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Diameter Maintenance and Extensions (DIME)                     D. Garcia
Internet-Draft                                                  R. Marin
Intended status: Experimental                       University of Murcia
Expires: December 1, 2016                                   A. Kandasamy
                                                                A. Pelov
                                                                  Acklio
                                                            May 30, 2016


                   LoRaWAN Authentication in Diameter
                 draft-garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan-00

Abstract

   This document describes a proposal for a Diameter LoRaWAN
   Application.  The purpose is to integrate the LoRaWAN network join
   procedure with an Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
   infrastructure based on Diameter.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 1, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  LoRaWAN support in Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  LoRaWAN joining procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  Protocol Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Protocol Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.1.  Join-Request AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.2.  Join-Answer AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.3.  AppSKey AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.4.  NwkSKey AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Diameter-Radius Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7

1.  Introduction

   Low Power Wide Area Network (LP-WAN) groups several radio
   technologies that allow communications with nodes far from the
   central communication endpoint (base station) in the range of
   kilometers depending on the specifics of the technology and the
   scenario.  They are fairly recent and the protocols to manage those
   infrastructures are in continuous development.  In some cases they
   may not consider aspects such as key management or directly tackle
   scalability issue in terms of authentication and authorization.  The
   nodes to be authenticated and authorized is expected to be
   considerably high in number.  One of the protocols that provide a
   complete solution is LoRaWAN [LoRaWAN].  LoRaWAN is a MAC layer
   protocol that use LoRa as its physical medium to cover long range
   (up-to 20km depending on the environment) devices.  LoRaWAN is
   designed for large scale networks and currently has a central entity
   called network server which maintains a pre-configured key named
   AppKey for each of the devices on the network.  Furthermore, session
   keys such as NwkSKey and AppSKey used for encryption of data
   messages, are derived with the help of this AppKey.  Since each
   service provider would operate their network server individually,
   authenticating the devices becomes a tedious process because of
   inter-interoperability or the roaming challenges between the



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   operators.  As we know the AAA infrastructure provides a flexible,
   scalable solution.  They offer an opportunity to manage all these
   proceses in a centralized manner as happens in other type of networks
   (e.g. cellular, wifi, etc...) making it an interesting asset when
   integrated into the LoRaWAN architecture.

                     +-------+        +-------+              +--------+
   +------+          |       |        |       |              |        |
   |      +--(LoRa)--+       +--(IP)--+       +-----(IP)-----+        |
   +------+          |       |        |       |              |        |
                     +-------+        +-------+              +--------+
   End-Device         Gateway          Network               Application
                                       Server                  Server

                      Figure 1: LoRAWAN Architecture

   The End-Device communicates with the Gateway by using the LoRa
   modulation.  The Gateway acts as a simple transceiver, which forwards
   all data do the Network Server, which performs the processing of the
   frames, network frame authentication (MIC verification), and which
   serves as Network Access Port.  The Application Server can be
   handling user data OR can be used during the join procedure to accept
   an End-Node to the network.  In this case, the Application Server is
   called a Join Server.  This document describes a way to use standard
   Diameter servers as a Join Server, and to use the Diameter protocol
   for the interaction between the Network Server and the Application
   Server.

                     +-------+        +-------+              +--------+
   +------+          |       |        |       |              |        |
   |AppKey+--(LoRa)--+       +--(IP)--+       +--(Diameter)--+ AppKey |
   +------+          |       |        |       |              |        |
                     +-------+        +-------+              +--------+
   End-Device         Gateway          Network                Diameter
                                       Server                  Server
                                  (+ Diameter client)

   Figure 2: LoRAWAN Architecture with AAA and Diameter authentication.
     End-Device and Diameter server have a shared secret - the AppKey,
      which is used to derive the session keys (NwkSKey and AppSKey).

   The document describes how LoRaWAN join procedure is integrated with
   AAA infrastructure using Diameter [RFC7155] by defining the new AVPs
   needed to support the LoRaWAN exchange.







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1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  LoRaWAN support in Diameter

   Regarding the overall functionality, the Diameter LoRaWAN Application
   relies on [RFC7155] , and defines new Command-Codes and Attribute-
   Value.  Diameter nodes that intend to support this specification MUST
   advertise its support by including the Diameter LoRaWAN Application
   ID (TBD.) in the AUTH-Application-Id AVP of the Capabilities-
   Exchange-Request and the Capabilities-Exchange-Answer command
   [RFC6733].  If the NAS receives a response with the Result-Code set
   to DIAMETER_APPLICATION_UNSUPPORTED [RFC6733] , it indicates that the
   Diameter server in the home realm does not support the LoRaWAN join
   procedure.  The NAS-Port-Type specifying the type of port on which
   the NAS is authenticating the end-device in this case MAY be 18 (
   Wireless - Other ) or a new one specifically assigned for LoRaWAN
   (TBD.).

3.  LoRaWAN joining procedure

   The LoRaWAN joining procedure as described in the LoRaWAN
   Specification 1.0 [LoRaWAN] consists on one exchange.  The first
   message of this exchange is called join-request (JR) message and is
   sent from the end-device to the network-server containing the AppEUI
   and DevEUI of the end-device with additionally a nonce of 2 octets
   called DevNonce.  See Figure 3

                 +-------------+-------------+-------------+
   Size (bytes)  |      8      |      8      |      2      |
   +---------------------------+-------------+-------------+
   Join Request  |   AppEUI    |    DevEUI   |   DevNonce  |
                 +-------------+-------------+-------------+

                      Figure 3: Join Request Message

   In response to the join-request, the other endpoint will answer with
   the join-accept (JA) (Figure 4) if the end-device is successfully
   authenticated and authorized to join the network.  The join-accept
   contains a nonce (AppNonce), a network identifier (NetID), an end-
   device address (DevAddr), a delay between the TX and RX (RxDelay)
   and, optionally, the CFList (see LoRaWAN specification [LoRaWAN]
   section 7).





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               +--------+-----+-------+----------+-------+-------------+
   Size (bytes)|   3    |  3  |   4   |    1     |   1   |16 (Optional)|
   +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
   Join Accept |AppNonce|NetID|DevAddr|DLSettings|RxDelay|    CFList   |
               +--------+-----+-------+----------+-------+-------------+

                       Figure 4: Join Accept Message

4.  Protocol Overview

4.1.  Protocol Assumptions

   For the proposal of Diameter LoRaWAN Application next we describe
   some assumptions regarding the LoRaWAN specification.  The first is
   that the AppKey is only shared between the AAA server and the end-
   device.  The outcome of the successful join procedure (i.e.  NwkSKey
   and AppSKey) are sent from the AAA server to the network-server.
   This allows for the end-device to exchange message with the network-
   server, once the join procedure is finished, as specified in LoRaWAN
   [LoRaWAN].

4.2.  Protocol Exchange

   The join procedure between the end-device and the network-server
   entails one exchange consisting on a join-request message and a join-
   response message.  In Diameter-LoRaWAN the network-server implements
   a Diameter client to communicate with the AAA Server.  Upon reception
   of the LoRaWAN join-request message, the network-server creates a
   Diameter-LoRaWAN-Request, with the Join-Request AVP containing the
   original message from the end-device, and the Join-Answer AVP with
   all the fields, except for the MIC that will be calculated by the AAA
   Server, since is the one that holds the AppKey.  Once the AAA Server
   authenticates and authorizes the end-device, sends back the Join-
   Answer with the MIC generated as specified by the LoRaWAN
   specification.  Furthermore, as a consequence of a successful join
   procedure, the AppSKey (optional) and NwkSKey are generated and sent
   along in AppSKey AVP and NwkSKey respectively.  The NAS receives the
   Diameter-LoRaWAN-Answer, obtains the content of the Join-Request AVP
   and sends it to the end-device, storing in association with that end-
   device the NwSKey and the AppSKey.











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                        network-server                            AAA
end-device                   (NAS)                               Server
-----------                ---------                            -------
    |                         |                                    |
    |  JR[MIC]                |         Diameter-LoRaWAN-Request   |
    |------------------------>|                  Join-Request AVP  |
    |                         |                  Join-Answer AVP*  |
    |                         |----------------------------------->|
    |                         |                                    |
    |   gen                   |                                    |  gen
    |    |                    |           Diameter-LoRaWAN-Answer  |   |
    |    |                    |      Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS  |   |
    |    v                    |                   Join-Answer AVP  |   v
    | AppSKey                 |                      AppSKey AVP*  | AppSKey
    | NwkSKey                 |                        NwSKey AVP  | NwkSKey
    |                         |<-----------------------------------|
    |  JA[MIC]                |                                    |
    |<------------------------|                                    |
    |                         |                                    |

                            Figure 5: Protocol

4.2.1.  Join-Request AVP

   This AVP contains the original Join-Request message.  This AVP will
   only be present in the Diameter-LoRaWAN-Request.

4.2.2.  Join-Answer AVP

   This AVP is used in both Diameter-LoRaWAN-Request and Diameter-
   LoRaWAN-Response messages.  In the first case it contains the Join
   Answer message with all the needed values by the network-server so
   the AAA server that holds the AppKey is able to create the MIC, that
   in this case is not present (marked with an *).  In the second case,
   it contains the message with the MIC generated by the AAA server.

4.2.3.  AppSKey AVP

   This AVP contains the AppSKey, an application session key specific
   for the end-device.  This AVP will only be present in the Diameter-
   LoRaWAN-Response and its optional.

4.2.4.  NwkSKey AVP

   This AVP contains the NwkSKey, an network session key specific for
   the end-device.  This AVP will only be present in the Diameter-
   LoRaWAN-Response.




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5.  Diameter-Radius Interaction

   TBD.

6.  Acknowledgments

   This work has been possible partially by the SMARTIE project
   (FP7-SMARTIE-609062 EU Project) and the Spanish National Project
   CICYT EDISON (TIN2014-52099-R) granted by the Ministry of Economy and
   Competitiveness of Spain (including ERDF support).

7.  Security Considerations

   TBD.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6733]  Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
              Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6733>.

   [RFC7155]  Zorn, G., Ed., "Diameter Network Access Server
              Application", RFC 7155, DOI 10.17487/RFC7155, April 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7155>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [LoRaWAN]  Sornin, N., Luis, M., Eirich, T., and T. Kramp, "LoRa
              Specification V1.0", January 2015, <https://www.lora-
              alliance.org/>.

Authors' Addresses







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   Dan Garcia Carrillo (Ed.)
   University of Murcia
   Campus de Espinardo S/N, Faculty of Computer Science
   Murcia  30100
   Spain

   Phone: +34 868 88 78 82
   Email: dan.garcia@um.es


   Rafa Marin-Lopez
   University of Murcia
   Campus de Espinardo S/N, Faculty of Computer Science
   Murcia  30100
   Spain

   Phone: +34 868 88 85 01
   Email: rafa@um.es


   Arunprabhu Kandasamy
   Acklio
   2bis rue de la Chataigneraie
   35510 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
   France

   Email: arun@ackl.io


   Alexander Pelov
   Acklio
   2bis rue de la Chataigneraie
   35510 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
   France

   Email: a@ackl.io















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