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Versions: 00

IPv6 Operations Working Group (v6ops)                            F. Gont
Internet-Draft                                              SI6 Networks
Intended status: Informational                                   J. Zorz
Expires: January 7, 2020
                                                            R. Patterson
                                                                  Sky UK
                                                            July 6, 2019


 Reaction of Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) to Renumbering
                                 Events
                    draft-gont-v6ops-slaac-renum-00

Abstract

   In scenarios where network configuration information related to IPv6
   prefixes becomes invalid without any explicit signaling of that
   condition (such as when a CPE crashes and reboots without knowledge
   of the previously-employed prefixes), nodes on the local network will
   continue using stale prefixes for an unacceptably long period of
   time, thus resulting in connectivity problems.  This document
   analyzes these problem scenarios, and discusses operational
   workarounds to improve network robustness.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents



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   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Analysis of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Default Timer Values in IPv6 Stateless Address
           Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Recovering from Stale Network Configuration Information .   5
     2.3.  Lack of Explicit Signaling about Stale Information  . . .   6
     2.4.  Interaction Between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.5.  Use of Dynamic Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Possible workarounds  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  SLAAC Parameter Tweaking  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Improved CPE behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       3.2.1.  Signaling Stale Configuration Information . . . . . .   9
       3.2.2.  Interaction Between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC . . . . . . .  10
   4.  Summary of Operational Mitigations  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.1.  Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  CPE routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   5.  Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   IPv6 largely assumes prefix stability, with network renumbering only
   taking place in a planned manner, with old/stale prefixes being
   phased-out via reduced prefix lifetimes, and new prefixes (with
   longer lifetimes) being introduced at the same time.  However, there
   are a number of scenarios that may lead to the so-called "flash-
   renumbering", where the prefix being employed on a network suddenly
   becomes invalid and replaced by a new prefix.  In some of these
   scenarios, the local router producing the network renumbering may be
   able and try to deprecate the currently-employed prefixes (thus
   explicitly signaling the network about the renumbering event),
   whereas in other scenarios it may be unable to do so.



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   In scenarios where network configuration information related to IPv6
   prefixes becomes invalid without any explicit signaling of that
   condition, nodes on the local network will continue using stale
   prefixes for an unacceptably long period of time, thus resulting in
   connectivity problems.

   Scenarios where this problem may arise include, but are not limited
   to, the following:

   o  The most common deployment scenario for IPv6 in home networks is
      that in which a CPE router employs DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation
      (DHCPv6-PD) [RFC8415] to request a prefix from an Internet Service
      Provider (ISP), and a sub-prefix of the leased prefix is
      advertised on the LAN-side of the CPE router via Stateless Address
      Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) [RFC4862].  In scenarios where the CPE
      router crashes and reboots, the CPE may be leased (via DHCPv6-PD)
      a different prefix from the one previously leased, and therefore
      advertise (via SLAAC) the new prefix on the LAN side.  Hosts will
      normally configure an address for the new prefix, but will
      normally retain and actively employ the previously-configured
      addresses, since their associated Preferred Lifetime and Valid
      Lifetime allow them to do so.

   o  A switch-port the host is connected to is moved to another subnet
      (VLAN) as a result of manual switch-port reconfiguration or 802.1x
      re-authentication.  In particular there has been evidence that
      some 802.1x supplicants do not reset network settings after
      successful 802.1x authentication.  So if a host had failed 802.1x
      authentication for some reason, was placed in a "quarantine" VLAN
      and then got successfully authenticated later on, it might end up
      having IPv6 addresses from both old ("quarantine") and new VLANs.

   o  During the planned network renumbering a router is configured to
      send an RA with the Preferred Lifetime for the "old" PIO set to
      zero and the new PIO having non-zero preferred lifetime.  However,
      due to unsolicited RAs being sent as all-hosts multicast and
      multicast being rather unreliable on busy wifi network, the RA is
      not received by a host (or set of hosts).

   o  Automated device config management system performs periodical
      config push to network devices.  If such a push results in
      changing /64 subnet configured on a particular network, hosts
      attached to that network would not get notified about the subnet
      change and their addresses from the "old" prefix are not
      deprecated.  The related case is incorrectly performed renumbering
      when a network administrator is renumbering a network by simply
      removing the "old" prefix from the configuration and configuring a
      new prefix instead.



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   Lacking any explicit signaling to "obsolete" the previously-
   configured addresses (for the now invalid/stale prefix), hosts may
   continue employing the previously-configured addresses which will
   typically result in packets being blackholed -- whether because of
   egress-filtering by the CPE or ISP, or because responses to such
   packets will be discarded or routed elsewhere.

   The default values for the "Valid Lifetime" and "Preferred Lifetime"
   of Prefix Information Options (PIOs), as specified in [RFC4861], are:

   o  Valid Lifetime (AdvValidLifetime): 2592000 seconds (30 days)

   o  Preferred Lifetime (AdvPreferredLifetime): 604800 seconds (7 days)

   This means that in the aforementioned scenarios, the stale addresses
   would be retained for unacceptably long period of time, thus leading
   to interoperability problems, instead of nodes transitioning to the
   newly-advertised prefix(es) in a timelier manner.

   Some devices have implemented mechanisms to address this problem,
   such as sending RAs to invalidate the apparently stale prefixes when
   the device receives any packets employing a source address from a
   prefix not being advertised for address configuration [FRITZ].
   However, this may introduce other interoperability problems,
   particularly in multihomed/multiprefix scenarios.  This is clear
   indication that advice in this area is warranted.

   Unresponsiveness to these "flash-renumbering" events is caused by the
   inability of the network to deprecate stale information, as well as
   by the inability of hosts to react to network configuration changes
   in a timelier manner.  Clearly, it would be desirable that these
   flash-renumbering scenarios do not occur, and that, when they do
   occur, that hosts are explicitly notified of their occurrence.
   However, for robustness reasons it is also paramount for hosts to be
   able to recover from stale configuration information even when these
   flash-renumbering events occur and the network is unable to
   explicitly notify hosts about such condition.

   Section 2 analysis this problem in more detail.  Section 3 proposes
   workarounds to improve network robustness.

2.  Analysis of the Problem

   As noted in Section 1, the problem discussed in this document
   exacerbated by a number of different parameters and behaviours.  Each
   of the following sections analyze each of them in detail.





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2.1.  Default Timer Values in IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
      (SLAAC)

   Many protocols, from different layers, normally employ timers.  The
   general logic is as follows:

   o  A timer is set with a value such that, under normal conditions,
      the timer does *not* go off.

   o  Whenever a fault condition arises, the timer goes off, and the
      protocol can perform fault recovery

   One common example for the use of timers is when implementing
   reliability mechanisms where a packet is transmitted, and unless a
   response is received, a retransmission timer will go off to trigger
   retransmission of the original packet.

   For obvious reasons, the whole point of using timers is that in
   problematic scenarios, they will go off, and trigger some recovery
   action.

   However, IPv6 SLAAC employs, for PIOs, these default values:

   o  Preferred Lifetime (AdvPreferredLifetime): 604800 seconds (7 days)

   o  Valid Lifetime (AdvValidLifetime): 2592000 seconds (30 days)

   Under normal network conditions, these timers will be reset/refreshed
   to the default values.  However, under problematic circumstances such
   as where the corresponding network information has become stale
   without any explicit signal from the network (as described in
   Section 1), it will take a host 7 days (one week) to un-prefer the
   corresponding addresses, and 30 days (one month) to eventually remove
   any addresses configured for the stale prefix.

2.2.  Recovering from Stale Network Configuration Information

   SLAAC hosts are unable to recover from stale network configuration
   information for a number of reasons:

   o  Item "e)" of Section 5.5.3 of [RFC4862] specifies that an RA may
      never reduce the "RemainingLifetime" more than to two hours.  If
      the RemainingLifetime of an address is smaller than 2 hours, then
      a Valid Lifetime smaller than 2 hours will be ignored.  The
      Preferred Lifetime of an address can be reduced to any value to
      avoid the use of a stale prefix to be employed for new
      communications.




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   o  In the absence of explicit signalling from SLAAC routers (such as
      sending PIOs with a "Preferred Lifetime" set to 0), SLAAC hosts
      fail to recover from stale configuration information in a timely
      manner.  However, when a network element is able to explicitly
      signal the renumbering event, it will only be able to "un-prefer"
      the stale prefix, but not to invalidate the prefix in question.
      Therefore, communication with the new "owners" of the stale prefix
      will not be possible, since the stale prefix will still be
      considered "on-link".

2.3.  Lack of Explicit Signaling about Stale Information

   Whenever prefix information has changed, a SLAAC router should not
   only advertise the new information, but should also advertise the
   stale information with appropriate lifetime values (both "Preferred
   Lifetime" and "Valid Lifetime" set to 0), such that there is explicit
   signaling to SLAAC hosts to remove the stale information (including
   configured addresses and routes).

   However, as discussed in Section 2.2, PIOs with small Valid Lifetimes
   will not lower the Valid Lifetime to any value shorter than two hours
   (as per [RFC4862]).  Therefore, even if a SLAAC router were to
   explicitly signal the network about the stale configuration
   information via RAs, such signaling would be mostly ignored.

2.4.  Interaction Between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC

   While DHCPv6-PD is normally employed along with SLAAC, the
   interaction between the two protocols is largely unspecified.  Not
   unusually, the two protocols are implemented in two different
   software components with the interface between the two implemented by
   some sort of script that feeds the SLAAC implementation with values
   learned from DHCPv6-PD.

   At times, the prefix lease time is fed as a constant value to the
   SLAAC router implementation, meaning that, eventually, the prefix
   lifetime advertised on the LAN side will span *past* the DHCPv6-PD
   lease time.  This is clearly incorrect, since the SLAAC router
   implementation would be allowing the use of such prefixes for a
   longer time than it has been granted usage of those prefixes via
   DHCPv6-PD.

2.5.  Use of Dynamic Prefixes

   The problem discussed in this document would be avoided if DHCPv6-PD
   would lease "stable" prefixes.  However, a recent survey [UK-NOF]
   indicates that 37% of the responding ISPs employ dynamic prefixes.
   That is, dynamic IPv6 prefixes are an operational reality.



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   Deployment reality aside, there are a number of possible issues
   associated with stable prefixes:

   o  Provisioning systems may be unable to deliver stable IPv6
      prefixes.

   o  While there is a range of information that may be employed to
      correlate network activity [RFC7721], the use of stable prefixes
      clearly simplifies network activity correlation, and may
      essentially render features such as "temporary addresses"
      [RFC4941] irrelevant.

   o  There may be existing advice for ISPs to deliver dynamic IPv6
      prefixes *by default* (see e.g.  [GERMAN-DP]) over the privacy
      concerns associated with stable prefixes.

   The authors of this document understand that, for a number of reasons
   (such as the ones stated above), IPv6 deployments may employ dynamic
   prefixes (even at the expense of the issues discussed in this
   document), and that there might be scenarios in which the dynamics of
   a network are such that the network exhibits the behaviour of dynamic
   prefixes.  Rather than try to preclude how operators may run their
   networks, this document aims at improving network robustness in the
   deployed Internet.

3.  Possible workarounds

   The following subsections discuss possible operational workarounds
   for the aforementioned problem.

   Section 3.2 specifies the interaction between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC,
   such that devices such as CPEs may be in a better position to convey
   current network information to hosts on the LAN-side.  For obvious
   reasons (legacy CPEs, etc.), this improved behaviour cannot be relied
   upon for mitigating the problem described in Section 1.  However, it
   does contribute to more robust IPv6 networks.

   Finally, Section 2.5 analyzes the trade-offs of employing stable vs.
   dynamic network prefixes.

3.1.  SLAAC Parameter Tweaking

   An operator may wish to override some SLAAC parameters such that,
   under normal circumstances (including some packet loss), the timers
   will be refreshed/reset, but in the presence of network faults (such
   as network configuration information becoming stale without explicit
   signaling), the timers go off and trigger some fault recovering




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   action (such as un-preferring the corresponding addresses and
   subsequently removing them).

   The following router configuration variables (corresponding to the
   "lifetime" parameters in PIOs) could be overridden as follows:

      AdvValidLifetime: 1.5 * AdvDefaultLifetime

      AdvPreferredLifetime: AdvDefaultLifetime

   NOTE:  A CPE router advertising a sub-prefix of a prefixed leased via
      DHCPv6-PD will periodically refresh the Preferred Lifetime and the
      Valid Lifetime of an advertised prefix to AdvPreferredLifetime and
      AdvValidLifetime, respectively, as long as the resulting lifetime
      of the corresponding prefixes does not extend past the DHCPv6-PD
      lease time.

   RATIONALE:

      *  In the context of [RFC8028], where it is clear that use of
         addresses configured for a given prefix is tied to using the
         next-hop router that advertised the prefix, neither the
         "Preferred Lifetime" or the "Valid Lifetime" of a PIO should
         never be larger than the "Router Lifetime" (AdvDefaultLifetime)
         of Router Advertisement messages.

      *  Lacking RAs that refresh information, addresses configured for
         advertised prefixes become un-preferred in a timelier manner,
         and thus Rule 3 of [RFC6724] causes other configured addresses
         (if available) to be used instead.

      *  Reducing the Valid Lifetime and Preferred Lifetimes of PIOs
         limits the amount of time hosts may use stale prefixes, and
         also limits the amount of time that a stale prefix needs to be
         advertised with a lifetime of "0" on the local network (see
         Section 12 of [RFC4861]).

3.2.  Improved CPE behavior

   This section specifies and clarifies requirements for CPE routers
   (particularly when they advertise prefixes learned via DHCPv6-PD)
   that can help mitigate the problem discussed in Section 1.  This
   would obviously make robustness dependent on the CPE (on which the
   user or ISP may have no control), as opposed to the host itself.

   The updated behaviour is as follows:





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   o  CPE routers MUST signal stale configuration information as
      specified in Section 3.2.1

   o  CPE routers MUST implement the DHCPv6-PD/SLAAC interface specified
      in Section 3.2.2.

   o  CPE routers SHOULD NOT automatically send DHCPv6-PD RELEASE
      messages upon reboot events.

3.2.1.  Signaling Stale Configuration Information

   In order to phase-out stale configuration information:

   o  A CPE router sending RAs that advertise dynamically-learned
      prefixes (e.g. via DHCPv6-PD) on an interface MUST record, on
      stable storage, the list of prefixes being advertised on each
      network segment.

   o  Upon changes to the advertised prefixes, and after bootstrapping,
      the CPE router advertising prefix information via SLAAC should
      proceed as follows:

      *  Any prefixes that were previously advertised via SLAAC, but
         that are not currently intended for address configuration, MUST
         be advertised with a PIO option with the "A" bit set to 1 and
         the "Valid Lifetime" and a "Preferred Lifetime" set to 0.

      *  Any prefixes that were previously advertised via SLAAC as "on-
         link", but that are not currently not considered "on-link",
         MUST be advertised with a PIO option with the "L" bit set to 1
         and the "Valid Lifetime" and a "Preferred Lifetime" set to 0.

      *  If both of the previous conditions are met (a prefix was
         previously advertised with both the "A" and "L" bits set, but
         is currently *not* intended for address configuration and is
         *not* considered on-link), the prefix MUST be advertised with a
         PIO option with both the "A" and "L" bits set to 1 and the
         "Valid Lifetime" and a "Preferred Lifetime" set to 0.  That is.
         the advertisements of the previous two steps can be coalesced
         into a single one with both the "A" and "L" bits set.

      *  The aforementioned advertisement SHOULD be performed for at
         least the "Valid Lifetime" previously employed for such prefix.

   The aforementioned improved behaviour assumes compliance with the
   following existing requirements from other specifications, which we
   reference here for clarity:




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   o  [RFC7084] specifies (requirement LE-13, in Section 4.3) that when
      the delegated prefix changes (i.e., the current prefix is replaced
      with a new prefix without any overlapping time period), "the IPv6
      CE router MUST immediately advertise the old prefix with a
      Preferred Lifetime of zero and a Valid Lifetime of either a) zero
      or b) the lower of the current Valid Lifetime and two hours (which
      must be decremented in real time) in a Router Advertisement
      message as described in Section 5.5.3, (e) of [RFC4862]"

3.2.2.  Interaction Between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC

   The "Preferred Lifetime" and "Valid Lifetime" of PIOs corresponding
   to prefixes learned via DHCPv6-PD MUST NOT span past the lease time
   of the DHCPv6-PD prefixes.  This means that the advertised "Preferred
   Lifetime" and "Valid Lifetime" MUST be dynamically adjusted such that
   the advertised lifetimes never span past the lease time of the
   prefixes delegated via DHCPv6-PD.

   This is in line with these existing requirements from other
   specifications, which we reference here for clarity:

   o  [RFC8415] specifies, in Section 6.3, that "if the delegated prefix
      or a prefix derived from it is advertised for stateless address
      autoconfiguration [RFC4862], the advertised preferred and valid
      lifetimes MUST NOT exceed the corresponding remaining lifetimes of
      the delegated prefix."

   RATIONALE:

      *  The lifetime values employed for the "Preferred Lifetime"
         (AdvPreferredLifetime) and "Valid Lifetime" (AdvValidLifetime)
         should never be larger than the remaining lease time for the
         corresponding prefix (as learned via DHCPv6-PD).

      *  The lifetime values advertised for prefixes corresponding to a
         prefix leased via DHCPv6-PD should be dynamically updated
         (rather than static values), since otherwise the advertised
         lifetimes would eventually span past the DHCPv6-PD lease time.

4.  Summary of Operational Mitigations

4.1.  Networks

   o  Employ shorter values for the Preferred Lifetime and Valid
      Lifetime in PIOs

   o  Employ stable network prefixes where possible and desirable




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4.2.  CPE routers

   o  Implement the interface between DHCPv6-PD and SLAAC as appropriate

   o  Refrain from unnecessarily issuing DHCPv6-PD RELEASE commands upon
      reboots

   o  Record DHCPv6-PD leases on stable storage (when possible) and
      phase-out stale information when needed

5.  Future Work

   This document proposes operational mitigations to the discussed
   problem.  Improvements in the SLAAC protocol and algorithms "Default
   Address Selection for IPv6" may achieve improved network robustness
   and should be considered by relevant Working Groups (see e.g.
   [I-D.gont-6man-slaac-renum]).  Such work is considered out of the
   scope of this present document, which focuses on documenting the
   problem and proposing operational mitigations.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

7.  Security Considerations

   This document discusses a problem that may arise in scenarios where
   dynamic IPv6 prefixes are employed, and proposes workarounds to
   mitigate the aforementioned problems.  The security and privacy
   implications of IPv6 addresses are discussed in [RFC7721].

8.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would lie to thank (in alphabetical order) Mikael
   Abrahamsson, Luis Balbinot, Brian Carpenter, Gert Doering, Nick
   Hilliard, Philip Homburg, Lee Howard, Christian Huitema, Albert
   Manfredi, Jordi Palet Martinez, Richard Patterson, Michael
   Richardson, Mark Smith, Tarko Tikan, and Ole Troan, for providing
   valuable comments on [I-D.gont-6man-slaac-renum], on which this
   document is based.earlier versions of this document.

   Fernando would like to thank Alejandro D'Egidio and Sander Steffann
   for a discussion of these issues.  Fernando would also like to thank
   Brian Carpenter who, over the years, has answered many questions and
   provided valuable comments that has benefited his protocol-related
   work.





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   The problem discussed in this document has been previously documented
   by Jen Linkova in [I-D.linkova-6man-default-addr-selection-update],
   and also in [RIPE-690].  Section 1 borrows text from
   [I-D.linkova-6man-default-addr-selection-update], authored by Jen
   Linkova.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, DOI 10.17487/RFC4941, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4941>.

   [RFC8028]  Baker, F. and B. Carpenter, "First-Hop Router Selection by
              Hosts in a Multi-Prefix Network", RFC 8028,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8028, November 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8028>.

   [RFC8415]  Mrugalski, T., Siodelski, M., Volz, B., Yourtchenko, A.,
              Richardson, M., Jiang, S., Lemon, T., and T. Winters,
              "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)",
              RFC 8415, DOI 10.17487/RFC8415, November 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8415>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [FRITZ]    Gont, F., "Quiz: Weird IPv6 Traffic on the Local Network
              (updated with solution)", SI6 Networks Blog, February
              2016, <http://blog.si6networks.com/2016/02/
              quiz-weird-ipv6-traffic-on-local-network.html>.









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   [GERMAN-DP]
              BFDI, "Einfuhrung von IPv6 Hinweise fur Provider im
              Privatkundengeschaft und Herstellere", Entschliessung der
              84. Konferenz der Datenschutzbeauftragten des Bundes und
              der Lander am 7./8. November 2012 in Frankfurt (Oder),
              November 2012,
              <http://www.bfdi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Publikationen/
              Entschliessungssammlung/DSBundLaender/84DSK_EinfuehrungIPv
              6.pdf?__blob=publicationFile>.

   [I-D.gont-6man-slaac-renum]
              Gont, F. and J. Zorz, "Reaction of Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) to Renumbering Events", draft-
              gont-6man-slaac-renum-01 (work in progress), February
              2019.

   [I-D.linkova-6man-default-addr-selection-update]
              Linkova, J., "Default Address Selection and Subnet
              Renumbering", draft-linkova-6man-default-addr-selection-
              update-00 (work in progress), March 2017.

   [RFC6724]  Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
              "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6724>.

   [RFC7084]  Singh, H., Beebee, W., Donley, C., and B. Stark, "Basic
              Requirements for IPv6 Customer Edge Routers", RFC 7084,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7084, November 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7084>.

   [RFC7721]  Cooper, A., Gont, F., and D. Thaler, "Security and Privacy
              Considerations for IPv6 Address Generation Mechanisms",
              RFC 7721, DOI 10.17487/RFC7721, March 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7721>.

   [RIPE-690]
              Zorz, J., Zorz, S., Drazumeric, P., Townsley, M., Alston,
              J., Doering, G., Palet, J., Linkova, J., Balbinot, L.,
              Meynell, K., and L. Howard, "Best Current Operational
              Practice for Operators: IPv6 prefix assignment for end-
              users - persistent vs non-persistent, and what size to
              choose", RIPE 690, October 2017,
              <https://www.ripe.net/publications/docs/ripe-690>.







Gont, et al.             Expires January 7, 2020               [Page 13]


Internet-Draft       Reaction to Renumbering Events            July 2019


   [UK-NOF]   Palet, J., "IPv6 Deployment Survey (Residential/Household
              Services) How IPv6 is being deployed?", UK NOF 39, January
              2018,
              <https://indico.uknof.org.uk/event/41/contributions/542/
              attachments/712/866/bcop-ipv6-prefix-v9.pdf>.

Authors' Addresses

   Fernando Gont
   SI6 Networks
   Segurola y Habana 4310, 7mo Piso
   Villa Devoto, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires
   Argentina

   Phone: +54 11 4650 8472
   Email: fgont@si6networks.com
   URI:   https://www.si6networks.com


   Jan Zorz
   Frankovo n. 165
   Skofja Loka
   Slovenia

   Email: jan@go6.si


   Richard Patterson
   Sky UK

   Email: richard.patterson@sky.uk




















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