson for assistance obtaining a LISP
   AFI value from IANA.











































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Authors' Addresses

   Dino Farinacci
   cisco Systems
   Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   Email: dino@cisco.com


   Dave Meyer
   cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: dmm@cisco.com


   Job Snijders
   InTouch N.V.
   Middenweg 76
   1097 BS Amsterdam
   The Netherlands

   Email: job@instituut.net
























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