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  INTERNET-DRAFT                                             Eric A. Hall
  Document: draft-hall-mime-app-mbox-04.txt                 February 2005
  Expires: August, 2005
  Category: Standards-Track
                       The APPLICATION/MBOX Media-Type
     Status of this Memo
     By submitting this Internet-Draft, I certify that any applicable
     patent or other IPR claims of which I am aware have been
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     accordance with RFC 3668.
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     Copyright Notice
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved.
     This memo requests that the application/mbox media-type be
     authorized for allocation by the IESG, according to the terms
     specified in RFC 2048 [RFC2048]. This memo also defines a default
     format for the mbox database, which must be supported by all
     conformant implementations.
  Internet Draft     draft-hall-mime-app-mbox-04.txt     February 2005
  1.      Background and Overview
     UNIX-like operating systems have historically made widespread use
     of "mbox" database files for a variety of local email purposes. In
     the common case, mbox files store linear sequences of one or more
     electronic mail messages, with local email clients treating the
     database as a logical folder of email messages. mbox databases are
     also used by a variety of other messaging tools, such as mailing
     list management programs, archiving and filtering utilities,
     messaging servers, and other related applications. In recent
     years, mbox databases have also become common on a large number of
     non-UNIX computing platforms, for similar kinds of purposes.
     The increased pervasiveness of these files has led to an increased
     demand for a standardized, network-wide interchange of these files
     as discrete database objects. In turn, this dictates a need for a
     media-type definition for mbox files in general, which is the
     subject and purpose of this memo.
  2.      About the mbox Database
     The mbox database format is not documented in an authoritative
     specification, but instead exists as a well-known output format
     that is anecdotally documented, or which is only authoritatively
     documented for a specific platform or tool.
     mbox databases typically contain a linear sequence of electronic
     mail messages. Each message begins with a separator line that
     identifies the message sender, and also identifies the date and
     time at which the message was received by the final recipient
     (either the last-hop system in the transfer path, or the system
     which serves as the recipient's mailstore). Each message is
     typically terminated by an empty line. The end of the database is
     usually recognized by either the absence of any additional data,
     or by the presence of an explicit end-of-file marker.
     The structure of the separator lines vary across implementations,
     but usually contain the exact character sequence of "From",
     followed by a single Space character (0x20), an email address of
     some kind, another Space character, a timestamp sequence of some
     kind, and an end-of-line marker. However, due to the lack of any
     authoritative specification, each of these attributes are known to
     vary widely across implementations. For example, the email address
     can reflect any addressing syntax which has ever been used on any
     messaging system in all of history (specifically including address
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     forms which are not compatible with Internet messages, as defined
     by RFC 2822 [RFC2822]). Similarly, the timestamp sequences can
     also vary according to system output, while the end-of-line
     sequences will often reflect platform-specific requirements.
     Different data formats can even appear within a single database as
     a result of multiple mbox files being concatenated together, or
     because a single file was accessed by multiple messaging clients
     which have each used their own syntax for the separator line.
     Message data within mbox databases often reflects site-specific
     peculiarities. For example, it is entirely possible for the
     message body or headers in an mbox database to contain untagged
     eight-bit character data that implicitly reflects a site-specific
     default language or locale, or for timestamps and email addresses
     to reflect local defaults, with none of this data being widely
     portable beyond the local scope. Similarly, message data can also
     contain unencoded eight-bit binary data, or can use encoding
     formats which represent a specific platform (E.G., BINHEX or
     UUENCODE sequences).
     Many implementations are also known to escape message body lines
     that begin with the character sequence of "From ", so as to
     prevent confusion with overly-liberal parsers that do not search
     for full separator lines. In the common case, a leading Greater-
     Than symbol (0x3E) is used for this purpose (with "From " becoming
     ">From "). However, other implementations are known not to escape
     such lines unless they are immediately preceded by a blank line or
     if they also appear to contain an email address and a timestamp.
     Other implementations are also known to perform secondary escapes
     against these lines if they are already escaped or quoted, while
     others ignore these mechanisms altogether.
     A comprehensive description of mbox database files on UNIX-like
     systems can be found at http://qmail.org./man/man5/mbox.html,
     which should be treated as mostly authoritative for those
     variations which are otherwise only documented in anecdotal form.
     However, readers are advised that many other platforms and tools
     make use of mbox databases, and that there are many more potential
     variations that can be encountered in the wild.
     In order to mitigate errors that may arise from such vagaries,
     this specification defines a "format" parameter to the
     APPLICATION/MBOX media-type declaration, which can be used to
     identify the specific kind of mbox database that is being
     transferred. Furthermore, this specification defines a "default"
     database format which MUST be supported by implementations that
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  Internet Draft     draft-hall-mime-app-mbox-04.txt     February 2005
     claim to be compliant with this specification, and which is to be
     used as the implicit format for undeclared APPLICATION/MBOX data
     objects. Additional format types are to be defined in subsequent
     specifications. Messaging systems which receive a mbox database
     with an unknown format parameter value SHOULD treat the data as an
     opaque binary object, as if the data had been declared as
     Refer to Appendix A for a description of the default mbox format.
     Note that RFC 2046 [RFC2046] defines the multipart/digest media-
     type for transferring platform-independent message files. Since
     that specification defines a set of neutral and strict formatting
     rules, the multipart/digest media-type already facilitates highly-
     predictable transfer and conversion operations, and as such
     implementers are strongly encouraged to support and use that
     media-type where possible.
  3.      Prerequisites and Terminology
     Readers of this document are expected to be familiar with the
     specification for MIME [RFC2045] and MIME-type registrations
     The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
     in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119
  4.      The APPLICATION/MBOX Media-Type Registration
     This section provides the media-type registration application (as
     per [RFC2048]), which will be submitted to IANA after IESG
     approval of this specification.
     MIME media type name: application
     MIME subtype name: mbox
     Required parameters: none
     Optional parameters: The "format" parameter identifies the format
     of the mbox database and the messages contained therein. The
     default value for the "format" parameter is "default", and refers
     to the formatting rules defined in Appendix A of this memo. mbox
     databases that do not have a "format" parameter SHOULD be
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     interpreted as having the implicit "format" value of "default".
     mbox databases that have an unknown value for the "format"
     parameter SHOULD be treated as opaque data objects, as if the
     media-type had been specified as APPLICATION/OCTET-STREAM.
     Additional values for the format parameter are to be defined in
     subsequent specifications, and registered with IANA.
     Encoding considerations: If an email client receives an mbox
     database as a message attachment, and then stores that attachment
     within a local mbox database, the contents of the two database
     files may become irreversibly intermingled, such that neither
     database is no longer independently recognizable. In order to
     avoid these collisions, messaging systems which support this
     specification MUST encode an mbox database (or at a minimum, the
     separator lines) with a non-transparent transfer encoding (such as
     BASE64 or Quoted-Printable) whenever an APPLICATION/MBOX object is
     transferred via messaging protocols. Other transfer services are
     generally encouraged to adopt similar encoding strategies to allow
     for any subsequent retransmission which might occur, but are not
     explicitly required to do so. Implementers should also be prepared
     to encode mbox data locally if non-compliant data is received.
     Security considerations: mbox data is passive, and does not
     generally represent a unique or new security threat. However,
     there is risk in sharing any kind of data, in that unintentional
     information may be exposed, and this risk certainly applies to
     mbox data as well.
     Interoperability considerations: Due to the lack of a single
     authoritative specification for mbox databases, there are a large
     number of variations between database formats (refer to the
     introduction text for common examples), and it is expected that
     non-conformant data will be erroneously tagged or exchanged.
     Although the "default" format specified in this memo does not
     allow for these kinds of vagaries, prior negotiation or agreement
     between humans may sometimes be needed.
     Published specification: see Appendix A.
     Applications which use this media type: hundreds of messaging
     products make use of the mbox database format, in one form or
     Magic number(s): mbox database files can be recognized by having a
     leading character sequence of "From", followed by a single Space
     character (0x20), followed by additional printable character data
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  Internet Draft     draft-hall-mime-app-mbox-04.txt     February 2005
     (refer to the description in Appendix A for details). However,
     implementers are cautioned that all such files will not be
     compliant with all of the formatting rules, so implementers should
     treat these files with an appropriate amount of circumspection.
     File extension(s): mbox database files sometimes have an ".mbox"
     extension, but this is not required nor expected. As with magic
     numbers, implementers should avoid reflexive assumptions about the
     contents of such files.
     Macintosh File Type Code(s): None are known to be common.
     Person & email address to contact for further information: Eric A.
     Hall (ehall@ntrg.com)
     Intended usage: COMMON
  5.      Security Considerations
     See the discussion in section 4.
  6.      IANA Considerations
     Upon IESG approval, IANA would be expected to register the
     APPLICATION/MBOX media-type in the MIME registry, using the
     application provided in section 4 above.
     Furthermore, IANA would be expected to establish and maintain a
     registry of values for the "format" parameter as described in this
     memo. The first registration would be the "default" value, using
     the description provided in Appendix A. Subsequent values for the
     "format" parameter MUST be accompanied by some form of
     recognizable, complete, and legitimate specification, such as an
     IESG-approved specification. or some kind of authoritative vendor
  7.      Normative References
          [RFC2046]     Freed, N., Borenstein, N., "Multipurpose
                         Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two:
                         Media Types", RFC 2046, November 1996.
          [RFC2048]     Freed, N., Klensin, J., Postel, J.,
                         "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
                         Part Four: Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
                         RFC 2048, November 1996.
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          [RFC2119]     Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
                         Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC
                         2119, March 1997.
          [RFC2822]     Resnick, P., "Internet Message Format", RFC
                         2822, April 2001.
  Appendix A.    The "default" mbox Database Format
     In order to improve interoperability among messaging systems, this
     memo defines a "default" mbox database format, which MUST be
     supported by all implementations claiming to be compliant with
     this specification.
     The "default" mbox database format uses a linear sequence of
     Internet messages, with each message being immediately prefaced by
     a separator line, and being terminated by an empty line. More
        o Each message within the database MUST follow the syntax and
          formatting rules defined in RFC 2822 [RFC2822] and its
          related specifications, with the exception that the canonical
          mbox database MUST use a single Line-Feed character (0x0A) as
          the end-of-line sequence, and MUST NOT use a Carriage-
          Return/Line-Feed pair (NB: this requirement only applies to
          the canonical mbox database as transferred, and does not
          override any other specifications). This usage represents the
          most common historical representation of the mbox database
          format, and allows for the least amount of conversion.
        o Messages within the default mbox database MUST consist of
          seven-bit characters within an eight-bit stream. Eight-bit
          data within the stream MUST be converted to a seven-bit form
          (using an appropriate, standardized encoding) and
          appropriately tagged (with the correct header fields) before
          the database is transferred.
        o Message headers and data in the default mbox database MUST be
          fully-qualified, as per the relevant specification[s]. For
          example, email addresses in the various header fields MUST
          have legitimate domain names (as per RFC 2822), while
          extended characters and encodings MUST be specified in the
          appropriate location (as per the appropriate MIME
          specifications), and so forth.
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        o Each message in the mbox database MUST be immediately
          preceded by a single separator line, which MUST conform to
          the following syntax:
             The exact character sequence of "From";
             a single Space character (0x20);
             the email address of the message sender (as obtained from
             the message envelope or other authoritative source),
             conformant with the "addr-spec" syntax from RFC 2822;
             a single Space character;
             a timestamp indicating the UTC date and time when the
             message was originally received, conformant with the
             syntax of the traditional UNIX 'ctime' output sans
             timezone (note that the use of UTC precludes the need for
             a timezone indicator);
             an end-of-line marker.
        o Each message in the database MUST be terminated by an empty
          line, containing a single end-of-line marker.
     Note that the first message in an mbox database will only be
     prefaced by a separator line, while every other message will begin
     with two end-of-line sequences (one at the end of the message
     itself, and another to mark the end of the message within the mbox
     database file stream) and a separator line (marking the new
     message). The end of the database is implicitly reached when no
     more message data or separator lines are found.
     Also note that this specification does not prescribe any escape
     syntax for message body lines that begin with the character
     sequence of "From ". Recipient systems are expected to parse full
     separator lines as they are documented above.
     Funding for the RFC editor function is currently provided by the
     Internet Society.
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  Authors' Addresses
     Eric A. Hall
  Full Copyright Statement
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society 2004. This document is subject
     to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
     except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
     This document and the information contained herein are provided on
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