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Network Working Group                                    P. Hallam-Baker
Internet-Draft                                         Comodo Group Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                        January 22, 2016
Expires: July 25, 2016


                  JSON Web Service Binding Version 1.0
                 draft-hallambaker-json-web-service-01

Abstract

   The JSON Web Binding (JWB) describes a standardized approach to
   implementing Web Services.  Services are advertised using the DNS SRV
   and HTTP Well Known Service conventions.  Messages may be
   authenticated or authenticated and encrypted at the message layer in
   addition to any transport and/or network layer security.  Service
   messages are encoded in JSON using Internet time format for Date-Time
   fields and Base64urlencoding for binary objects.

   This document specifies Version 1.0 of JWB which uses HTTP/1.1 for
   transport.  Use of the multiple stream capabilities of HTTP version 2
   is outside the scope of this document.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 25, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of



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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

1.  Introduction

   The JSON Web Binding (JWB) specifies one approach to using DNS
   Discovery [RFC1035], the HTTP [RFC7230] protocol and the JSON data
   encoding [RFC7159] in a Web Service.

   JWB is not the only approach possible, but developing a standard
   means making choices that don't matter to developers that build on
   it.  While there are infinitely many ways that a Web Service might
   employ HTTP and JSON to implement a Web Service, a client and a
   server can only interoperate if they both agree to use the same one.



      Discovery  Beginning with a DNS address of the service (e.g.
         example.com), the client identifies a specific HTTP URL at
         which to access the service.  The DNS SRV record [RFC2782] and
         Well Known Service [RFC5785] mechanisms are used for this
         purpose.

      Authentication and Encryption  Web Services MAY require
         authentication and encryption services at the message level
         even if transport layer security (e.g.  TLS [RFC5264]) is used.
         Use of such enhancements is signaled using the HTTP Content-
         Encoding header.

      Content Mapping  The mapping of data types described in the
         specification (integer, string, etc.) to JSON data types.
         [RFC3339] Date time encoding and BASE64-url encoding [RFC4648]
         are used to map date-time and binary data types to JSON
         encoding values.

   A key architectural principle that guides the design of JWB is that
   the Web Service application should be as independent of the HTTP
   presentation layer as is possible.  Thus:

   Message semantics are not affected by HTTP headers or the request
   line URL.

   The use of HTTP response codes is limited to reporting errors and
   warnings that arise from the HTTP transport.



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   If message layer authentication or authenticated encryption are used,
   this is applied within the HTTP content payload and not through a
   combination of payload and header data.

   This specification describes a mechanism for accessing a collection
   of hosts as a single undifferentiated service with provision for load
   balancing and fault tolerance.  This has important consequences for
   state management.  Web Services typically involve some form of
   stateful interaction or real world side effect.  Otherwise, it is
   likely that the Web Service would be better written as a traditional
   Web interaction mapping the stateless resources to URIs.

   The mechanism described in this specification is intended for the
   initial discovery of a host with which to engage in a Web Service
   transaction which may or may not consist of a series of message
   exchanges.  Since sharing state between hosts supporting a virtual
   service requires resources and typically introduces latency, a
   service specification MAY require that a transaction begun on one
   host be completed with the same host and the time period in which a
   transaction that is accepted by one host will be regarded as 'final'
   by the virtual service.

   For example, a file upload protocol for a photograph sharing service
   might have separate messages for checking that there is space to
   store the photograph 'Check', uploading the file 'Store' and
   reporting that the data is safely stored at multiple locations.  When
   responding to the Check command, the host is reporting that there is
   space at that local node.  It is obviously undesirable for a client
   to verify that host1 has enough space to store the file and then
   attempt to upload the file to host2.  Equally, having uploaded the
   file to host1, it might be minutes, hours or even days before the
   photograph could be retrieved through host2.  Such questions are left
   for the Web Service protocol designer to address.

2.  Definitions

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Service Discovery

   Service discovery is the process of resolving the address of a Web
   Service to a Web Service Endpoint, a URI [RFC3986] at which the
   service is provided.




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   A JWB Web Service is specified by giving the DNS Address of the
   service <domain>, and Well Known Service name <service>.

3.1.  Host Identification

   The first step in service discovery is to resolve the <domain> and
   <service> identifiers to the IP address of a host that provides that
   service.

3.1.1.  SRV Lookup

   A client attempting to connect to the service first attempts to
   locate an SRV record [RFC2782] for the specified service:

   _<service>._tcp._<domain>  SRV  <priority> <weight> <port> <mapping>

   Where <priority> and <weight> are the SRV priority and weight
   parameters specified in [RFC2782], <port> is the TCP port number and
   <mapping> is the DNS name of the host for which the service
   advertisement is made.  Standard A/AAAA/CNAME resolution is used to
   obtain the IP address of the host from <mapping>.

   If a match is found, the client uses the mechanism specified in
   [RFC2782] to choose hosts and attempts to contact each host in turn
   until a successful HTTP connection is established or the maximum
   number of attempts threshold is reached.

3.1.2.  DNS Fallback

   Despite the fact that SRV records have been a part of the DNS
   standard for 20 years, it is not uncommon for network intermediaries
   to implement SRV record resolution incorrectly or block it entirely.

   If no SRV record is found, a client MAY perform fallback discovery if
   explicitly authorized to do so by the corresponding Web Service
   protocol specification.  The client attempts to connect to the host
   <service>.<domain> using the standard A/AAAA/CNAME resolution rules
   to obtain the IP address of the host.

3.2.  HTTP host processing

   Having identified the IP address, the client performs a HTTP or HTTPS
   Web Service POST request at the default Web Service Endpoint
   specified by the Well Known Service name and the original DNS address
   of the service.

   http://<domain>:<port>/.well-known/<service>




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   Note that a given host MAY provide multiple instances of a Web
   Service under different discovery addresses.  Therefore it is
   essential to use the original <domain> value rather than the
   <mapping> returned in the SRV record.

3.2.1.  Use of TLS transport

   The use of TLS transport is indicated by the SRV port number as
   follows:



      If the SRV port number is 80, 8000, 8080 or greater than 32,767
      HTTP over TCP is used.

   Otherwise  HTTP over TLS Transport (HTTPS) is used.

      If an authenticated DNS resolution protocol (e.g.  DNSSEC
      [RFC4033]) is used to resolve the SRV record, these rules permit
      deployments to achieve 'secure on first contact' transport
      security without the need to resolve additional records (e.g.
      TLSA [RFC6698].  Note however that while the use of TLS is
      mandated, the criteria for evaluating the TLS certificate chain
      presented by the server is left to local site policy.

      A service presented on a port for which HTTP is indicated MAY
      specify a redirect to require use of HTTPS protocol.

3.2.2.  Fallback Processing Rules

   If a client's attempt to connect to a host selected from an SRV
   connection redirection results in a HTTP (3xx), Client error (4xx) or
   Server error (5xx) code, the client MUST process the HTTP error
   response and not simply attempt a connection to a different host.  If
   a client request is rejected for lack of authentication (511) or
   because the request is too large (413) at one host, the client should
   assume that the request will be rejected for the same reason at
   another.  If the attempt to create a TCP connection fails or the
   server returns Service Unavailable (503), the client MAY use the SRV
   fallback rules to select an alternative host.

3.2.3.  Service Continuation

   Once the initial service discovery mechanism has been used to
   establish contact with a host, the service protocol MAY specify that
   further interactions be directed to another host and/or using a
   different protocol.  Such mechanisms are outside the scope of this
   specification.



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3.3.  Example

   The Mathematical Mesh has the Well Known Service name of 'MMM'.
   Accounts used in the Mathematical Mesh follow the [RFC5822] format of
   <user>@<domain>.

   Alice has the account alice@example.com and the DNS configuration
   file for example.com has the following entries:

   _mmm._tcp.example.com SRV host1.example.com 0 10 80 host1.example.com
   _mmm._tcp.example.com SRV host2.example.com 0 40 80 host2.example.com
   mmm.example.com       CNAME host3.example.com
   host1.example.com     A 10.0.1.1
   host2.example.com     A 10.0.1.2
   host3.example.com     A 10.0.1.1
   host3.example.com     A 10.0.1.2

   The client attempts to resolve the address alice@example.com as
   follows:

   Client attempts to resolve SRV record for _mmm._tcp.example.com

   DNS resolver returns two entries.

   Client makes a random selection between host1 (20% weighting) and
   host2 (80% weighting).  Chooses host1.

   Client resolves A/AAAA for host1.example.com

   DNS resolver returns 10.0.1.1

   Client attempts to POST Web Service request to
   http://example.com/.well-known/mmm at host address 10.0.1.1

   The host at 10.0.1.1 returns 503 Service Unavailable

   Client resolves A/AAAA for host2.example.com

   DNS resolver returns 10.0.1.2

   Client attempts to POST Web Service request to
   http://example.com/.well-known/mmm at host address 10.0.1.2

   Request succeeds, session proceeds.

   If the same client is used in a network location where the SRV record
   resolution fails due to a faulty firewall configuration, the
   resolution proceeds as follows:



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   Client attempts to resolve SRV record for _mmm._tcp.example.com

   DNS resolver returns 'not found'

   Client attempts to resolve A and AAAA record

   DNS resolver returns 10.0.1.1, 10.0.1.2

   Client makes a random selection between 10.0.1.1 (50% weighting) and
   10.0.1.2 (50% weighting).  Chooses host1.

   Client attempts to POST Web Service request to
   http://example.com/.well-known/mmm at host address 10.0.1.1

   The host at 10.0.1.1 returns 503 Service Unavailable

   Client attempts to POST Web Service request to
   http://example.com/.well-known/mmm at host address 10.0.1.2

   Request succeeds, session proceeds.

   Note that the main difference between these two scenarios is that the
   use of the SRV record allows the service configuration to account for
   load balancing with tiers of fallback support while the use of round
   robin A/AAAA records does not.

4.  HTTP Messages

   JWB messages are exchanged as HTTP POST transactions.  Support for
   and use of HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] is REQUIRED unless otherwise specified
   by the Web Service Specification.

   While the use of HTTP/2 [RFC7540] offers the potential benefit of
   multiple concurrent transaction streams, the means of making use of
   such capabilities is outside the scope of JWB v1.0 but is likely to
   be the main incentive for defining a revision.

   In contrast to other approaches to the design of Web Services, the
   only use made of the HTTP transport is to distinguish between
   different services on the same host using the Host header and .well-
   known convention and for message framing.

   In particular no use is made of the URI request line to identify
   commands, nor are the caching or proxy capabilities of HTTP.  One of
   the main design objectives of JWB is to enable message level
   authentication.  Since HTTP headers are mutable and may be changed by
   intermediaries, any attempt to make use of HTTP features requires a
   mechanism to canonicalize or duplicate the headers.  Furthermore, the



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   implementation of authentication and encryption features at the
   message level is liable to be incompatible with the HTTP caching
   model and any attempt to implement caching is moot when TLS is in
   use.

4.1.  Request

   The HTTP request MAY contain any valid HTTP header specified in
   [RFC7230].



      Request Line URI   /well-known/<service>

      Request Line Method  POST

      Host: Header  <domain>

      Content-Encoding  As specified in section yy below.

      Content-Type  As specified in section zz below.

      Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding  As specified in [RFC7230].

      Payload  The content payload as specified in section XX below.

   Example: The HTTP request for the mmm service in the previous example
   would be:

   POST /.well-known/mmm HTTP/1.1
   Host: example.com
   Content-Type: application/json
   Content-Length: 16

   { ?hello? : {} }

4.2.  Response

   The response MAY contain any HTTP response header.  However since JWB
   services do not make use of HTTP caching and messages are not
   intended to be modified by HTTP intermediaries, only a limited number
   of headers have significance.



      Response Code  The HTTP response code.  This is processed as
         described in section zz below.




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      Content-Type  As specified in section zz below.

      Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding  As specified in [RFC7230].

      Cache-Control  Since the only valid HTTP method for a JWB request
         is POST, JWB responses are not cacheable.  The use of the
         cache-control header is therefore unnecessary.  However
         experience suggests that reviewers find it easier to understand
         protocol specifications if they are reminded of the fact that
         caching is neither supported nor desired.

   Example: The HTTP response for the mmm service in the previous
   example would be:

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Content-Type: application/json
   Connection: keep-alive
   Cache-Control: no-store
   Content-Length: 43

   { ?hello-response? : { ?Version? : ?1.0? }}

5.  Error handling and response codes

   A JWB Web Service is effectively using a three layer protocol stack
   with the potential for an error to occur at any of the three layers:

   Transport Layer

   HTTP Layer

   Web Service Layer

   Services SHOULD always attempt to return error codes at the highest
   level possible.  However it is clearly impossible for a connection
   that is refused at the Transport layer to return an error code at the
   HTTP layer.  It is however possible for a HTTP layer error response
   to contain a content body.

   In the case that a JWB response contains both a HTTP response code
   and a well formed JWB payload containing a response, the JWB payload
   response SHALL have precedence.

6.  Content Encoding

   The HTTP Content-Encoding header specifies transformations performed
   on the content before the HTTP Transfer encoding was applied.  This
   is commonly used for specifying compression.  In JWB the Content-



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   Encoding header MAY be used to specify that the content that follows
   contains a payload that is either authenticated [RFC7515] or
   authenticated and encrypted [RFC7516] using the JOSE specification.

6.1.  Direct Encoding

   If the Content-Encoding header is absent or empty, the HTTP content
   is the message payload as specified by the Content-Type header.

6.2.  Content-Encoding: jose-jwb

   The Content-Encoding type jose-jwb is a serialization format for JSON
   Web Signature and JSON Web Encryption objects.  Each message consists
   of the following sequence:

   Preamble: A JSON object in UTF-8 encoding

   ASCII Record Separator Character (%x1E)

   Payload

   ASCII Record Separator Character (%x1E)

   Postscript: A JSON object in UTF-8 encoding

   The payload data consists of all the data that appears between the
   first and the last occurrence of the record separator character %x1E
   in the HTTP content.  Since the UTF-8 encoding does not permit the
   octet %0x1E to occur within a well formed JSON object, the use of
   this character as a record separator is unambiguous even if the
   character occurs within the payload (as is possible with a binary
   content-type or if the payload is encrypted).

   The contents of the Preamble, Payload and Postscript vary according
   to whether the message is authenticated or authenticated and
   encrypted.

6.3.  Authenticated

   Authenticated messages are signed using Jose Web Signature [RFC7515].
   The Preamble, Payload and Postscript are formed as follows:



      Preamble  A JSON Object containing the JWS Protected Header

      Payload  The binary data over which the signature value is
         calculated



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      Postscript  The JWS Signature header

   Note that a jsoe-jwb message is only permitted to have a single
   header and there is no provision for providing data that is not
   integrity protected.

6.4.  Authenticated Encryption

   Authenticated messages are signed using Jose Web Signature [RFC7515].
   The Preamble, Payload and Postscript are formed as follows:



      Preamble  A JSON Object containing the JWS Protected Header

      Payload  The binary data over which the signature value is
         calculated

      Postscript  The JWS Signature header

   Note that a jsoe-jwb message is only permitted to have a single
   header and there is no provision for providing data that is not
   integrity protected.

7.  Content Type

   The Content Type header specifies the plaintext payload media type as
   specified in [RFC6838].

   For version1.0 of this specification, the only supported payload
   media type is application/json as specified in [RFC7159].

   Future versions of this specification may include support for binary
   encodings such as JSON-B [draft-hallambaker-jsonbcd] and/or CBOR
   [rfc7049].

8.  JSON Data Bindings

   Note that this is the only part of this specification that is
   strictly limited to JSON encoding.  The rest of the specification is
   equally applicable to Web Services using XML and/or CBOR encoding.

8.1.  Request Message

   Each JWBv1.0 request contains exactly one Web Service Command.
   [Future versions MAY specify a mechanism that permits multiple
   commands to be sent in parallel]




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   The request payload contains a JSON object that contains exactly one
   member whose name is the name of the command that is requested and
   whose value is an object that contains the command parameters (if
   any).

   { ?hello? : {} }

8.2.  Response Message

   The response payload contains a JSON object that contains the members
   specified by the Web Service specification.

   Future versions of this specification MAY reserve particular fields
   in the response payload for particular purposes (e.g. returning
   status values).

   { ?hello-response? : { ?Version? : ?1.0? }}

8.3.  Data Fields

   JSON was originally developed to provide a serialization format for
   the JavaScript programming language [ECMA-262].  While this approach
   is generally applicable to the type systems of scripting programming
   languages, it is less well matched to the richer type systems of
   modern object oriented programming languages such as Java and C#.
   Moreover

   Working within a subset of the capabilities of JSON allows a Web
   Service protocol to be accessed with equal ease from either platform
   type.  In particular the following capabilities of JSON are avoided:

   The ability to use arbitrary strings as field names.

   The use of JSON objects to define maps directly

   The following data field types are used:



      Integer  Integer values are encoded as JSON number values.

      String  Test strings are encoded as JSON text strings.

      Boolean  Boolean values are encoded as JSON 'false', 'true' or
         'null' tokens according to value.

      Sequence  Sequences of data items that are encoded as JSON arrays




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      Object of known type  Objects whose type is known to the receiver
         are encoded as JSON objects

      Object of variable type  Objects whose type is not known to the
         receiver are encoded as JSON objects containing a single field
         whose name describes the type of the object value and whose
         value contains the value.

      Binary Data  Byte sequences are converted to BASE64-url encoding
         [RFC4648] and encoded as JSON string values.

      Date Time  Date Time values are converted to Internet time format
         as described in [RFC3339] and encoded as JSON string values.

9.  Security Considerations

   A fuller treatment of the security considerations will follow.

9.1.  Integrity

9.1.1.  DNS Spoofing

9.1.2.  TLS Downgrade

9.1.3.  TLS Service Impersonation

9.1.4.  Request Replay Attack

9.1.5.  Response Replay Attack

9.2.  Confidentiality

9.2.1.  Side Channel Attack

9.2.2.  Session Key Leakage

10.  IANA Considerations

   The following registrations are required:



      HTTP Content Coding Registry  jose-jwb

      Well-Known URIs  /.well-known/srv/

         [Or change registry to FCFS]




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11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
              November 1987.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R. and J. Reschke, "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
              (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014.

   [RFC2782]  Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P., and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for
              specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2782, February 2000.

   [RFC5785]  Nottingham, M. and E. Hammer-Lahav, "Defining Well-Known
              Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs)", RFC 5785,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5785, April 2010.

   [RFC5264]  Niemi, A., Lonnfors, M., and E. Leppanen, "Publication of
              Partial Presence Information", RFC 5264,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5264, September 2008.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
              Timestamps", RFC 3339, DOI 10.17487/RFC3339, July 2002.

   [RFC4648]  Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
              Encodings", RFC 4648, DOI 10.17487/RFC4648, October 2006.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005.






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   [RFC7515]  Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
              2015.

   [RFC7516]  Jones, M. and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web Encryption (JWE)",
              RFC 7516, DOI 10.17487/RFC7516, May 2015.

   [RFC6838]  Freed, N., Klensin, J., and T. Hansen, "Media Type
              Specifications and Registration Procedures", BCP 13,
              RFC 6838, DOI 10.17487/RFC6838, January 2013.

   [RFC5822]  "[Reference Not Found!]".

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012.

   [RFC7540]  Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, "Hypertext Transfer
              Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015.

   [draft-hallambaker-jsonbcd]
              "[Reference Not Found!]".

   [ECMA-262]
              "[Reference Not Found!]".

Author's Address

   Phillip Hallam-Baker
   Comodo Group Inc.

   Email: philliph@comodo.com















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