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Network Working Group                                    P. Hallam-Baker
Internet-Draft                                         Comodo Group Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                           March 7, 2016
Expires: September 8, 2016


                    Mathematical Mesh: Architecture
                 draft-hallambaker-mesh-architecture-01

Abstract

   The Mathematical Mesh 'The Mesh' is an end-to-end secure
   infrastructure that facilitates the exchange of configuration and
   credential data between multiple user devices.  The architecture of
   the Mesh and examples of typical applications are described.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 8, 2016.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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1.  Introduction

   The Mathematical Mesh is a user centered Public Key Infrastructure
   that uses cryptography to make computers easier to use.

   The Mesh uses cryptography and an untrusted cloud service to make
   management of computer configuration data transparent to the end
   user.  Each Mesh user has a personal profile that is unique to them
   and contains a set of public keys for maintaining the user's Mesh
   profile.

2.  Definitions

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Background

   Public Key Cryptography permits Internet applications to be secure
   but requires an infrastructure for key distribution.

   WebPKI has been very successful for E-commerce.  Client side PKI has
   been remarkably less successful.

   S/MIME and OpenPGP both have significant user bases but both have
   been limited to a small community.  Government for S/MIME, system
   admins and security researchers for OpenPGP.  Use of PKI for
   authentication of Web users has seen negligible use.

   One of the chief obstacles any network application has to overcome is
   the critical mass problem.  While S/MIME and OpenPGP both have
   several million users, this is a small fraction of the number of
   email users.

   It is likely that the more significant obstacle to deployment is the
   difficulty of using client side PKI applications.  While S/MIME and
   OpenPGP both claim to reduce the effort of sending secure email 'to a
   single click', no security feature that requires the user to make a
   conscious decision to use it every time it is used can ever hope to
   achieve ubiquitous deployment.

   Attempting to automate the process of sending encrypted mail
   introduces a new problem.  The fact that a user has configured a
   client to receive encrypted mail the past does not mean that they are
   capable of receiving and decrypting such mail today.  And even if



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   they are still capable of receiving the encrypted mail today, this
   capability may be limited to a single machine that they do not
   currently have access to.

   While such objections have been repeatedly dismissed as trivial and
   'easily solved' by protocol designers, to ordinary email users, they
   are anything but trivial.  If a change is to be made to an
   infrastructure they rely on daily, it must be completely transparent.
   An email security infrastructure that interrupts or disrupts their
   flow of work is totally unacceptable.

   Equally overlooked by application designers is the difficulty of
   configuring applications that support end-to-end security through
   cryptography.  While working on this project, the author attempted to
   configure a very popular email client to make use of the built in S/
   MIME capabilities.  Even with 25 years of experience, this took over
   half an hour and required the user to follow a procedure with 17
   different steps!

   It is important to note that this complexity is not simply a
   consequence of one poorly designed application, it is the result of
   the functions of the PKI being divided across three poorly integrated
   applications on the user's machine compounded by a set of network
   protocols that are not designed to provide a seamless user
   experience.

   A similar problem is illustrated by the problem of configuring SSH.
   There is a simple way to configure SSH and there is a secure way and
   these are not the same.  The simple way to configure SSH is for each
   user to create a single keypair and copy it to each of the machines
   they might need terminal access to.  While this is straightforward it
   means that there is no way to mitigate the possibility of the key
   being compromised if a machine is lost or stolen.  Sharing a private
   key between machines is as bad as sharing a password between
   accounts.  But attempting to achieve cryptographic hygiene across a
   diverse collection of devices requires user effort proportional to
   the square of the number of devices.

3.1.  What it means to be user-centered

   A key principle that guides the design of the Mesh is that any set of
   instructions that can be written down and given to a user can be
   written down as code and executed by the computer.  Public key
   cryptography is used to automate the process of managing public keys.

   Traditional PKI attempted to solve the problems that were of
   paramount concern to the designers.  The designers of S/MIME were
   concerned with the problem of exchanging secure email within a



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   hierarchical organization and built a (mostly) hierarchical design.
   The designers of OpenPGP were concerned with the risk of government
   subversion of the trust infrastructure for nefarious ends.

   But what does the user care about?  What is the user's principal
   concern?

   The biggest concern I hear from users is not the risk that someone
   else might get to see their confidential data, rather it is the risk
   that they might lose their precious data by some unintended user-
   error.

   Being user centered means considering and addressing the requirements
   that are set by users regardless of whether they are compatible with
   the designer's view of optimal security.  In particular a user-
   centered PKI must address requirements such as:

   Guaranteeing that data loss does not happen even in the most extreme
   cases of total loss or destruction of all hardware they used to store
   their keys.

   Mitigating the consequences of user error or carelessness.

   Mitigating the consequences of devices being lost or stolen.

   Providing mechanisms that permit a user to permit access to their
   digital assets after their death.

3.2.  Eliminate unnecessary options

   Traditionally cryptographic applications give the user a bewildering
   choice of algorithms and options.  They can choose to have one RSA
   keypair used for encryption and signature or they can have separate
   keys for both, they can encrypt their messages using 3DES or AES at
   128, 192 or 256 bit security.  And so on.

   The Mesh eliminates such choices as unnecessary.  Except where
   required by an application, the Mesh always uses separate keys for
   encryption and signature operations and only uses the highest
   strength on offer.  Currently, Mesh profiles are always encrypted
   using RSA with a 2048 bit key, AES with a 256 bit key and SHA-2-512.
   (The CFRG ECC curves will be added in the near future when
   implementations become available.)

   For similar reasons, every Mesh master profile has an escrow key.
   The use of key escrow by applications is optional, but every profile
   has the capability of using it should circumstances require.




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3.3.  Why change is possible

   All four of the open standards based PKIs that have been developed in
   the IETF are based on designs that emerged in the mid-1990s.
   Performing the computations necessary for public key cryptography
   without noticeable impact on the speed of user interaction was a
   constraint for even the fastest machines of the day.  Consequently,
   PKI designs attempted to limit the number of cryptographic operations
   required to the bare minimum necessary.  There were long debates over
   the question of whether certificate chains of more than 3
   certificates were acceptable.

   Today a 32 bit computer with two processing cores running at 1.2GHz
   can be bought for $5 and public key algorithms are available that
   provide a higher level of security for less computation time.  In
   1995, the idea that a single user might need a hundred public key
   pairs and a personal PKI to manage them as an extreme scenario.
   Today when the typical user has a phone, a tablet and a laptop and
   their home is about to fill up dozens if not hundreds of network
   connected devices, the need to manage large numbers of keys for
   individual users is clear.

   Almost any information security requirement has a straightforward
   solution if you are prepared to commit the necessary resources.  In
   general, each degree of cryptographic separation that is required
   will introduce an additional layer of hierarchy.

   Traditionally PKI has focused on the problem of delegating trust from
   one party to another.  Such capabilities have been implicit in the
   model but only expressed in applications to a limited degree.

   In the WebPKI, Certificate Authorities maintain the private keys
   corresponding to their widely distributed root keys in offline
   facilities that are never connected to the Internet.  These keys are
   in turn used to sign 'intermediate root certificates' corresponding
   to the keys used to sign end entity certificates.  The CA has this
   capability but the end entity does not.  In the PKIX model it is
   assumed that if the end entity needs to change their cryptographic
   configuration, they will go back to their CA and get a new
   certificate.

   In the OpenPGP Web of trust, Alice signs the key of Bob who signs the
   key of Carol.  Since everyone is a trust provider in the OpenPGP
   model, Alice can sign a key for Alice.  This mechanism is used to
   support key rollover but the task of distributing her new keys to the
   devices where Alice needs them is a problem left to Alice.





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   While it is quite possible for a very capable and experienced PKI
   expert to configure PKIX and OpenPGP applications in a fashion that
   supports management of personal keys, such use is far beyond what can
   reasonably be expected of typical users.

   The Mesh applies PKI technology to the problem of making PKI use
   effortless.  Once an initial configuration is established, the user
   is not required to think about PKI at all.  Every PKI operation (e.g.
   key and certificate rollover) is performed automatically.

4.  Basic Concepts

4.1.  Parties

   The Mesh is a network infrastructure.  As with any such
   infrastructure it is formed not as a set of things but rather as the
   relationship between those things.

4.1.1.  User

   A Mesh user is a person or organization that has established a Mesh
   personal profile.  A Mesh personal profile describes the
   configuration of the set of devices and applications that the user
   uses.  Each Mesh profile is identified by a globally unique
   fingerprint value.

   A Mesh user MAY have multiple profiles for the purpose of
   compartmentalizing their online identity and preventing activity in
   one network context being linked to activity in another network
   context.  The extent to which such separation provides increased
   privacy is not currently understood.  From the point of view of the
   Mesh protocols, such profiles are held by separate users.

   At present the Mesh specifications are designed to support
   requirements arising from personal use such as the user transferring
   application settings from one device they own to another device they
   own.  To deploy the Mesh in an enterprise environment, features such
   as the ability to import settings provided by the IT department are
   highly desirable.

4.1.2.  Devices

   The Mesh may be used on any computer that has the ability to connect
   to a network and perform public key cryptography.

   Every device that uses the Mesh has a unique device profile that
   specifies public key pairs that are unique to that device.




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   When a device is connected to a user's personal profile, it may be an
   Administration Device or a Connected Device depending on whether it
   has been assigned an Administration key.



      Administration device  A device that has access to an
         administration key for the user's Mesh Personal Profile and is
         thus authorized to authorize actions such as connecting a new
         device to the profile, removing devices and creating or
         removing application profiles.

      Connected Device  A device that is connected to the Mesh Personal
         Profile that is not an administration device.

         Note that a device MAY be connected to more than one Personal
         Profile at the same time.  For example, an embedded device such
         as a thermostat might have a single device profile installed
         during manufacture.  If Alice and Bob share the same
         accommodations where the thermostat is installed, both users
         might have connected the device to their personal profile.

4.1.3.  Portal Provider

   Users do not interact with a Mesh Directly.  All interaction with the
   Mesh is mediated by a Portal Provider.  The portal provider is
   responsible for protecting the Mesh from abuse such as Denial of
   Service attacks, resource exhaustion, spam, etc.

   Users interact with a portal provider through an account which has an
   account identifier in the traditional [RFC5822] format:

   <user>@<domain>

   Where is an account identifier that is unique to that portal service
   and is the DNS name of the portal service.

4.1.4.  Mesh Provider

4.1.5.  InterMesh

4.2.  Technology

4.2.1.  UDF Fingerprints

   The Uniform Data Fingerprint format (UDF) [draft-hallambaker-udf] is
   used to construct names for Mesh data items.  UDF employs Base32




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   [RFC3977] encoding and the SHA-2-512 and SHA-3-512 digest functions
   to construct fingerprints of varying lengths.

   The choice of fingerprint length is a balance between security and
   compactness of the representation.  Longer fingerprints offer higher
   security but are less convenient.  The minimum fingerprint size
   recommended for use in the Mesh is 25 characters, this presents a
   work factor of 2^117 to an attacker attempting to generate a
   signature key matching a particular fingerprint, approximately the
   same work factor as RSA with 2048 bit keys.

4.2.2.  Resolving

   In contrast to the URLs resolved by the HTTP protocol which identify
   a resource by means of a location and a means of retrieval, a UDF
   fingerprint only identifies a fixed data object and the data type.

   A UDF resolution service resolves UDF fingerprints in the same manner
   that a HTTP server resolves URLs but can only provide a response for
   the set of fingerprints known to that specific server.  Unlike the
   HTTP service which the client must trust to return the correct
   resource, every response returned by a UDF resolution service may be
   validated against the fingerprint presented in the original request.
   Thus a user of a UDF resolution service is not required to trust it
   for the integrity of the result received.

4.2.3.  Signed Resources

   UDF fingerprints provide a probabilistically unique identifier for a
   static data object but do not provide a direct means of identifying
   resources that change over time.  To identify such resources, digital
   signatures are used.  A public key signature pair is created and the
   UDF fingerprint of the public key parameters serves as the
   identifier.  The private key is then used to sign either the data
   object itself or a data object containing a further public key.

   The application/pkix-keyinfo content type described in [draft-
   hallambaker-udf] is used to create identifiers for public keys.

4.2.4.  Profile

   A Mesh profile is a set of configuration settings that is bound to a
   persistent identifier (a UDF fingerprint).

   The Mesh protocols do not put any limit on the size or complexity of
   Mesh profiles but a Mesh Portal SHOULD impose such limits as are
   appropriate to avoid abuse such as denial of service attacks.




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4.2.5.  JSON Encoding

   Javascript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC7159] encoding is used to
   encode all Mesh data objects except for low level cryptographic
   formats where other encodings are already established.

4.2.6.  HTTP Web Service

   The Mesh defines two new protocols:



      Mesh Portal Protocol (mmm)  A client-server protocol that mediates
         access to a Mesh.

      Intermesh Protocol  The Intermesh protocol is used to exchange
         Mesh profile data between portals.  It is a flood fill protocol
         that applies the same principles demonstrated in NNTP
         [RFC4644].

   The DNS SRV mechanism is used for

4.2.7.  Transparency

   The principle of transparency was introduced by the Certificate
   Transparency specification [RFC6962].  Transparency is the ability to
   audit a system using only information that is available to the users
   of the system.  If the system is a public service, all the data used
   to audit the service must be public.

   The Mesh uses strong encryption and

5.  Mesh Profiles

5.1.  Device Profile

   Is unique to each device.  If a device has multiple accounts, each
   account would typically require a separate device profile.

   Has separate keys for encryption, authentication and signature.

   Typically generated on the device.

   Once generated, is typically constant until the device is reset.

   Used to provision application keys out to a device.





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5.2.  Master Profile

   Is signed by the Master Signing Key which is in turn validated by the
   fingerprint.

   Contains a Master Signing Key, Set of Administration Keys and Set of
   Escrow Keys.

   Changes infrequently, usually only when the set of administration
   devices changes or a new escrow key is added.

5.3.  Personal Profile

   Is signed by an administration key.

   For convenience, the master profile is included as an attachment.

   Changes when there is a significant change to the configuration, the
   addition of a new device or application.

5.4.  Application Profile

   Is signed by an administration key or an application administration
   key (if specified for the application).

   Contains the application configuration data.  Is encrypted to the
   device keys.

   Changes when the application configuration is changed or when devices
   are added or removed.

5.5.  Future Directions

   It may be desirable to partition the Application profiles so that it
   is not necessary for every device to download the whole thing.  For
   example, sign a manifest so that the portal can strip out just the
   parts of the profile that are relevant to a device.

6.  Mesh Portal Protocol

   Not necessarily instantaneous, may be latency between an update being
   published and it being available.

7.  Intermesh Protocol

   This is not a priority at the moment.





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   May be used to support local replication or replication between
   providers.

   It is anticipated that the Intermesh Protocol will operate at a
   substantially greater latency than the Mesh Portal Protocol.
   Probably resynchronizing on an hourly or even daily basis.

   Portals are not required to forward every update to the Intermesh.
   Only updates that have not been superseded within the time quanta
   need be published.

   Each Portal runs a local append only log of every transaction.  This
   is periodically closed and a new log started.  Some time after the
   log is closed, a hash structure is calculated across the log entries
   and broadcast to the other participants in the InterMesh.  After a
   quorum of hash values has been received, each participant in the
   exchange calculates a new master hash entry which will be added to
   the log before the next checkpoint occurs.

   The participants exchange log records, but this may be on a limited
   basis.  If the InterMesh has a hundred members, it is not necessary
   for every single node to have every single entry in real time.  It is
   sufficient for each node to have knowledge of a partner that can
   provide it on demand.

8.  Protocol Overview

   [Account request does not specify the portal in the request body,
   only the HTTP package includes this information.  This is probably a
   bug.]

8.1.  Creating a new portal account

   A user interacts with a Mesh service through a Mesh portal provider
   with which she establishes a portal account.

   For user convenience, a portal account identifier has the familiar
   <username>@<domain> format established in [RFC822].

   For example Alice selects example.com as her portal provider and
   chooses the account name alice.  Her portal account identifier is
   alice.

   A user MAY establish accounts with multiple portal providers and/or
   change their portal provider at any time they choose.






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8.1.1.  Checking Account Identifier for uniqueness

   The first step in creating a new account is to check to see if the
   chosen account identifier is available.  This allows a client to
   validate user input and if necessary warn the user that they need to
   choose a new account identifier when the data is first entered.

   The ValidateRequest message contains the requested account identifier
   and an optional language parameter to allow the service to provide
   informative error messages in a language the user understands.  The
   Language field contains a list of ISO language identifier codes in
   order of preference, most preferred first.

   POST /.well-known/mmm/HTTP/1.1
   Host: example.com
   Content-Length: 88

   {
     "ValidateRequest": {
       "Account": "alice@example.com",
       "Language": ["en-uk"]}}

   The ValidateResponse message returns the result of the validation
   request in the Valid field.  Note that even if the value true is
   returned, a subsequent account creation request MAY still fail.

   HTTP/1.1 200 OK
   Date: Mon 07 Mar 2016 09:28:07
   Content-Length: 190

   {
     "ValidateResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully",
       "Valid": true,
       "Minimum": 1,
       "InvalidCharacters": ".,:;{}()[]<>?|\\@#"}}

   [Note that for the sake of concise presentation, the HTTP binding
   information is omitted from future examples.]

8.2.  Creating a new user profile

   The first step in creating a new personal profile is to create a
   Master Profile object.  This contains the long term Master Signing
   Key that will remain constant for the life of the profile, at least
   one Online Signature Key to be used for administering the personal
   profile and (optionally), one or more master escrow keys.



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   For convenience, the descriptions of the Master Signing Key, Online
   Signing Keys and Escrow Keys typically include PKIX certificates
   signed by the Master Signing Key. This allows PKIX based applications
   to make use of PKIX certificate chains to express the same trust
   relationships described in the Mesh.

   {
     "MasterProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
       "MasterSignatureKey": {
         "UDF": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
         "X509Certificate": "
   MIIDJjCCAg6gAwIBAgIQRZ59PlINY9TLiyORByDifTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0FADAu
   MSwwKgYDVQQDFiNNREpWQS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRDAe
   ...
   -zDRA53b1TnPYd5DNZBdF-zcF4oL-yxNqBw7BBMbyIg-72APECSAy1O9",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
             "n": "
   x4WRJAFuUSZKqw0hx1CCKmjh_JfAgnTBUt8GCKjOLBMIteDQOG85o5CkfHEj5g3h
   830JV_QRgGH4DK6YojP7sJflRPRpEgCII6kQ8S5LHtoWNLci83pHDX8IwMab4lqp
   Yh6gNUdvhqfL9gyuKHqJLD0W6o9dKpxm-RgbmJlgxBelxfR8EoftBKC57VFwJ2UC
   wKWOoo7vQAgTqXGrp_QSGpLra9BiZ1BvXR6S-uewCLNDNcaWrjPprrFp9vm_QCnw
   AjkDUQyircs14jIZjVY5Qv5-L4OS8UemVp93keVj9wJ8ZxUDXiN6jbutCBkYXO1p
   i37KwvBwn_vzlS3Cu2i3Pw",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}},
       "MasterEscrowKeys": [{
           "UDF": "MDATK-6PWXI-DAQ7X-FOSO2-7CXCU-N46TJ",
           "X509Certificate": "
   MIIDJjCCAg6gAwIBAgIQYpsuNn5CHEmCr9Vmwg1JKTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0FADAu
   MSwwKgYDVQQDFiNNREpWQS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRDAe
   ...
   Bs3BIgqOng7cW-vSZHD-dLt2E5emY_EQ_yAiiWi8EFXL1221CA1iUIOR",
           "PublicParameters": {
             "PublicKeyRSA": {
               "kid": "MDATK-6PWXI-DAQ7X-FOSO2-7CXCU-N46TJ",
               "n": "
   uyle9pmeONA5V9kPS2LPPIzinUD7S_Ev7SrV8gFLwcxECai7LE7K6NJIT-u8A2FI
   3NOvgYpvaz7W9I-z5WSokEt72GwcNStI-kUwshem3KP-Qbg3QRkfLzv9B7E7v_KB
   bm1wP_UEQ_Ap1D_gFbq_PIHJQR_chtxcH91rF5W-rUi_r-C2T3-JAnGtjPISbKXG
   OgjQ7x1V0j-YX9s2tKDpfzlvGfSZpzbXiM4oKvPM_3lH6ZN0eIUF2CmUzr_cdems
   pW_bPjZdtR12UyA8eI18J7mi89eP_dIx_P0q3YY_GpMICBa7Lz5rAZkZVq00iAeP
   7r_1VPQ3msY9lZ5GE61seQ",
               "e": "
   AQAB"}}}],
       "OnlineSignatureKeys": [{



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           "UDF": "MDPI5-HRBPS-FWTDI-76I6Q-VDYZE-UTR2X",
           "X509Certificate": "
   MIIDJzCCAg-gAwIBAgIRAI630vDDvaT5nhLoNdGb1SEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQENBQAw
   LjEsMCoGA1UEAxYjTURKVkEtR1dCRVMtMllYUEEtN0ZIV1UtR05USEUtRDJFTEQw
   ...
   zEY0GG_uZCsIS9rULqu3rRtWFe3stzsKw6levDgFCdL8al-3lghyFasvug",
           "PublicParameters": {
             "PublicKeyRSA": {
               "kid": "MDPI5-HRBPS-FWTDI-76I6Q-VDYZE-UTR2X",
               "n": "
   pdFrro2dJEv1kS-KAyQ4jq6dbX8uCIibNHecDA-og1slmVZy5PUFfZBzgr0Cy-tK
   euV9ZrNVKQP-OCwp9W_ghkTjA3lmCkI_XAbZSD3luQhq4CZJo1dPKGVVZT6YNtvG
   Z-uIy7au7jAiamB2wm64QsbrIAd16bgGngYPYHf58bYdE1Xrb5PMQxCqFLs3VfTO
   qH9SAbgBHuwYSuSSboBPZD_pRiPbujWMXh5TnA_yttfZ0ISkyi18QZ1GEhG-Qwp_
   pjOPtjewh0nJNunC82E1LgBsHUlFgbot3JULsW9q9CfkpgHXN_8FXsUHdEHe_9rm
   xb76--ouQhBchDA82rp1Zw",
               "e": "
   AQAB"}}}]}}

   The Master Profile is always signed using the Master Signing Key:

   {
     "SignedMasterProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
       "SignedData": {
         "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTURKVkEtR1dCRVMtMllYUEEt
   N0ZIV1UtR05USEUtRDJFTEQifQ",
         "payload": "
   ewogICJNYXN0ZXJQcm9maWxlIjogewogICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTURKVkEt
   R1dCRVMtMllYUEEtN0ZIV1UtR05USEUtRDJFTEQiLAogICAgIk1hc3RlclNpZ25h
   ...
   QVFBQiJ9fX1dfX0",
         "signature": "
   BrTIIVhIuK4g0bzSjAmbIcoaYLtBoJhveJfS9R-QrsSwcBEpITxyfDbdKK8GjRey
   hmZQSOogxnSaj4VJul6G-EnHFCMfq7DFlxI6BSim-dThjFIKq3XHPSVS1kwVX5IF
   YoQBzWKjeGIPYfEFTliDjjpFg_Kx7vXRDaArk108PNb7_IVmo1aWEIMh86Izs776
   -hX_1TktNCMTGORG5Z5O48YcwsJX-cMwB_6R_PcVlUja-saD42-vQc_ztU-_iMxx
   p6maDB0vWCxSYvGDF3uxICRi2atcsc8P8arEv4dbyoRa9PArssUu2uYif8czXVEH
   V9Ip6IEd6FWFFyNqab0cxA"}}}

   Since the device used to create the personal profile is typically
   connected to the profile, a Device profile entry is created for it.
   This contains a Device Signing Key, a Device Encryption Key and a
   Device Authentication Key:






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   {
     "DeviceProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MBKMG-6QV5K-5PSXF-6TLUP-XXLRB-FEMVT",
       "Names": ["Alice Desktop"],
       "Description": "A desktop computer built by Acme Computer Co.",
       "DeviceSignatureKey": {
         "UDF": "MBKMG-6QV5K-5PSXF-6TLUP-XXLRB-FEMVT",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MBKMG-6QV5K-5PSXF-6TLUP-XXLRB-FEMVT",
             "n": "
   1yqsmXfIHYqzWe5DcqLnrfa_Xfbh5vK-zagPosWcrce0122Yufm5hZb4Ujc-1ozQ
   z3ssEYIK30I8A8H-0qe-y6oOcRRsANc0LnGwlpadk00fOjcV8WySxkO2aaFmiKNQ
   236zOwC2wtHJS7DxVQhbRUhAfQthopq3ycu88N4Re2pxnS4SBWRIH48AAwydp8Rt
   WGNhCbZT-N-NN8dYrPMCNHhftPKHt0xbgXMtf_49tv4-tKwmAs6uDNXPL3YPWnIK
   aaNA4PqLZPWVtN_kowAFjmpT19ROKLYFHSzmyx6dX6W9-Whor5BOr8U4qbWAcDQJ
   GNZAOa4pzXWLFk9dIaIi5Q",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}},
       "DeviceAuthenticationKey": {
         "UDF": "MDWGK-N4VTY-EF5N4-EBLTA-ITQZC-JZLOI",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MDWGK-N4VTY-EF5N4-EBLTA-ITQZC-JZLOI",
             "n": "
   pJCOo5Q_fQfZy8decCRCBrjy5QGDX6pRy1E_5SNaHZIjZHOUolN3Z_plXryPiFcu
   9hEULTe4Tl--d1_GrY_5HJ06g2zw__-0q7d26Z0z7tJ7OTcyysfoXZ7HAhz8ODeY
   GQ3_ocoW8ibiOj8nla3t3wCU8vnU4e8d2wHiZiyGxYLRH2-TQmCwDh8-mKMfUr0o
   _p06xjwsUvPfDspRBlltkiNbM5wtHZRDiJR15tHw8QAV4EIJFrwZQmI28sJLLqrl
   WZlUxbCZzdXYy4dczlkC9DvxO4qxru22hFtHSOOyArweqJXGWuUW7xkCkWl7oauT
   5rIFzEM712RgNKxodBSotQ",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}},
       "DeviceEncryptiontionKey": {
         "UDF": "MBLYV-KC666-JGASF-7RCNB-DAHQ2-JMTA2",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MBLYV-KC666-JGASF-7RCNB-DAHQ2-JMTA2",
             "n": "
   wj9WxkNn_BBJHbi2QTOZFn28IFXjQT2dhoytLxt8zdEPyaz031YXIrINCFuK2Bsi
   MsB1e8o-7kNWwOTtzXD-lB8U2mc7BH7PEMdcwlLypuKJcVX-MtXMVG4E8fqMYdUQ
   6T3aKtvi1LzPZR8LFjxEx44YoN0juwcRcQkhp_pbsxaxdt4mHSd0_1CF2W5MufXb
   q-sCnAGRAFiCKzT4jfn-MEoQvERqORpVJaiZDyT6z5RS7oIrTu8OPCHyfN8tPzH_
   QjMO5xQtBohms6uYWftiOtgmkV_VaQ4BZt-zZ0DFoDIZmAvMa-p4YZOpRofG-cii
   rVaW4eYY5ELY-c2AGjOpeQ",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}}}}




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   The Device Profile is signed using the Device Signing Key:

   {
     "SignedDeviceProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MBKMG-6QV5K-5PSXF-6TLUP-XXLRB-FEMVT",
       "SignedData": {
         "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
         "payload": "
   ewogICJEZXZpY2VQcm9maWxlIjogewogICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUJLTUct
   NlFWNUstNVBTWEYtNlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQiLAogICAgIk5hbWVzIjogWyJB
   ...
   ICAgICAiZSI6ICIKQVFBQiJ9fX19fQ",
         "signature": "
   vOMCqvNhnMIYnQWldv_2fiGEsYwTHdDJSrmGSnaeG5QrdcmaPqgXHQX-w8rcBy15
   _7i8_9x9jhqytLfsU7dCzNePvyX87D3dPEmdL0-A7RsGp0goKrP3w8O6WMyGTk92
   GrpqSgeNWcpejqxzoB2Mln21J_vRsmkWkHZznRvh5mDSVc5OAZ5-XI8Vg2v4IpV-
   NJKkuAeChUGiOWUBwXsoCIXbU5tjtFYVLYii2F_a3vrVBXGY_hNfDl8DsLJp3rOz
   LFXbMB8B_e9sFwI4GuTykXObVrGpGBJ-Hy93EuacXI2Mh00vbRTJkbT8ClgZhsBq
   ERawxBaucm_Lemig4GUgjA"}}}

   A personal profile would typically contain at least one application
   when first created.  For the sake of demonstration, we will do this
   later.

   The personal profile thus consists of the master profile and the
   device profile:























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   {
     "PersonalProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
       "SignedMasterProfile": {
         "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
         "SignedData": {
           "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTURKVkEtR1dCRVMtMllYUEEt
   N0ZIV1UtR05USEUtRDJFTEQifQ",
           "payload": "
   ewogICJNYXN0ZXJQcm9maWxlIjogewogICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTURKVkEt
   R1dCRVMtMllYUEEtN0ZIV1UtR05USEUtRDJFTEQiLAogICAgIk1hc3RlclNpZ25h
   ...
   QVFBQiJ9fX1dfX0",
           "signature": "
   BrTIIVhIuK4g0bzSjAmbIcoaYLtBoJhveJfS9R-QrsSwcBEpITxyfDbdKK8GjRey
   hmZQSOogxnSaj4VJul6G-EnHFCMfq7DFlxI6BSim-dThjFIKq3XHPSVS1kwVX5IF
   YoQBzWKjeGIPYfEFTliDjjpFg_Kx7vXRDaArk108PNb7_IVmo1aWEIMh86Izs776
   -hX_1TktNCMTGORG5Z5O48YcwsJX-cMwB_6R_PcVlUja-saD42-vQc_ztU-_iMxx
   p6maDB0vWCxSYvGDF3uxICRi2atcsc8P8arEv4dbyoRa9PArssUu2uYif8czXVEH
   V9Ip6IEd6FWFFyNqab0cxA"}},
       "Devices": [{
           "Identifier": "MBKMG-6QV5K-5PSXF-6TLUP-XXLRB-FEMVT",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJEZXZpY2VQcm9maWxlIjogewogICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUJLTUct
   NlFWNUstNVBTWEYtNlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQiLAogICAgIk5hbWVzIjogWyJB
   ...
   ICAgICAiZSI6ICIKQVFBQiJ9fX19fQ",
             "signature": "
   vOMCqvNhnMIYnQWldv_2fiGEsYwTHdDJSrmGSnaeG5QrdcmaPqgXHQX-w8rcBy15
   _7i8_9x9jhqytLfsU7dCzNePvyX87D3dPEmdL0-A7RsGp0goKrP3w8O6WMyGTk92
   GrpqSgeNWcpejqxzoB2Mln21J_vRsmkWkHZznRvh5mDSVc5OAZ5-XI8Vg2v4IpV-
   NJKkuAeChUGiOWUBwXsoCIXbU5tjtFYVLYii2F_a3vrVBXGY_hNfDl8DsLJp3rOz
   LFXbMB8B_e9sFwI4GuTykXObVrGpGBJ-Hy93EuacXI2Mh00vbRTJkbT8ClgZhsBq
   ERawxBaucm_Lemig4GUgjA"}}],
       "Applications": []}}

   The personal profile is then signed using the Online Signing Key:









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   {
     "SignedPersonalProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
       "SignedData": {
         "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
         "payload": "
   ewogICJQZXJzb25hbFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNREpW
   QS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRCIsCiAgICAiU2lnbmVkTWFz
   ...
   X0xlbWlnNEdVZ2pBIn19XSwKICAgICJBcHBsaWNhdGlvbnMiOiBbXX19",
         "signature": "
   Tpqh8sl8K9apRYJWuZ46ApGZMNTM-lgUSr_ASLlLQkXzUILltzxKQi9RNpPdiHwz
   -RjcKTmBIrWXTqu94rz7Zn6VjHOMc2WkmKZumiwD0toDznLreFzN5RY7Lf9NXeiD
   czoE_DGIcVK-hxlJ7QPSZ4Tv0rmX2c-uwBdNqSr2_TfgE9sgWvIftTfS6rEzcJp8
   pxnYMyjRknqg-Y4V5Bwz9iklcPy-K5MbnFFm_cCJikTbmUAG0-oA3HsreyqnfBQH
   ckfX-nwYRO0ChV4K86ud4RB0KYORDIEcxVjQS59J_iGG00NrL3KVaQ05zXPt1_UG
   KNrppHhqpoon0xnTRIUgAQ"}}}

8.2.1.  Publishing a new user profile

   Once the signed personal profile is created, the client can finaly
   make the request for the service to create the account.  The request
   object contains the requested account identifier and profile:

   {
     "CreateRequest": {
       "Account": "alice",
       "Profile": {
         "SignedPersonalProfile": {
           "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJQZXJzb25hbFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNREpW
   QS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRCIsCiAgICAiU2lnbmVkTWFz
   ...
   X0xlbWlnNEdVZ2pBIn19XSwKICAgICJBcHBsaWNhdGlvbnMiOiBbXX19",
             "signature": "
   Tpqh8sl8K9apRYJWuZ46ApGZMNTM-lgUSr_ASLlLQkXzUILltzxKQi9RNpPdiHwz
   -RjcKTmBIrWXTqu94rz7Zn6VjHOMc2WkmKZumiwD0toDznLreFzN5RY7Lf9NXeiD
   czoE_DGIcVK-hxlJ7QPSZ4Tv0rmX2c-uwBdNqSr2_TfgE9sgWvIftTfS6rEzcJp8
   pxnYMyjRknqg-Y4V5Bwz9iklcPy-K5MbnFFm_cCJikTbmUAG0-oA3HsreyqnfBQH
   ckfX-nwYRO0ChV4K86ud4RB0KYORDIEcxVjQS59J_iGG00NrL3KVaQ05zXPt1_UG
   KNrppHhqpoon0xnTRIUgAQ"}}}}}



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   The service reports the success (or failure) of the account creation
   request:

   {
     "CreateResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully"}}

8.3.  Connecting a device profile to a user profile

   Connecting a device to a profile requires the client on the new
   device to interact with a client on a device that has administration
   capabilities, i.e. it has access to an Online Signing Key. Since
   clients cannot interact directly with other clients, a service is
   required to mediate the connection.  This service is provided by a
   Mesh portal provider.

   All service transactions are initiated by the clients.  First the
   connecting device posts ConnectStart, after which it may poll for the
   outcome of the connection request using ConnectStatus.

   Periodically, the Administration Device polls for a list of pending
   connection requests using ConnectPending.  After posting a request,
   the administration device posts the result using ConnectComplete:

   Connecting                  Mesh                 Administration
     Device                   Service                   Device

           |                         |                         |
           |      ConnectStart       |                         |
           | ----------------------> |                         |
           |                         |      ConnectPending     |
           |                         | <---------------------- |
           |                         |                         |
           |                         |      ConnectComplete    |
           |                         | <---------------------- |
           |      ConnectStatus      |                         |
           | ----------------------> |                         |

   The first step in the process is for the client to generate a device
   profile.  Ideally the device profile is bound to the device in a
   read-only fashion such that applications running on the device can
   make use of the deencryption and authentication keys but these
   private keys cannot be extracted from the device:







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   {
     "DeviceProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
       "Names": ["Alice Ring"],
       "Description": "A wearable ring computer bought.",
       "DeviceSignatureKey": {
         "UDF": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
             "n": "
   oQ11i4hTaUpOmH6RSx6yvRgCO9ZC_eDbUYDZGzJn4nnS-5o8532smX7xGhnH8VNM
   rd9xp3VhOMI8emuHTbFDvEM3IvAPi4KsfTMZ__Nsl_6tLYhw9ehgN-i5oRcOc7tT
   Fbcrs89raMKDhwruRPYScO8SlvVRg31QHtBuC_Z5M5l4g25n311shbeWm1TeDQW3
   ISZNYdxZMuzpDG2fojqQXyF5M1oJmvB5HWk5toUUFrv4399NIStYGiRlmjADEjRY
   MarkYq-AcMXq3j0vCRTww4b4ZDIOKERMCtpHTeNB2gNk6zV_SxoL6rSsDRTfEFE9
   eTxX0Dw7wnklM1ub7ebl6w",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}},
       "DeviceAuthenticationKey": {
         "UDF": "MDNSC-VYX44-3L2DW-CIR3M-TUPLW-I6VP6",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MDNSC-VYX44-3L2DW-CIR3M-TUPLW-I6VP6",
             "n": "
   2mFfT9Dg0_ROdaFlFyWlpkwajZWF0lOTgQvFJ6Evx9GwhajzqJS6FUUFwkxNQ4TL
   rWd4gHF5AcPtJbCnFqIupgy341LsLOPXBzf4tFbn9JD8Ls2DmpxOvXMed4j51yw8
   HN-J0slG5MPxQSB4YDUoCQuoSLDirpblQXgqTs_sY-oh_eavBYoyqt-08D8zHfQy
   n01tOwZ2EsBz3aWF6D910Tq11lvB_VNF58g9ipPXI1J0ljBQ8Tlv6HT8hfn31g-B
   SGT4EfMRUtSo149TthZynve1DfrbNq_tQgTMJBF0I38fr41QYgAi6mJjo8So_BvX
   xCoLUMKkG1zTfRuUQ3GS3w",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}},
       "DeviceEncryptiontionKey": {
         "UDF": "MCAOX-46YPX-GAW5J-75V6G-B6OUP-2RG3X",
         "PublicParameters": {
           "PublicKeyRSA": {
             "kid": "MCAOX-46YPX-GAW5J-75V6G-B6OUP-2RG3X",
             "n": "
   yNvvw3ddU5xc5yGZtN3XYm40aGDmntKHbqgP8csM6p6INfZK5jn9kKggE6vZBXRC
   xi0Ko8HrRtK2yfqFRQXItIbbAwEW0DrwsWjBsks3OU2Vxksku81TEQelYJ5uXpI2
   _0W0apqqeqG_8njvPvtu1S8Fhpt7uc_bu_h4EabiTK-EaXOKmd7owPtOt5PuL8VR
   3JATRj1ytyPy9zJTbHv9iahE7moRHqRtggDbJ4yI0lInT_yawrKxld2qNl9c9JtH
   AmtSzhU_XLztuXoA_o-Dlr6mv0p0bKi33SYOjcg08i2VYDabzY_5HJK1UfMqagIp
   rxOIkT7k6b5bqgLuEFqt3w",
             "e": "
   AQAB"}}}}}




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   The device profile is then signed:

   {
     "SignedDeviceProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
       "SignedData": {
         "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUNCRVktMlJWQ1otVk5FT1ot
   STQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVVV00ifQ",
         "payload": "
   ewogICJEZXZpY2VQcm9maWxlIjogewogICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUNCRVkt
   MlJWQ1otVk5FT1otSTQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVVV00iLAogICAgIk5hbWVzIjogWyJB
   ...
   In19fX19",
         "signature": "
   OKsswShxjiC010nuOa14J4oBhsZ2CIuEingj2NzXh1ZUvKspPhedict88bye3BN_
   x_bzJifoUAytSICUmuMsCs4iPmnrc4UhiITRg4ZskBQfHa4YTKpywj7h6QVHuIz6
   FNVWrpYjlg5hskQHm3uMXswMxrr-8xvOiz8XYOfs7DT-qIIsy9wfrADZZXP1ai9X
   Eg16pxvbxvC12lxNqwnZy7G06SnqQJU-VcUCAdcz6zXHFmAc6jFD4ij1FnccwoMJ
   VJv7v-9ID0f6YGoyM8iyW6_NKfAo6cYCc021MqGdDJdrfrT7Cm-8vSl3VMlQGkqn
   PcyR-G2ySzDX3x4Qd-xqNQ"}}}

8.3.1.  Profile Authentication

   One of the main architecutral principles of the Mesh is bilateral
   authentication.  Every device that is connected to a Mesh profile
   MUST authenticate the profile it is connecting to and every Mesh
   profile administrator MUST authenticate devices that are connected.

   Having created the necessary profile, the device MUST verify that it
   is connecting to the correct Mesh profile.  The best mechanism for
   achieving this purpose depends on the capabilities of the device
   being connected.  The administration device obviously requires some
   means of communicating with the user to serve its function.  But the
   device being connected may have a limited display capability or no
   user interaction capability at all.

8.3.1.1.  Interactive Devices

   If the device has user input and display capabilities, it can verify
   that it is connecting to the correct display by first requesting the
   user enter the portal account of the profile they wish to connect to,
   retreiving the profile associated with the device and displaying the
   profile fingerprint.

   The client requests the profile for the requested account name:





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   {
     "GetRequest": {
       "Account": "alice",
       "Multiple": false}}

   The response contains the requested profile information.

   {
     "GetResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully",
       "Entries": [{
           "SignedPersonalProfile": {
             "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
             "SignedData": {
               "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
               "payload": "
   ewogICJQZXJzb25hbFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNREpW
   QS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRCIsCiAgICAiU2lnbmVkTWFz
   ...
   X0xlbWlnNEdVZ2pBIn19XSwKICAgICJBcHBsaWNhdGlvbnMiOiBbXX19",
               "signature": "
   Tpqh8sl8K9apRYJWuZ46ApGZMNTM-lgUSr_ASLlLQkXzUILltzxKQi9RNpPdiHwz
   -RjcKTmBIrWXTqu94rz7Zn6VjHOMc2WkmKZumiwD0toDznLreFzN5RY7Lf9NXeiD
   czoE_DGIcVK-hxlJ7QPSZ4Tv0rmX2c-uwBdNqSr2_TfgE9sgWvIftTfS6rEzcJp8
   pxnYMyjRknqg-Y4V5Bwz9iklcPy-K5MbnFFm_cCJikTbmUAG0-oA3HsreyqnfBQH
   ckfX-nwYRO0ChV4K86ud4RB0KYORDIEcxVjQS59J_iGG00NrL3KVaQ05zXPt1_UG
   KNrppHhqpoon0xnTRIUgAQ"}}}]}}

   Having received the profile data, the user can then verify that the
   device is attempting to connect to the correct profile by verifying
   that the fingerprint shown by the device attempting to connect is
   correct.

8.3.1.2.  Constrained Interaction Devices

   Connection of an Internet of Things 'IoT' device that does not have
   the ability to accept user input requires a mechanism by which the
   user can identify the device they wish to connect to their profile
   and a mechanism to authenticate the profile to the device.

   If the connecting device has a wired communication capability such as
   a USB port, this MAY be used to effect the device connection using a
   standardized interaction profile.  But an increasing number of
   constrained IoT devices are only capable of wireless communication.




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   Configuration of such devices for the purpose of the Mesh requires
   that we also consider configuration of the wireless networking
   capabilities at the same time.  The precise mechanism by which this
   is achieved is therefore outside the scope of this particular
   document.  However prototypes have been built and are being
   considered that make use of some or all of the following
   communication techniques:

   o

      *  Wired serial connection (RS232, RS485).

      *  DHCP signalling.

      *  Machine readable device identifiers (barcodes, QRCodes).

      *  Default device profile installed during manufacture.

      *  Optical communication path using camera on administrative
         device and status light on connecting device to communicate the
         device identifier, challenge nonce and confirm profile
         fingerprint.

      *  Speech output on audio capable connecting device.

8.3.2.  Connection request

   After the user verifies the device fingerprint as correct, the client
   posts a device connection request to the portal:






















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   {
     "ConnectStartRequest": {
       "SignedRequest": {
         "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
         "SignedData": {
           "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUNCRVktMlJWQ1otVk5FT1ot
   STQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVVV00ifQ",
           "payload": "
   ewogICJDb25uZWN0aW9uUmVxdWVzdCI6IHsKICAgICJQYXJlbnRVREYiOiAiYWxp
   Y2UiLAogICAgIkRldmljZSI6IHsKICAgICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUNCRVkt
   ...
   TlEifX19fQ",
           "signature": "
   CixG1xk8bFADyNCAJP0lqrjuFlMtoIz5hTCiGhKb_4mjgUqW4Fpsj3HydumNRktU
   c_7B9AlBO0TD7Z6IS-LbmfhmhQtFElvs9WhB42hqoe-cK_N_fL1T9H1B0QgyesWO
   nvZaE5dS3MmIsOCA_VTG_LUDmdqi908wWLHCsDpMkHwC_QD8SW1L0-NlmrJgRXSC
   xv2VAJAMAf1LysYyEJ_32Z2XsH7AjI9gWsVnCzbZTaNqJSdjx0mgsCRvj4GBqYGl
   txRC9Qr_2R_ye6PxOhBxE7Sl3pSKZqjQKVlTeKizKI6O8L-U2nwgdmwyN8eLMYMD
   GNWrP6SrEpPHSMUoCa6Avw"}},
       "AccountID": "alice"}}

   The portal verifies that the request is accepable and returns the
   transaction result:

   {
     "ConnectStartResponse": {}}

8.3.3.  Administrator Polls Pending Connections

   The client can poll the portal for the status of pending requests at
   any time (modulo any service throttling restrictions at the service
   side).  But the request status will only change when an update is
   posted by an administration device.

   Since the user is typically connecting a device to their profile, the
   next step in connecting the device is to start the administration
   client.  When started, the client polls for pending connection
   requests using ConnectPendingRequest.

   {
     "ConnectPendingRequest": {
       "AccountID": "alice"}}

   The service responds with a list of pending requests:






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   {
     "ConnectPendingResponse": {
       "Pending": [{
           "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUNCRVktMlJWQ1otVk5FT1ot
   STQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVVV00ifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJDb25uZWN0aW9uUmVxdWVzdCI6IHsKICAgICJQYXJlbnRVREYiOiAiYWxp
   Y2UiLAogICAgIkRldmljZSI6IHsKICAgICAgIklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUNCRVkt
   ...
   TlEifX19fQ",
             "signature": "
   CixG1xk8bFADyNCAJP0lqrjuFlMtoIz5hTCiGhKb_4mjgUqW4Fpsj3HydumNRktU
   c_7B9AlBO0TD7Z6IS-LbmfhmhQtFElvs9WhB42hqoe-cK_N_fL1T9H1B0QgyesWO
   nvZaE5dS3MmIsOCA_VTG_LUDmdqi908wWLHCsDpMkHwC_QD8SW1L0-NlmrJgRXSC
   xv2VAJAMAf1LysYyEJ_32Z2XsH7AjI9gWsVnCzbZTaNqJSdjx0mgsCRvj4GBqYGl
   txRC9Qr_2R_ye6PxOhBxE7Sl3pSKZqjQKVlTeKizKI6O8L-U2nwgdmwyN8eLMYMD
   GNWrP6SrEpPHSMUoCa6Avw"}}]}}

8.3.4.  Administrator updates and publishes the personal profile.

   The device profile is added to the Personal profile which is then
   signed by the online signing key.  The administration client
   publishes the updated profile to the Mesh through the portal:

   {
     "PublishRequest": {
       "Entry": {
         "SignedPersonalProfile": {
           "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJQZXJzb25hbFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNREpW
   QS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRCIsCiAgICAiU2lnbmVkTWFz
   ...
   MnlTekRYM3g0UWQteHFOUSJ9fV0sCiAgICAiQXBwbGljYXRpb25zIjogW119fQ",
             "signature": "
   QK3qK17qqKjrzJpheNMSP8l-Mfids1U8LteXgXtNslyKsN1fsf3Wc3orZRvxkmq3
   SiwwkRSY3k1bWGkMQ2-IVGuAVBvDq-ndgrc9zlqx4OGOZHIsUEpMmEMxYCGPWCek
   DRmeCg08o-viOXuBGNukjdmoV47AdWjEwp3bim-1RsA4NP5QfdAifesjI37iScUH
   HwvraQsPCDmYpoWfzqLiFu-d5OIzf2A6-V73DLw63sxy6POq9XN3uvBVbpeRXD3Z
   5zvFp58fprVjpqUqpdiDAecwd47xisxjtN7QNoE1mTuUsjcrz6uWRhe9zkCiAEd1
   i02PON8adi7XJD39Fr7TZQ"}}}}}



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   As usual, the service returns the response code:

   {
     "PublishResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully"}}

8.3.5.  Administrator posts completion request.

   Having accepted the device and connected it to the profile, the
   administration client creates and signs a connection completion
   result which is posted to the portal using ConnectCompleteRequest:

   {
     "ConnectCompleteRequest": {
       "Result": {
         "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
         "SignedData": {
           "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
           "payload": "
   ewogICJDb25uZWN0aW9uUmVzdWx0IjogewogICAgIkRldmljZSI6IHsKICAgICAg
   IklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUNCRVktMlJWQ1otVk5FT1otSTQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVV
   ...
   dGVkIn19",
           "signature": "
   KP_5t5TeJEXXkw19wCpGcim8tIkElcpsIAUId7f8WabrQUNDGNEYox-1QrBaCCuC
   X8hud2kRZimhG-f8rWnOcXe4tDU8y1eoNeiGC_TijV_Bb189XDKpZobDtVSXLvhB
   YZp10T3RlzUEhMAPVUXJqf5yMIgJHnTTKzlT_cwNvnRSGMAnY2NLEg-lQ3FHkiiX
   copSUGQ9SzXuMSKu5b29Rdgqz-9C_-v5N7x9gNuU-YliEZACFfMMylUlfIWN4aYw
   TU8m-XckHkuKN75TNdH_gRAe6RqgbdYa_gQS5IhwZ5bbv2TGQe6T6ap7_92SFvNT
   Ew6pGGbAdBJ6RAwrZFbo2A"}},
       "AccountID": "alice"}}

   Again, the service returns the response code:

   {
     "ConnectCompleteResponse": {}}

8.3.6.  Connecting device polls for status update.

   As stated previously, the connecting device polls the portal
   periodically to determine the status of the pending request using
   ConnectStatusRequest:






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   {
     "ConnectStatusRequest": {
       "AccountID": "alice",
       "DeviceID": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM"}}

   If the response is that the connection status has not changed, the
   service MAY return a response that specifies a minimum retry
   interval.  In this case however there is a connection result:

   {
     "ConnectStatusResponse": {
       "Result": {
         "Identifier": "MCBEY-2RVCZ-VNEOZ-I47J6-OAEDL-AUUWM",
         "SignedData": {
           "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
           "payload": "
   ewogICJDb25uZWN0aW9uUmVzdWx0IjogewogICAgIkRldmljZSI6IHsKICAgICAg
   IklkZW50aWZpZXIiOiAiTUNCRVktMlJWQ1otVk5FT1otSTQ3SjYtT0FFREwtQVVV
   ...
   dGVkIn19",
           "signature": "
   KP_5t5TeJEXXkw19wCpGcim8tIkElcpsIAUId7f8WabrQUNDGNEYox-1QrBaCCuC
   X8hud2kRZimhG-f8rWnOcXe4tDU8y1eoNeiGC_TijV_Bb189XDKpZobDtVSXLvhB
   YZp10T3RlzUEhMAPVUXJqf5yMIgJHnTTKzlT_cwNvnRSGMAnY2NLEg-lQ3FHkiiX
   copSUGQ9SzXuMSKu5b29Rdgqz-9C_-v5N7x9gNuU-YliEZACFfMMylUlfIWN4aYw
   TU8m-XckHkuKN75TNdH_gRAe6RqgbdYa_gQS5IhwZ5bbv2TGQe6T6ap7_92SFvNT
   Ew6pGGbAdBJ6RAwrZFbo2A"}}}}

   [Should probably unpack further.]

8.4.  Adding an application profile to a user profile

   Application profiles are published separately from the personal
   profile to which they are linked.  This allows a device to be given
   administration capability for a particular application without
   granting administration capability for the profile itself and the
   ability to connect additional profiles and devices.

   Another advantage of this separation is that an application profile
   might be managed by a separate party.  In an enterprise, the
   application profile for a user's corporate email account could be
   managed by the corporate IT department.

   A user MAY have multiple application profiles for the same
   application.  If a user has three email accounts, they would have
   three email application profiles, one for each account.



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   In this example, the user has requested a PaswordProfile to be
   created.  When populated, this records the usernames and passwords
   for the various Web sites that the user has created accounts at and
   has requested the Web browser store in the Mesh.

   Unlike a traditional password management service, the data stored the
   Password Profile is encrypted end to end and can only be decrypted by
   the devices that hold a decryption key.

   {
     "PasswordProfile": {
       "Identifier": "MCSJQ-ENQ6L-IJZH5-MCLCC-SE2NG-3T5F2-A",
       "EncryptedData": {
         "protected": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiQUUxMjgifQ",
         "iv": "
   G3CweSUBT8omE_VT9SCuZw",
         "ciphertext": "
   _JR9uX63-CkvvvJS0axnJxCChcBqe0mYv4M2xjHDaZqE6oUkQS7ZnHOTTmKO748r",
         "recipients": [{
             "Header": {
               "kid": "MBLYV-KC666-JGASF-7RCNB-DAHQ2-JMTA2"},
             "encrypted_key": "
   ZATx6Rivrr_qGmHbbKGV7tcnm_9UgRspFXu4oti6O9kRjglHS7wnvu5IpmDk5szv
   Eq_Zh7X7m3vxsxfvsKrAPKVnpVMx10847apFrAmvwbHNmX1a_rxtxxdzHAgDtJT0
   xJ4sch-CAEyudB_k2UNw1cpRtVm02x6sWyVtfTStFSADYw86bFvf4jHQBcv9FxHO
   r_EVvE5D-XuQC4ROB8ozbZnadQgQxrZYBfxyNfZfnMigeotzlD_q_lsHua3ffXGA
   7ZYi02TPPqwKwcoTBy2DdjE1IR0EFcycInNwb87nyxmOVqezOIZNt_2sOJm0I4Ui
   kYQCDogUcrwqqcuycXQsdw"},
           {
             "Header": {
               "kid": "MCAOX-46YPX-GAW5J-75V6G-B6OUP-2RG3X"},
             "encrypted_key": "
   KRZ9IfGlNADsgNdIs0L_H-Drs_1FhtRARGP3NdZxF9JfiuN6YDF5tPaJFQ0wfrFV
   JKOc5PTe5UWiDPSXy_FFQb6-Cg00uJ5TcQceZoePZqmGYbxYoqQPL2MBCP5g1yvW
   xLoGTdqk7pJC8GkGUejMbsv5c2nNR4GT1mpj-E7FXyXD914pwmxwroubdbvTAUYy
   QLXAiZ20vXxFzWmdf13QZ31nRNBBorCS1EBcapxfih9H_QCiutukN4Yxoj-Cjy5O
   1ogSP0GKJlchiKkypNJ6TgvuR743x7YybDvcPMUk1hMR1GteknI2dGSAADRQupF_
   7huHRXxYODuSgfq0jRf14Q"}]}}}

   The application profile is published to the Mesh in the same way as
   any other profile update, via a a Publish transaction:









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   {
     "PublishRequest": {
       "Entry": {
         "SignedApplicationProfile": {
           "Identifier": "MCSJQ-ENQ6L-IJZH5-MCLCC-SE2NG-3T5F2-A",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJQYXNzd29yZFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNQ1NK
   US1FTlE2TC1JSlpINS1NQ0xDQy1TRTJORy0zVDVGMi1BIiwKICAgICJFbmNyeXB0
   ...
   MmRHU0FBRFJRdXBGXwo3aHVIUlh4WU9EdVNnZnEwalJmMTRRIn1dfX19",
             "signature": "
   i4s0nRQj3nA5sWrAzmTrBBqgRJxP7npPYUAjK4ChVBy8GKq64aldCSbeO7fzDO20
   4zcgyGnOUKi8AQmSTj8qHdLnGLq9zAXtFoYnHa7N5PevYLATxDNTnauHgewOufyM
   XxF4ImepbFZRHcoHhHOWxp-qG7RkptMwqP-3g9-4pAxRUqJWzfWjoxzhy0z0_Tal
   21b6I37E-UwwJd271UNkY1b24lHILuMvvgfB1hvzu-O6bDdExIt4iN88jkw7rvQi
   7veQA9D-aiAyQmwtasD9uIyKo8GdhLUOrThjQkap8xf3Dfmhd-mt-AmCQjQ_gpvS
   iOW-sGdz8x4VjUXDLlwSqQ"}}}}}

   The service returns a status response.

   {
     "PublishResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully"}}

   Note that the degree of verification to be performed by the service
   when an application profile is published is an open question.

   Having created the application profile, the administration client
   adds it to the personal profile and publishes it:

















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   {
     "PublishRequest": {
       "Entry": {
         "SignedPersonalProfile": {
           "Identifier": "MDJVA-GWBES-2YXPA-7FHWU-GNTHE-D2ELD",
           "SignedData": {
             "header": "
   ewogICJhbGciOiAiUlM1MTIiLAogICJraWQiOiAiTUJLTUctNlFWNUstNVBTWEYt
   NlRMVVAtWFhMUkItRkVNVlQifQ",
             "payload": "
   ewogICJQZXJzb25hbFByb2ZpbGUiOiB7CiAgICAiSWRlbnRpZmllciI6ICJNREpW
   QS1HV0JFUy0yWVhQQS03RkhXVS1HTlRIRS1EMkVMRCIsCiAgICAiU2lnbmVkTWFz
   ...
   MnlTekRYM3g0UWQteHFOUSJ9fV0sCiAgICAiQXBwbGljYXRpb25zIjogW119fQ",
             "signature": "
   QK3qK17qqKjrzJpheNMSP8l-Mfids1U8LteXgXtNslyKsN1fsf3Wc3orZRvxkmq3
   SiwwkRSY3k1bWGkMQ2-IVGuAVBvDq-ndgrc9zlqx4OGOZHIsUEpMmEMxYCGPWCek
   DRmeCg08o-viOXuBGNukjdmoV47AdWjEwp3bim-1RsA4NP5QfdAifesjI37iScUH
   HwvraQsPCDmYpoWfzqLiFu-d5OIzf2A6-V73DLw63sxy6POq9XN3uvBVbpeRXD3Z
   5zvFp58fprVjpqUqpdiDAecwd47xisxjtN7QNoE1mTuUsjcrz6uWRhe9zkCiAEd1
   i02PON8adi7XJD39Fr7TZQ"}}}}}

   Note that if the publication was to happen in the reverse order, with
   the personal profile being published before the application profile,
   the personal profile might be rejected by the portal for
   inconsistency as it links to a non existent application profile.
   Though the value of such a check is debatable.  It might well be
   preferable to not make such checks as it permits an application
   profile to have a degree of anonymity.

   {
     "PublishResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully"}}

8.5.  Creating a recovery profile

   The Mesh invites users to put all their data eggs in one
   cryptographic basket.  If the private keys in their master profile
   are lost, they could lose all their digital assets.

   The debate over the desirability of key escrow is a complex one.  Not
   least because voluntary key escrow by the user to protect the user's
   digital assets is frequently conflated with mechanisms to support
   'Lawful Access' through government managed backdoors.

   Accidents happen and so do disasters.  For most users and most
   applications, data loss is a much more important concern than data



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   disclosure.  The option of using a robust key recovery mechanism is
   therefore essential for use of strong cryptography is to become
   ubiquitous.

   There are of course circumstances in which some users may prefer to
   risk losing some of their data rather than risk disclosure.  Since
   any key recovery infrastructure necessarily introduces the risk of
   coercion, the choice of whether to use key recovery or not is left to
   the user to decide.

   The Mesh permits users to escrow their private keys in the Mesh
   itself in an OfflineEscrowEntry.  Such entries are encrypted using
   the strongest degree of encryption available under a symmetric key.
   The symmetric key is then in turn split using Shamir secret sharing
   using an n of m threshold scheme.

   The OfflineEscrowEntry identifier is a UDF fingerprint of the
   symmetric key used to encrypt the data.  This guarantees that a party
   that has the decryption key has the ability to locate the
   corresponding Escrow entry.

   The OfflineEscrowEntry is published using the usual Publish
   transaction:

  {
    "PublishRequest": {
      "Entry": {
        "OfflineEscrowEntry": {
          "Identifier": "MA2J2-OQI55-PSIGB-LZRY2-KMBCI-HNNNR",
          "EncryptedData": {
            "protected": "
  ewogICJhbGciOiAiQUUxMjgifQ",
            "iv": "
  gkV_n1ibVtSfrfXAAgha7A",
            "ciphertext": "
  X7tqES5Qw4mUvpjHayZf-sVKf9WPCyOTWkAG2ZXue2vbMWauYtEBVokXGJv1oQVD
  1YqNzMOhcPA619L3k9qiVecNk2Q5lLw2fsYPulml3CMfUw1VOg29NH4uIZbjlCnq
  ...
  bj3d_6tV34PbzN5s8xinXqrz3_8a1Rr8dEE2tcxZdPoBZdakVphjGmH-Py8kXjgS"}}}}}

   The response indicates success or failure:

   {
     "PublishResponse": {
       "Status": 201,
       "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully"}}





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8.6.  Recovering a profile

   To recover a profile, the user MUST supply the necessary number of
   secret shares.  These are then used to calculate the UDF fingerprint
   to use as the locator in a Get transaction:

   {
     "GetRequest": {
       "Identifier": "MA2J2-OQI55-PSIGB-LZRY2-KMBCI-HNNNR",
       "Multiple": false}}

   If the transaction succeeds, GetResponse is returned with the
   requested data.

 {
   "GetResponse": {
     "Status": 201,
     "StatusDescription": "Operation completed successfully",
     "Entries": [{
         "OfflineEscrowEntry": {
           "Identifier": "MA2J2-OQI55-PSIGB-LZRY2-KMBCI-HNNNR",
           "EncryptedData": {
             "protected": "
 ewogICJhbGciOiAiQUUxMjgifQ",
             "iv": "
 gkV_n1ibVtSfrfXAAgha7A",
             "ciphertext": "
 X7tqES5Qw4mUvpjHayZf-sVKf9WPCyOTWkAG2ZXue2vbMWauYtEBVokXGJv1oQVD
 1YqNzMOhcPA619L3k9qiVecNk2Q5lLw2fsYPulml3CMfUw1VOg29NH4uIZbjlCnq
 ...
 bj3d_6tV34PbzN5s8xinXqrz3_8a1Rr8dEE2tcxZdPoBZdakVphjGmH-Py8kXjgS"}}}]}}

   The client can now decrypt the OfflineEscrowEntry to recover the
   private key(s).

9.  Transparent Audit

   Can be performed by any party that is a participant in the InterMesh
   protocol or subsequently in an offline transaction.

10.  Security Considerations

   Security Considerations are addressed in the companion document
   [draft-hallambaker-mesh-reference]







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11.  IANA Considerations

   IANA Considerations are addressed in the companion document [draft-
   hallambaker-mesh-reference]

12.  Acknowledgements

   Comodo Group: Egemen Tas, Melhi Abdulhayo?lu, Rob Stradling, Robin
   Alden.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3977]  Feather, C., "Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)",
              RFC 3977, DOI 10.17487/RFC3977, October 2006.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159, March
              2014.

   [RFC6962]  Laurie, B., Langley, A., and E. Kasper, "Certificate
              Transparency", RFC 6962, DOI 10.17487/RFC6962, June 2013.

   [RFC5822]  "[Reference Not Found!]".

   [draft-hallambaker-udf]
              "[Reference Not Found!]".

   [draft-hallambaker-mesh-reference]
              "[Reference Not Found!]".

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4644]  Vinocur, J. and K. Murchison, "Network News Transfer
              Protocol (NNTP) Extension for Streaming Feeds", RFC 4644,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4644, October 2006.

   [RFC822]   "[Reference Not Found!]".








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Author's Address

   Phillip Hallam-Baker
   Comodo Group Inc.

   Email: philliph@comodo.com













































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