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Versions: 00 01 draft-ietf-sidr-as-migration

Internet Engineering Task Force                                W. George
Internet-Draft                                         Time Warner Cable
Intended status: Informational                                 S. Murphy
Expires: August 5, 2013                  SPARTA, Inc., a Parsons Company
                                                        February 1, 2013


                 BGPSec Considerations for AS Migration
                   draft-george-sidr-as-migration-01

Abstract

   This draft discusses considerations and methods for supporting and
   securing a common method for AS-Migration within the BGPSec protocol.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 5, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.





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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  General Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   3.  RPKI Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.1.  Origin Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     3.2.  Path Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.2.1.  Outbound announcements (PE-->CE) . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       3.2.2.  Inbound announcements (CE-->PE)  . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   4.  Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   5.  Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     5.1.  Outbound (PE->CE)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.2.  Inbound (CE->PE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.3.  Other considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     5.4.  Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   7.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   9.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     9.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     9.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14




























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1.  Introduction

   There is a method of managing an ASN migration using some BGP knobs
   that while commonly-used are not formally part of the BGP4 [RFC4271]
   protocol specification and may be vendor-specific in exact
   implementation.  In order to ensure that this behavior is understood
   and considered for future modifications to the BGP4 protocol
   specification, especially as it concerns the handling of AS_PATH
   attributes, the behavior and process has been defined in
   draft-ga-idr-as-migration [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration].  Accordingly, it
   is necessary to discuss this de facto standard to ensure that the
   process and features are properly supported in BGPSec
   [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol], because BGPSec is explicitly
   designed to protect against changes in the BGP AS_PATH, whether by
   choice, by misconfiguration, or by malicious intent.  It is critical
   that the BGPSec protocol framework is able to support this
   operationally necessary tool without creating an unacceptable
   security risk or exploit in the process.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


2.  General Scenario

   This draft assumes that the reader has read and understood the ASN
   migration method discussed in draft-ga-idr-as-migration
   [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration] including its examples, as they will be
   heavily referenced here.  The use case being discussed in the
   referenced draft is as follows: For whatever the reason, a provider
   is in the process of merging two or more ASNs, where eventually one
   subsumes the other(s).  Confederations RFC 5065 [RFC5065] are *not*
   being implemented between the ASNs, but vendor-specific configuration
   knobs are being used to allow the migrating PE to masquerade as the
   old ASN for the PE-CE eBGP session, or to manipulate the AS_PATH, or
   both.  While BGPSec [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol] does have a case
   to handle standard confederation implementations, it may not be
   applicable in this exact case.  The reason that this may drive a
   slightly different solution in BGPSec than a standard confederation
   is that unlike in a confederation, eBGP peers may not be peering with
   the "correct" external ASN, and the forward-signed updates are for a
   public ASN, rather than a private one, so there is no expectation
   that the BGP speaker should strip the updates before propagating the
   route to its eBGP neighbors.




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   In the following examples, AS300 is being subsumed by AS200, and both
   ASNs represent a Service Provider (SP) network.  AS100 and 400
   represent end customer networks.  References to PE, CE, and P routers
   mirror the diagrams and references in the above draft.


3.  RPKI Considerations

   Since the methods and implementation discussed in
   draft-ga-idr-as-migration [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration] are not
   technically a part of the BGP4 protocol implementation, but rather a
   vendor-specific optimization, BGPSec is not technically required to
   ensure that it continues functioning as it does today.  However, this
   is widely used during network integrations resulting from mergers and
   acquisitions, as well as network redesigns, and therefore it is not
   feasible to simply eliminate this capability on any BGPSec-enabled
   routers/ASNs.  What follows is a discussion of the potential issues
   to be considered regarding how ASN-migration and BGPSec
   [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol] validation might interact.

   One of the primary considerations for this draft and migration is
   that companies rarely stop with one merger/acquisition/divestiture,
   and end up accumulating several legacy ASNs over time.  Since they
   are using methods to migrate that do not require coordination with
   customers, they do not have a great deal of control over the length
   of the transition period as they might with something completely
   under their administrative control like a key roll.  This leaves many
   SPs with multiple legacy ASNs which don't go away very quickly, if at
   all.  As solutions were being proposed for RPKI implementations to
   solve this transition case, operational complexity and hardware
   scaling considerations associated with maintaining multiple legacy
   ASN keys on routers throughout the combined network have been
   carefully considered.  While part of the recommendation may be "SPs
   SHOULD NOT remain in this transition phase indefinitely because of
   the operational complexity and scaling considerations associated with
   maintaining multiple legacy ASN keys on routers throughout the
   combined network", this is of limited utility as a solution, and so
   every effort has been made to keep the additional complexity during
   the transition period to a minimum, on the assumption that it will
   likely be protracted.

3.1.  Origin Validation

   Origin Validation does not need a unique solution to enable
   migration, as the existing protocol and procedure allows for a
   solution.  In the scenario discussed, AS300 is being replaced by
   AS200.  If there are any existing routes originated by AS300 on the
   router being moved into the new ASN, this simply requires generating



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   new ROAs for the routes with the new ASN and treating them as new
   routes to be added to AS200.  However, we also need to consider the
   situation where one or more other PEs are still in AS300, and are
   originating one or more routes that may be distinct from any that the
   router under migration is originating.  When those routes arrive at
   PE1, which is now a part of AS200 and instructed to use replace-as to
   remove AS300 from the path, PE1 needs to be able to handle routes
   originated from AS300.  If the route now shows up as originating from
   AS200, any downstream peers' validation check will fail unless a ROA
   is *also* available for AS200 as the origin ASN, meaning that there
   will be overlapping ROAs until all routers originating prefixes from
   AS300 are migrated to AS200.  Overlapping ROAs are permissible perRFC
   6480 [RFC6480] section 3.2, and so managing origin validation during
   a migration like this is merely applying the defined case where a set
   of prefixes are originated from more than one ASN.  Therefore, for
   each ROA that authorizes AS300 to originate a prefix, a new ROA
   SHOULD also be created that authorizes AS200 to originate the same
   prefix.

3.2.  Path Validation

   BGPSec Path Validation requires that each router in the AS_PATH
   cryptographically sign its update to assert that "Every AS listed in
   the AS_PATH attribute of the update explicitly authorized the
   advertisement of the route to the subsequent AS in the AS_PATH."
   Since this migration technique is explicitly modifying the AS_PATH
   between two eBGP peers who are not coordinating with one another (are
   not in the same administrative domain), no level of trust can be
   assumed, and therefore it may be difficult to identify legitimate
   manipulation of the AS_PATH for migration activities when compared to
   manipulation due to misconfiguration or malicious intent.

3.2.1.  Outbound announcements (PE-->CE)

   When PE1 is moved from AS300 to AS200, it will be provisioned with
   the appropriate keys for AS200 so that it can begin forward-signing
   routes using AS200.  However, there is currently no guidance in the
   BGPSec protocol specification on whether or not the forward-signed
   ASN value MUST match the configured "remote-as" to validate properly.
   That is, if CE1's BGP session is configured as "remote-as 300", the
   presence of "local-as 300" on PE1 will ensure that there is no ASN
   mismatch on the BGP session itself, but if CE1 receives updates from
   its remote neighbor (PE1) forward-signed from AS200, should the
   BGPSec validator on CE1 still consider those valid by default?  If it
   does, is there any potential attack vector to consider?  RFC4271
   [RFC4271] section 6.3 mentions this match between the ASN of the peer
   and the AS_PATH data, but it is listed as an optional validation,
   rather than a requirement.



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3.2.2.  Inbound announcements (CE-->PE)

   Inbound is more complicated, because the CE doesn't know that PE1 has
   changed ASNs, so it is forward-signing all of its routes with AS300,
   not AS200.  The BGPSec speaker cannot manipulate previous signatures,
   and therefore cannot manipulate the previous AS_Path without causing
   a mismatch that will invalidate the route.  If the updates are simply
   left intact, the ISP would still need to publish and maintain valid
   and active public-keys for AS 300 if it is to appear in the
   BGPSec_Path_Signature in order that receivers can validate the
   BGPSEC_Path_Signature arrived intact/whole.  However, if the updates
   are left intact, this will cause the AS_PATH length to be increased,
   which as previously stated is undesirable.


4.  Requirements

   These requirements are written under the assumption that the
   currently vendor-specific implementations will be standardized via
   draft-ga-idr-as-migration [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration], as it makes
   little sense to build support into a standard for something that is
   not actually a standard itself.  However, should IETF choose not to
   standardize the discussed method of AS migration, it is possible that
   this draft could be considered implementation guidance for those
   vendors that have support for this method of AS migration and wish to
   support it in their BGPSec implementation.  Any solution to the
   described problem needs to consider the following requirements,
   listed in no particular order:

   o  BGPSec MUST support AS Migration for both inbound and outbound
      route announcements (see Section 3.2.1 and 3.2.2).  It SHOULD do
      this without reducing BGPSec's protections for route path

   o  MUST NOT require any reconfiguration on the remote eBGP neighbor
      (CE)

   o  SHOULD confine configuration changes to the migrating PEs e.g.
      can't require global configuration changes to support migration

   o  MUST NOT lengthen AS Path during migration

   o  MUST operate within existing trust boundaries e.g. can't expect
      remote side to accept pcount=0 from untrusted/non-confed neighbor








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5.  Solution

   As noted in [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol], section 4.2, BGPSec
   already has a solution for hiding ASNs where increasing the AS_PATH
   length is undesirable.  So one might think that a simple solution
   would be to retain the keys for AS300 on PE1, and forward-sign
   towards CE1 with AS300 and Pcount=0.  However, this would mean
   passing a pcount=0 between two ASNs that are in different
   administrative and trust domains such that it could represent a
   significant attack vector to manipulate BGPSec-signed paths.  The
   expectation for legitimate instances of Pcount=0 (to make a route-
   server that is not part of the transit path invisible) is that there
   is some sort of existing trust relationship between the operators of
   the route-server and the downstream peers such that the peers could
   be explicitly configured by policy to permit PCount=0 announcements
   only on the sessions where they are expected, and otherwise reject
   them.  For the same reason that things like local-as are used for ASN
   migration without end customer coordination, it is unrealistic to
   assume any sort of coordination between the SP and the administrators
   of CE1 to ensure that they will by policy accept PCount=0 signatures
   during the transition period, and therefore this is not a workable
   solution.

   However, a better solution presents itself when considering how to
   handle routes coming from the CE toward the PE, where the routes are
   forward-signed to AS300, but will eventually need to show AS200 in
   the outbound route announcement.  Because both AS200 and AS300 are in
   the same administrative domain, a signature from AS300 forward-signed
   to AS200 with Pcount=0 would be acceptable as it would be within the
   appropriate trust boundary so that each BGP speaker could be
   explicitly configured to accept Pcount=0 where appropriate between
   the two ASNs.  At the very simplest, this could potentially be used
   at the eBGP boundary between the two ASNs during migration.  But
   since the AS_PATH manipulation described above usually happens at the
   PE router on a per-session basis, and does not happen network-wide
   simultaneously, it is not generally appropriate to apply this AS
   hiding technique across all routes exchanged between the two ASNs,
   and may result in routing loops and other undesirable behavior.
   Therefore the most appropriate place to implement this is on the
   local PE that still has eBGP sessions associated with AS300 (using
   the transition knobs detailed in the companion draft).  Since that PE
   has been moved to AS200, it is not possible for it to forward-sign
   AS300 with Pcount=0 without some minor changes to the BGPSec
   implementation to address this use case.

   AS migration is using AS_PATH and remote-AS manipulation to act as if
   a PE under migration exists simultaneously in both ASNs even though
   it is only configured with one global ASN.  This draft proposes



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   applying a similar technique to the BGPSec signatures generated for
   routing updates processed through this migration machinery.  Each
   routing update that is received from or destined to an eBGP neighbor
   that is still using the old ASN (300) will be signed twice, once with
   the ASN to be hidden and once with the ASN that will remain visible.
   In essence, we are treating the update as if the PE had an internal
   BGP hop and the update was passed across an eBGP session between
   AS200 and AS300, configured to use and accept Pcount=0, while
   eliminating the processing and storage overhead of actually creating
   an actual eBGP session within the PE router.  This will result in a
   properly secured AS_PATH attribute, because the PE router will be
   provisioned with valid keys for both AS200 and AS300.  The procedure
   is slightly different depending on whether the PE under migration is
   receiving the routes from one of its eBGP peers ("inbound" as in
   section 3.2.2) or destined toward the eBGP peers ("outbound" as in
   section 3.2.1).

5.1.  Outbound (PE->CE)

   When a PE router receives an update destined for an eBGP neighbor
   that is locally configured with AS-migration knobs as discussed in
   draft-ga-idr-as-migration [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration] to facilitate a
   move from an old ASN to a new one, it MUST generate a valid BGPSec
   signature as defined in [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol] for _both_
   configured ASNs.  It MUST generate a signature from the new (global)
   ASN forward signing to the old (local) ASN with Pcount=0, and then it
   MUST generate a forward signature from the old (local) ASN to the
   target eBGP ASN with Pcount=1 as normal.

5.2.  Inbound (CE->PE)

   When a PE router receives an update from an eBGP neighbor that is
   locally configured with AS-migration knobs (i.e. the opposite
   direction of the previous route flow), it MUST generate a signature
   from the old (local) ASN forward signing to the new (global) ASN with
   PCount=0.  It is not necessary to generate the second signature from
   the new (global) ASN because the ASBR will generate that when it
   forward signs towards its eBGP peers as defined in normal BGPSec
   operation.  This is a deviation from standard BGPSec behavior in that
   typically a signature is not added when a routing update is sent
   across an iBGP session, and the next signature is added by the ASBR
   when it forward-signs toward its eBGP peer as the routing update
   exits the ASN.

5.3.  Other considerations

   In this case, the PE is adding BGPSec attributes to routes received
   from or destined to an iBGP neighbor, and using PCount=0 to mask



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   them.  While this is not prohibited by the current BGPSec
   specification, routers that receive updates from iBGP neighbors MUST
   NOT reject updates with new (valid) BGPSec attributes, including the
   presence of PCount=0 on a previous signature, or they will interfere
   with this implementation.  In similar fashion, any route-reflectors
   in the path of these updates MUST reflect them transparently to their
   clients.

   In order to secure this set of signatures, the PE router MUST be
   provisioned with valid keys for _both_ configured ASNs (old and new),
   and the key for the old ASN MUST be kept valid until all eBGP
   sessions are migrated to the new ASN.  Downstream neighbors will see
   this as a valid BGPSec path, as they will simply trust that their
   upstream neighbor accepted Pcount=0 because it was explicitly
   configured to do so based on a trust relationship and business
   relationship between the upstream and its neighbor (the old and new
   ASNs).

5.4.  Example

   The following example will illustrate the method being used above.
   As with previous examples, PE1 is the router being migrated, AS300 is
   the old AS, which is being subsumed by AS200, the "keep" AS.  Some
   additional notation is used to delineate the details of each
   signature as follows:

   The origin BGPSEC signature attribute takes the form: sig(<Target
   ASN>, Origin ASN, pcount, NLRI Prefix) key

   Intermediate BGPSEC signature attributes take the form: sig(<Target
   ASN>, Signer ASN, pcount, <most recent sig field>) key




















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   Before Merger
                                       333
                                       |
             ISP B                     ISP A
   CE-1 <--- PE-1 <------------------- PE-2 <--- CE-2
    100      Old_ASN: 300      Old_ASN: 200      400

   CE-2 to PE-2:  sig(<200>, O=400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig1]
                  AS_PATH=(400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=1

   PE-2 to 333:   sig(<333>, 200, pcount=1, <sig1>)K_200-PE2  [sig2]
                  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig1]
                  AS_PATH=(200,400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2

   PE-2 to PE-1:  sig(<300>, 200, pcount=1, <sig1>)K_200-PE2  [sig3]
                  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig1]
                  AS_PATH=(200,400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2

   PE-1 to CE-1:  sig(<100>, 300, pcount=1, <sig3>)K_300-PE1  [sig4]
                  sig(<300>, 200, pcount=1, <sig1>)K_200-PE2  [sig3]
                  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig1]
                  AS_PATH = (300,200,400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=3

























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   Migrating, route flow outbound PE-1 to CE-1
                                       333
                                       |
             ISP A'                    ISP A'
   CE-1 <--- PE-1 <------------------- PE-2 <--- CE-2
    100      Old_ASN: 300      Old_ASN: 200      400
             New_ASN: 200      New_ASN: 200


   CE-2 to PE-2:  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig11]
                  AS_PATH=(400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=1

   PE-2 to 333:   sig(<333>, 200, pcount=1, <sig11>)K_200-PE2  [sig12]
                  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig11]
                  AS_PATH=(200,400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2

   PE-2 to PE-1:  [sig11]

   PE-1 to CE-1:  sig(<100>, 300, pcount=1, <sig13>)K_300-PE1  [sig14]
                  sig(<300>, 200, pcount=0, <sig11>)K_200-PE2  [sig13]
                  sig(<200>, 400, pcount=1, N)K_400-CE2  [sig11]
                  AS_PATH=(300,400)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2 (length is NOT 3)
   #PE1 adds [sig13] acting as AS200
   #PE1 accepts [sig13] with PCount=0 acting as AS300,
   #as it would if it received sig13 from an eBGP peer























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   Migrating, route flow inbound CE-1 to PE-1
                                       333
                                       |
             ISP A'                    ISP A'
   CE-1 ---> PE-1 -------------------> PE-2 ---> CE-2
    100      Old_ASN: 300      Old_ASN: 200      400
             New_ASN: 200      New_ASN: 200


   CE-1 to PE-1:  sig(<300>, 100, pcount=1, N)K_100-CE1   [sig21]
                  AS_PATH=(100)
                  length=sum(pcount)=1

   PE-1 to PE-2:  sig(<200>, 300, pcount=0, <sig21>)K_300-PE1  [sig22]
                  sig(<300>, 100, pcount=1, N)K_100-CE1   [sig21]
                  AS_PATH=(100)
                  length=sum(pcount)=1 (length is NOT 2)
   #PE1 adds [sig22] acting as AS300
   #PE1 accepts [sig22] with PCount=0 acting as AS200,
   #as it would if it received sig22 from an eBGP peer

   PE-2 to 333:   sig(<333>, 200, pcount=1, <sig22>)K_200-PE2  [sig23]
                  sig(<200>, 300, pcount=0, <sig21>)K_300-PE1  [sig22]
                  sig(<300>, 100, pcount=1, N)K_100-CE1   [sig21]
                  AS_PATH=(200,100)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2 (length is NOT 3)

   PE-2 to CE-2:  sig(<400>, 200, pcount=1, <sig22>)K_200-PE2  [sig24]
                  sig(<200>, 300, pcount=0, <sig21>)K_300-PE1  [sig22]
                  sig(<300>, 100, pcount=1, N)K_100-CE1   [sig21]
                  AS_PATH=(200,100)
                  length=sum(pcount)=2 (length is NOT 3)


6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Kotikalapudi Sriram and Shane Amante for their review
   comments.

   Additionally, the solution presented in this draft is an amalgam of
   several SIDR interim meeting discussions plus a discussion at IETF85,
   collected and articulated thanks to Sandy Murphy.


7.  IANA Considerations

   This memo includes no request to IANA.




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8.  Security Considerations

   This draft discusses a process by which one ASN is migrated into and
   subsumed by another.  Because this involves manipulating the AS_Path
   to make it deviate from the actual path that it took through the
   network, it is in some ways attempting to do exactly what BGPSec is
   working to prevent.  The BGPSec implementation MUST be able to manage
   this legitimate use of AS_Path manipulation without generating a
   vulnerability in the RPKI route security infrastructure that can be
   exploited by a malicious actor.

   The solution discussed above is considered to be reasonably secure
   from exploitation by a malicious actor because it requires both
   signatures to be secured as if they were forward-signed between two
   eBGP neighbors.  This requires any router using this solution to be
   provisioned with valid keys for both the migrated and subsumed ASN so
   that it can generate valid signatures for each of the two ASNs it is
   adding to the path.  If the AS's keys are compromised, or zero-length
   keys are permitted, this does potentially enable an AS_PATH
   shortening attack, but this is not fundamentally altering the
   existing security risks for BGPSec.


9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ga-idr-as-migration]
              George, W. and S. Amante, "Autonomous System (AS)
              Migration Features and Their Effects on the BGP AS_PATH
              Attribute", draft-ga-idr-as-migration-00 (work in
              progress), September 2012.

   [I-D.ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol]
              Lepinski, M., "BGPSEC Protocol Specification",
              draft-ietf-sidr-bgpsec-protocol-06 (work in progress),
              October 2012.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4271]  Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway
              Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.

   [RFC5065]  Traina, P., McPherson, D., and J. Scudder, "Autonomous
              System Confederations for BGP", RFC 5065, August 2007.



George & Murphy          Expires August 5, 2013                [Page 13]


Internet-Draft                as-migration                 February 2013


   [RFC6480]  Lepinski, M. and S. Kent, "An Infrastructure to Support
              Secure Internet Routing", RFC 6480, February 2012.


Authors' Addresses

   Wesley George
   Time Warner Cable
   13820 Sunrise Valley Drive
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Phone: +1 703-561-2540
   Email: wesley.george@twcable.com


   Sandy Murphy
   SPARTA, Inc., a Parsons Company
   7110 Samuel Morse Drive
   Columbia, MD  21046
   US

   Phone: +1 443-430-8000
   Email: sandy@tislabs.com



























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