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Versions: 00 01 02 draft-ietf-6lo-blemesh

6Lo Working Group                                               C. Gomez
Internet-Draft                                               S. Darroudi
Intended status: Standards Track                               UPC/i2cat
Expires: April 21, 2016                                    T. Savolainen
                                                                   Nokia
                                                        October 19, 2015


            IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Energy Mesh Networks
                       draft-gomez-6lo-blemesh-00

Abstract

   draft-ietf-6lo-btle describes the adaptation of 6LoWPAN techniques to
   enable IPv6 over Bluetooth low energy networks that follow the star
   topology.  However, recent Bluetooth specifications allow the
   formation of extended topologies as well.  This document defines how
   IPv6 is transported over Bluetooth low energy mesh networks.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 21, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of



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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology and Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Bluetooth LE Mesh Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth LE mesh networks . . . .   3
     3.1.  Protocol stack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Subnet model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  Link model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.1.  Stateless address autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.2.  Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       3.3.3.  Header compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       3.3.4.  Unicast and multicast mapping . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

   Bluetooth low energy (hereinafter, Bluetooth LE) was first introduced
   in the Bluetooth 4.0 specification.  Bluetooth LE (which has been
   marketed as Bluetooth Smart) is a low-power wireless technology
   designed for short-range control and monitoring applications.
   Bluetooth LE is currently implemented in a wide range of consumer
   electronics devices, such as smartphones and wearable devices.  Given
   the high potential of this technology for the Internet of Things, the
   Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Bluetooth SIG) and the IETF have
   produced specifications in order to enable IPv6 over Bluetooth LE,
   such as the Internet Protocol Support Profile (IPSP), and draft-ietf-
   6lo-btle, respectively.  Bluetooth 4.0 only supports Bluetooth LE
   networks that follow the star topology.  In consequence, draft-ietf-
   6lo-btle was specifically developed and optimized for that type of
   network topology.  However, subsequent Bluetooth specifications allow
   the formation of extended topologies, such as the mesh topology.  The
   functionality described in draft-ietf-6lo-btle is not sufficient and
   would fail to enable IPv6 over Bluetooth LE mesh networks.  This
   document specifies the mechanisms needed to enable IPv6 over
   Bluetooth LE mesh networks.  This specification also allows to run
   IPv6 over Bluetooth LE star topology networks, albeit without all the
   topology-specific optimizations contained in draft-ietf-6lo-btle.




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1.1.  Terminology and Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

   The terms 6LoWPAN Node (6LN), 6LoWPAN Router (6LR) and 6LoWPAN Border
   Router (6LBR) are defined as in [RFC6775], with an addition that
   Bluetooth LE central and Bluetooth LE peripheral (see Section 2) can
   both be adopted by a 6LN, a 6LR or a 6LBR.

2.  Bluetooth LE Mesh Networks

   Bluetooth LE defines two Generic Access Profile (GAP) roles of
   relevance herein: the Bluetooth LE central role and the Bluetooth LE
   peripheral role.  A device in the central role, which is called
   central from now on, has traditionally been able to manage multiple
   simultaneous connections with a number of devices in the peripheral
   role, called peripherals hereinafter.  Bluetooth 4.1 introduced the
   possibility for a peripheral to be connected to more than one central
   simultaneously, therefore allowing extended topologies beyond the
   star topology for a Bluetooth LE network.  In addition, a device may
   simultaneously be a central in a set of link layer connections, as
   well as a peripheral in others.  On the other hand, the IPSP enables
   discovery of IP-enabled devices and the establishment of a link layer
   connection for transporting IPv6 packets.  The IPSP defines the Node
   and Router roles for devices that consume/originate IPv6 packets and
   for devices that can route IPv6 packets, respectively.  Consistently
   with Bluetooth 4.1, a device may implement both roles simultaneously.

   This document assumes a Bluetooth LE mesh network whereby link layer
   connections have been established between neighboring IPv6-enabled
   devices.  In an IPv6-enabled Bluetooth LE mesh network, a node is a
   neighbor of another node, and vice versa, if a link layer connection
   has been established between both by using the IPSP functionality for
   discovery and link layer connection establishment for IPv6 packet
   transport.

3.  Specification of IPv6 over Bluetooth LE mesh networks

3.1.  Protocol stack

   Figure 1 illustrates the protocol stack for IPv6-enabled Bluetooth LE
   mesh networks.  There are two main differences with the IPv6 over
   Bluetooth LE stack in draft-ietf-6lo-btle: a) the adaptation layer
   below IPv6 (labelled as "6Lo for Bluetooth LE mesh") is now adapted
   for Bluetooth LE mesh networks, and b) the protocol stack for IPv6
   over Bluetooth LE mesh networks includes IPv6 routing functionality.



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                       +----------------------------+
                       |        Application         |
          +---------+  +----------------------------+
          |  IPSS   |  |       UDP/TCP/other        |
          +---------+  +----------------------------+
          |  GATT   |  |       IPv6  |routing|      |
          +---------+  +----------------------------+
          |  ATT    |  |  6Lo for Bluetooth LE Mesh |
          +---------+--+----------------------------+
          |          Bluetooth LE L2CAP             |
     -  - +-----------------------------------------+- - - HCI
          |        Bluetooth LE Link Layer          |
          +-----------------------------------------+
          |         Bluetooth LE Physical           |
          +-----------------------------------------+

   Figure 1: Protocol stack for IPv6-enabled Bluetooth LE mesh networks

3.2.  Subnet model

   For IPv6-based Bluetooth LE mesh networks, a multilink model has been
   chosen, as further illustrated in Figure 2.  As IPv6 over Bluetooth
   LE is intended for constrained nodes, and for Internet of Things use
   cases and environments, the complexity of implementing a separate
   subnet on each peripheral-central link and routing between the
   subnets appears to be excessive.  In this specification, the benefits
   of treating the collection of point-to-point links between a central
   and its connected peripherals as a single multilink subnet rather
   than a multiplicity of separate subnets are considered to outweigh
   the multilink model's drawbacks as described in [RFC4903].





















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                                                          /
       .--------------------------------.                /
      /     6LR           6LN        6LN \              /
     /         \             \          \ \            /
    |           \             \          \ |          /
    |  6LN ----- 6LR --------- 6LR ------ 6LBR ----- |  Internet
    |   <--Link--> <---Link--->/<--Link->/ |         |
     \                        /         / /           \
      \           6LN ---- 6LR ----- 6LR /             \
       '--------------------------------'               \
                                                         \

     <------------ Subnet -----------------><---- IPv6 connection -->
                                                  to the Internet


       Figure 2: Example of an IPv6-based Bluetooth LE mesh network
                         connected to the Internet

   One or more 6LBRs are connected to the Internet. 6LNs are connected
   to the network through a 6LR or a 6LBR.  A prefix is used on the
   whole subnet.

   IPv6-enabled Bluetooth LE mesh networks MUST follow a route-over
   approach.  This document does not specify the routing protocol to be
   used in an IPv6-enabled Bluetooth LE mesh network.

3.3.  Link model

3.3.1.  Stateless address autoconfiguration

   6LN, 6LR and 6LBR IPv6 addresses of a Bluetooth LE mesh network are
   configured as per section 3.2.2 of draft-ietf-6lo-btle.

   Multihop DAD functionality as defined in section 8.2 of RFC 6775, or
   some substitute mechanism (see section 3.3.2), MUST be supported.

3.3.2.  Neighbor Discovery

   'Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless
   Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)' [RFC6775] describes the neighbor
   discovery approach as adapted for use in several 6LoWPAN topologies,
   including the mesh topology.  The route-over functionality of RFC
   6775 MUST be supported.

   The following aspects of the Neighbor Discovery optimizations
   [RFC6775] are applicable to Bluetooth LE 6LNs:




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   1.  A Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST NOT register its link-local address.  A
   Bluetooth LE 6LN MUST register its non-link-local addresses with its
   routers by sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the
   Address Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor
   Advertisement (NA) accordingly.  The NS with the ARO option MUST be
   sent irrespective of the method used to generate the IID.  The ARO
   option requires use of an EUI-64 identifier [RFC6775].  In the case
   of Bluetooth LE, the field SHALL be filled with the 48-bit device
   address used by the Bluetooth LE node converted into 64-bit Modified
   EUI-64 format [RFC4291].

   If the 6LN registers for a same compression context multiple
   addresses that are not based on Bluetooth device address, the header
   compression efficiency will decrease (see the next subsection).

   2.  For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
   Advertisements the Bluetooth LE 6LNs MUST, respectively, follow
   Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of the [RFC6775].

   6LR TBD

   RFC 6775 defines substitutable mechanisms for distributing prefixes
   and context information (section 8.1 of RFC 6775), as well as for
   Duplicate Address Detection across a route-over 6LoWPAN (section 8.2
   of RFC 6775).  Implementations of this specification MUST support the
   features described in sections 8.1 and 8.2 of RFC 6775 unless some
   alternative ("substitute") from some other specification is
   supported.

3.3.3.  Header compression

   Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [RFC6282], which specifies
   the compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
   REQUIRED as the basis for IPv6 header compression on top of Bluetooth
   LE.  All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282 [RFC6282]
   encoding formats.

   To enable efficient header compression, when the 6LBR sends a Router
   Advertisement it MUST include a 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO)
   [RFC6775] matching each address prefix advertised via a Prefix
   Information Option (PIO) [RFC4861] for use in stateless address
   autoconfiguration.

   The specific optimizations of draft-ietf-6lo-btle for header
   compression, which exploit the star topology and ARO, cannot be
   generalized in a Bluetooth LE mesh network.  Still, a subset of those
   optimizations can be applied in some cases in a Bluetooth LE mesh
   network.  In particular, the latter comprise link-local interactions,



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   non-link-local packet transmissions originated and performed by a
   6LN, and non-link-local packet transmissions originated by a 6LN
   neighbor and sent to a 6LN.  For the rest of packet transmissions,
   context-based compression MAY be used.

   When a device transmits a packet to a neighbor, the sender MUST fully
   elide the source IID if the source IPv6 address is the link-local
   address based on the sender's Bluetooth device address (SAC=0,
   SAM=11).  The sender also MUST fully elide the destination IPv6
   address if it is the link-local-address based on the neighbor's
   Bluetooth device address (DAC=0, DAM=11).

   When a 6LN transmits a packet, with a non-link-local source address
   that the 6LN has registered with ARO in the next-hop router for the
   indicated prefix, the source address MUST be fully elided if it is
   the latest address that the 6LN has registered for the indicated
   prefix (SAC=1, SAM=11).  If the source non-link-local address is not
   the latest registered by the 6LN, then the 64-bits of the IID SHALL
   be fully carried in-line (SAC=1, SAM=01) or if the first 48-bits of
   the IID match with the latest address registered by the 6LN, then the
   last 16-bits of the IID SHALL be carried in-line (SAC=1, SAM=10).

   When a router transmits a packet to a neighboring 6LN, with a non-
   link-local destination address, the router MUST fully elide the
   destination IPv6 address if the destination address is the latest
   registered by the 6LN with ARO for the indicated context (DAC=1,
   DAM=11).  If the destination address is a non-link-local address and
   not the latest registered, then the 6LN MUST either include the IID
   part fully in-line (DAM=01) or, if the first 48-bits of the IID match
   to the latest registered address, then elide those 48-bits (DAM=10).

3.3.4.  Unicast and multicast mapping

   TBD

4.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations related to this document.

5.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations in draft-ietf-6lo-btle apply.

   Further security considerations on additional threats due to ad-hoc
   routing.  TBD.






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6.  Acknowledgements

   The Bluetooth, Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready marks are
   registred trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc.

   The authors of this document are grateful to all draft-ietf-6lo-btle
   authors, since this document borrows many concepts (albeit, with
   necessary extensions) from draft-ietf-6lo-btle.

   Carles Gomez has been supported in part by the Spanish Government
   Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad through project
   TEC2012-32531, and FEDER.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [BTCorev4.1]
              Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core
              Specification Version 4.1", December 2013,
              <https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-
              specifications>.

   [I-D.ietf-6lo-btle]
              Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
              Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
              Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-btle-17 (work in progress), August
              2015.

   [IPSP]     Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Internet
              Protocol Support Profile Specification Version 1.0.0",
              December 2014, <https://www.bluetooth.org/en-
              us/specification/adopted-specifications>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
              2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.




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   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC4862, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.

   [RFC6775]  Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", RFC
              6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.

   [RFC7136]  Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
              Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136,
              February 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [fifteendotfour]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2011 IEEE
              Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks--Part
              15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-
              WPANs)", June 2011.

   [I-D.ietf-6man-default-iids]
              Gont, F., Cooper, A., Thaler, D., and S. LIU,
              "Recommendation on Stable IPv6 Interface Identifiers",
              draft-ietf-6man-default-iids-08 (work in progress),
              October 2015.

   [IEEE802-2001]
              Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),
              "IEEE 802-2001 Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area
              Networks: Overview and Architecture", 2002.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
              C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.

   [RFC3610]  Whiting, D., Housley, R., and N. Ferguson, "Counter with
              CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, DOI 10.17487/RFC3610, September
              2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3610>.




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   [RFC3633]  Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.

   [RFC3972]  Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, DOI 10.17487/RFC3972, March 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3972>.

   [RFC4193]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", RFC 4193, DOI 10.17487/RFC4193, October 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4193>.

   [RFC4903]  Thaler, D., "Multi-Link Subnet Issues", RFC 4903, DOI
              10.17487/RFC4903, June 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4903>.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, DOI 10.17487/RFC4941, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4941>.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.

   [RFC5535]  Bagnulo, M., "Hash-Based Addresses (HBA)", RFC 5535, DOI
              10.17487/RFC5535, June 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5535>.

   [RFC7217]  Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
              Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217, DOI 10.17487/
              RFC7217, April 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.

Authors' Addresses

   Carles Gomez
   Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/Fundacio i2cat
   C/Esteve Terradas, 7
   Castelldefels  08860
   Spain

   Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu





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   Seyed Mahdi Darroudi
   Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/Fundacio i2cat
   C/Esteve Terradas, 7
   Castelldefels  08860
   Spain

   Email: s.darroudi2014@yahoo.com


   Teemu Savolainen
   Nokia
   Visiokatu 3
   Tampere  33720
   Finland

   Email: teemu.savolainen@nokia.com



































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