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VNF BOF                                                         S. Hares
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Informational                              July 4, 2014
Expires: January 5, 2015

   Use Cases for Resource Pools with Virtual Network Functions (VNFs)


   This draft describes use cases the author has observed in
   demonstrations or deployments for virtualized network functions
   (VNFs) supported by VNF Pools.  Several of these demonstrations
   combined VNF Pools into VNFsets.  The use cases were: cloud bursting,
   parental controls, load balancer for multipath (L1-L7), WAN
   optimization that runs either between access nodes and Data Centers,
   WAN optimization between mobile phones and Data Centers (through
   access nodes), application placement optimization, and optimized
   placement of web applications utilizing minimal data transfer.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Use Case List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Cloud Bursting Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Stateful Parental Controls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Load balancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Android phone TCP WAN optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  SOHO device optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Application Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13

1.  Introduction

   This draft focuses on providing one person's observations on the
   deployment of Virtualized Network Functions which are supported by
   VNF Pool where the VNF Pools may be grouped into VNF Sets.  This
   version of the draft no longer needs to explain the basic
   architecture and problems since [I-D.zong-vnfpool-problem-statement]
   provides an excellent description of the following:

   o  Terminology of VNF, VNF Pools, elements of VNF Pools, VNF Pool
      Managers, and VNF Sets;

   o  Challenges to the reliability of VNFs (without Pools);

   o  Challenges to reliability within VNFs (redundancy and state

   o  Interactions with Service Control Entity managing the VNF

   o  and the needs for reliable transport

   This document simply introduces unique terms, and then describes
   authors experience the VNF Pools and VNF Managers when the VNF Pools
   contain only one type of function.  The VNF Pools may operate in a

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   set of VNF Pools.  This document no longer examines VNF Set
   management because is out of the scope of the VNF Charter.

   Virtual Network functions supported by Virtual Network Pools and
   organized into Virtual Sets have been observed to be more reliable
   and be able to expand (or contract horizontally).  By being more
   reliable, this author observed that individual failures of virtual
   functions due to software or system constraints (load) were survived
   by switching over to another NFV function within the VNF Pool.  For
   example, with compatible software functions running, the current and
   previous software ran a network applications (E.g. open source NAT or
   open source DPI), a failure on one VNF running the current software
   could quickly be replaced by a "hot standby" in the Pool running the
   previous version.  Upon increased traffic, one VNF function (for
   firewalls) could be expanded to multiple firewalls each handling a
   portion of the traffic.  In a sense, the VNF expands horizontally to
   handle the increased traffic.  In the same way, as traffic
   diminished, this VNF can contract.

   This document describes each use case by describing the application
   and how the VNF function when operating within VNF Pools within the
   VNF Set that makes up the application.  While some of these use cases
   had multiple VNF Sets, VNF Set management is outside of the scope of
   the VNF Pool work.  Therefore, the explanations have been simplified
   to consider all the VNF Pools into one set.

   One final note, the author knows she has only provided abstract
   descriptions of these deployments, but out of respect for products
   and companies the abstract description is best.

2.  Terms

   The VNF Problem statement [I-D.zong-vnfpool-problem-statement]
   defines the terms reliability, VNF, VNF Pool, VNF Pool Element, VNF
   Pool User, VNF Pool Manager, and VNF Set.  This draft uses these
   definitions.  The following definitions are not defined within the
   VNF problem statement: Cloud Bursting, Stateful parental controls,
   WAN optimization, and application placement.  These terms are defined

   Cloud Bursting: the ability for Virtual processing to burst through
   the limits of one virtual environment and automatically transfers a
   portion of the processing to another virtual environment.

   Stateful parental controls: the ability for network access devices to
   have content filters that react to traffic, location, and user.
   These controls follow the user across multiple access points within a
   home network, or in a carrier network.

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   WAN optimization: the ability to optimize traffic across a Wide-Area
   network.  WAN optimization often makes use of TCP FLOW optimizations
   (with IETF TCP features) and TCP de-duplication of packets,

   Application placement: ability for coordinating software to place
   applications based a combination of compute resources, data storage,
   network service, and security concerns.  Application placement may
   involve movement of some application data, movement of some
   applications (data and compute), and movement of network resources to
   service the applications.  One type of network resource movement is
   the movement of virtual network functions (VNFs) which are defined,
   created, allocated with resources in a way to provide an integral
   unit to the application placement control software.

   OTT (Over the Top): This industry terms implies an overlay network
   that is overlaid on existing networks as a virtual network.

   Shared risk group (SRG): Shared risk groups occur when different VNFs
   in a VNF Pool all exist upon the same instance of a virtual form or
   hypervisor.  When a hypervisor fails, all the VNF instances on the
   same hypervisor will fail,

3.  Use Case List

   The use cases described in this draft are:

   o  Cloud Bursting

   o  stateful parental controls implemented in access nodes and
      firewalls (stateful and regular)

   o  load balancer doing multipath (supports L1-L7 optimization),

   o  WAN optimization between access nodes and Data Centers,

   o  WAN optimization between mobile phones through access nodes to/
      from Data center (E.g Riverbed WAN),

   o  Application placement optimization using optimized DNS and DCHP

   o  Application placement optimization to minimize data transfer.

   The uses cases are done in the order of VNF sets to VNF single
   operations.  The Cloud bursting obviously takes a set of VNF Pools to
   lift up services in a cloud environment and move these to another
   cloud environment.

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   Deployment of VNF functions into critical network functions requires
   that multiple sources exist to reduce risk of software or hardware
   issues, and to respond to economic pressure to continually improve
   while reducing prices.  Multi-vendor sources for these VNF, VNF
   Pools, and VNR sets comes at the price of designing (or adopting an
   existing) interoperability VNF Pool manager for VNF Pools.

4.  Cloud Bursting Use Case


   Three cases of cloud bursting exist.  Public clouds adding more
   resources upon demand.  Private clouds adding more resources upon
   demand from private cloud resources.  Private clouds adding more
   resources from the public cloud.  In the public/private cloud, the
   orchestration system looks within pools of additional resources to
   fit the request for more resources for a particular time.  Verizon
   provided examples of cloud bursing at ONS 2012, and Terremark
   utilizes cloud bursing to obtain more resources
   enterprise-cloud/architecture/) operating over open-source
   hypervisors (2012, 2013).

   VNFs within the VNF Pools operate as management systems and networks
   router/switches (virtual switches, routers, end systems) to spin up
   additional transport process (TCP/STCP) and move work jobs via
   standard interfaces (libvirt, CLI, REST, and JASON), and provide
   standardized value-added functions.  These value-added functions
   include the following:

   o  VNFs in VNF Pools of system monitoring and orchestration

   o  VNF in VNF Pools for virtual firewall to protect the data

   o  VNF in VNF Pools for DPI or DDOS during

   o  VNF in VNF specialized DNS that controls private/public cloud move

   o  VNF in VNF WAN applications that create a large pipeline for for
      movement of data and applications within Cloud (Private/Public) or
      between clouds

   o  VNFs in VNF Pools for smart access to the could

   Why VNF in VNF Pools for network router/switch or host system

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   VNFs in VNF Pools allow cloud bursting to temporarily expand
   horizontally to take the load as the processing groups move between
   clouds.  Each of the functions has a scaling within its own pool
   which allows the bursts of effort to grab or release the amount of
   functions.  The VNFs doing system monitoring of the move and the
   orchestration are also included in the features that grab or release

   Why VNF Pools:

   Bursty nature of action of Cloud Bursting requires being able utilize
   VNFs within Pools to expand horizontally for the estimated cloud
   bursting activities.  However, if the cloud bursting expands beyond
   the resources estimated by the orchestration software then the VNFs
   within the pool can expand the service.

   Why Multi-vendor interoperable VNF Pools?:

   Cloud bursting is a critical business infrastructure which needs
   highly reliable software that can be maintained by Cloud operations.
   Critical infrastructure requires multi-sources.  Either the Cloud
   operations creates a team to maintain VNF Pool software from Open
   Source code bases, or the equipment vendors provide interoperable VNF
   Pool Managers and VNF Pools that run across multiple platforms.

5.  Stateful Parental Controls


   Parental content filters are targeted filters that are installed
   based on an identification of a user.  When the centralized
   controller detects the User (via traffic pattern, role identification
   (ABFAB, HTTP)), an orchestration manager installs the appropriate
   software to guarantee filters.  Two types of security exist:
   authentication and authorization.  In authentication, ACL and other
   port based filtering is set per customer for the user.  This
   filtering may block, prioritize, or transfer to a black hole
   recording device different traffic.  In authorization, the systems
   create a web of trust via an identity server (for HTTP 1.0 SAML
   template defined by OASIS and IETF ABFAB information for non-http).

   The following is a list of some of the VNF functions found in VNF
   Pools in the Stateful Parental Control Model

   o  VNF Pool for the specialized Access filters

   o  VNF Pool for open source DPIs (snort, etc.) to find
      "inappropriate" material,

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   o  VNF Pool for specialized DPI inspection,

   o  VNF Pool probes on hyper-visors,

   o  VNF POol for management functions depositing configuration in Open
      Flow switches, Ethernet Switches, Virtual switches, routers,
      firewalls, and access nodes.

   o  VNF Pool for access firewall

   o  VNF Pool for spam filters for mail

   o  VNF Pool for DDOS software,

   o  VNF Pool for DNS/DHCP servers that allow the linking of the the
      Public services to a instantly created VNFs for specialized access

   o  VNF Pool to move filters within Cloud (Private/Public) or between
      clouds in anticipation of the persons movement (If in central
      London, spread to other access nodes along public transportation
      (Tube) lines or to hotels.).

   o  VNF Pool to do additional user identification of the systems

   Why VNF Pools

   The bursty nature of user access is dependent on the detection of the
   movement of the user.  At the moment the public software identifies
   the user, this VNF Pool set operates to expand horizontally to
   provide the necessary service to provide these parental features.
   The VNF Pools allow groups of these parental ' families to be

   Why inter-operable VNF Pool Managers

   The VNF functions may go between the mobile devices the user moves
   with (E.g.  Android Pad or Android Phone) and the local network
   systems supported by the Carrier, the hotel, or the airport systems.
   Inter-operable VNF Pool Managers means that some NVF functions may
   move from Android Pad /Android Phone to carrier's equipment.

6.  Load balancer


   Load balancers (such as Riverbed or Cisco) look to balance traffic in
   different layers of the stack (L1-L7).  SDN meta controllers
   (OpenDaylight, Vyatta) monitor work with the time-critical OTT

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   control process (which creates and manages the OTT VPNs (L2/L3/MPLS))
   to determine where the load is at any specific time, and to track it
   over time.  The SDN orchestration devices work with the SDN OTT
   control process to adjust to readjust the load at L1-L7.

   The VNF functions that use VNF Pools in the load balancing service

   o  VNFs for network probes in all devices (mobile phone, ipad, access
      devices, vswitch, vrouter, tcp optimizer, DPI, hypervisors, VMs
      dumming storage, VMs creating the network;

   o  VNFs for depositing configuration in Ethernet switches (open-flow
      or IEEE 802.1), routers, firewalls, access nodes;

   o  VNFs for firewall;

   o  VNFs to do Traffic capacity/load balance calculation;

   o  VNFs running orchestrator monitor/change algorithms; and

   o  VNFs to users or specific traffic to aid in load balancing.

   Why VNF Pools:

   True end-to-end Load balancing requires load balancing across
   multiple layers with VNF pools to support different functions.
   Multi-vendors solutions will allow meta controllers to balance
   traffic to reduce costs in networks.  Current Enterprise customers
   find the load balancing operates with TCP WAN optimization to utilize
   all network bandwidth effectively.

   Why inter-operable VNF Pool Managers

   Network probes, network traffic capacity calculation, and
   configuration of changes operate either when traffic thresholds are
   exceeded or upon period timers.  Each of these functions has bursty
   needs needing the ability to expand horizontally.

   Firewalls are traffic based which may be bursty or steady state
   depending on the application profiles.  VNF Pools allow for the
   horizontal expansion during bursts.

   Long lived traffic flows may be identified by looking for users or
   application traffic patterns.  This type of processing function has a
   "DPI-Like" processing quality that make require quick examination of
   some data.  VNF support in VNF Pools allows the assurance of this
   type of support

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7.  Android phone TCP WAN optimization


   Android phones and Android tablets often communicate across the LTE/
   WiFi connections.  Optimization of the link for the low-bandwidth of
   LTE or Wifi connections, and the switch between LTE and WiFi requires
   monitoring of traffic, choosing link, optimizing TCP (Window and
   removing duplicates).

   The VNFs that are aided by VPN Pools in this application includes:

   o  VNFs for probes in all devices (mobile phone, mobile pads, Wifi
      enabled nodes, LTE IP RAN notes)

   o  VNFs for depositing configuration in SDN access nodes (Wifi or

   o  VNFs for to handle remote phone parameter adjustments;

   o  VNFs to do firewalls (E.g traffic not allowed over LTE due to
      customer policy);

   o  VNFs for TCP data de-duplication process;

   o  VNFs for Traffic capacity/load balance calculation (see Football
      stadium problem below);

   o  VNFs for best processing of Video traffic or best network to pull
      Video traffic from;

   o  VNFs to identify user or user traffic and

   o  VNFs to interface to secure data processes.

   One scenario to consider is the football stadium scenario.  A person
   takes the IPAD to watch the close up replays or send email.  During
   fourth quarter, the person receive an urgent call to go home and
   walks with the IPAD down the street to the metro-system to return
   home.  On the way, the person is utilizing the IPAD to send mail,
   watch the football game, and do Skype calls.

   This scenario is similar in needs to the parental controls.  The
   differences are TCP data de-duplication to improve WAN traffic and
   specialized Video traffic handling, plus the mobile phone management
   and security.

   Why VNF Pools:

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   The football user case illustrates how the network functions are used
   in bursts.  The VNF Pools allow these functions to expand out to fit
   the users needs.  The football example also shows how events can
   cause massive numbers of these bursty users to occur at the same
   time.  Again, the expansion out for these events without reducing
   service is key to the quality of user experience for mobile phone or
   mobile pad users.

   Why Inter-operable VPN Pools handled by VPN Pool Managers:

   Phones systems do not want a single vendor for all features.
   Multiple interoperable access nodes and Android pad/tablet
   implementations require these VNF pools.  The football stadium may
   require that several mobile operators or mobile or cable operators
   work together to provide this service.

8.  SOHO device optimization


   SOHO devices using SDN VM technology must balance traffic movement
   between small cells (WiFi or femtocells).  Access policies must be
   configured for restriction on this policy.

   The VNFs that VNF Pools in this application are:

   o  VNFs for probes in all devices (mobile phone, mobile pads, WiFi
      enabled nodes, LTE or femtocells)

   o  VNFs for VPN to user identification and security.

   o  VNFs for depositing configuration in access nodes (Wifi, L),

   o  VNFs for handling remote phone parameter adjustments;

   o  VNFs for firewall (traffic not allowed over LTE);

   o  VNFs for TCP data de-duplication process;

   o  VNFs for Traffic capacity/load balancing over single/multiple soho

   o  VNFs to allow applications load balance across internal soho links
      based on traffic needs and use policy; and

   o  VNFs for VPN to user identification and security.

   Why VNF Pools:

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   SOHO devices will have limited resources for handling probes to find
   local devices, change configurations in access devices, adjust remote
   phone parameters, firewall traffic, and perform WAN optimization (TCP
   de-duplication, prioritizing of traffic (like phones) or load
   balancing).  However, SOHOs may only need the probes, configurations
   changes, and phone adjustments when users arrive into the home.  The
   data related VNF functions will occur as the SOHO office begins to
   transfer data.  The VNF pools allow the VNF function to scale up/down
   via horizontal expansion.

   VPN Pool Growth/Shrinking:

   The VPN Pool Manager can handle increasing or decreasing the VNF Pool
   size.  Cooperating VNF Pool Managers can be seen to be useful in this
   use case, but the cooperating VNF pool managers are outside the scope
   of the VNF within a VNF Pool.

9.  Application Scaling


   Applications may be placed in a variety of hypervisors.  The rapid
   deployment of applications on services may allow millions of
   applications to be available within the cloud.  Creating a effective
   lookup for the applications or redirecting applications takes an
   Network Virtual environment that controls DCHP, DNS, and http access
   rapidly. 2 Million URI references for each access node is possible
   given the current growth.

   VNF within the cloud must scale up to handle the VNF services
   required by the network infrastructure.  This includes the network
   information functions of DNS, DCHP, URL processing, AAA (Diameter/
   Radius).  Fast enactment of these network functions allows an on-
   demand creation of a multi-tenancy overlay (IETF NV03).

   The VNFs operate in VNF Pools in this application are:

   o  VNFs for AAA functions (Diameter, Radius);

   o  VNFs for DNS functions;

   o  VNFs for DCHP functions

   o  VNFs for specialized URL/URI processing;

   o  VNFs for handling remote probes on these virtual information

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   o  VNFs for handling remote configuration of these virtual
      information functions;

   o  VNFs for Traffic capacity/load balance calculation;

   o  VNFs for determine optimum placement of application (and
      application's backup services) to optimize CPU compute, storage or

   o  VNFs for VPN to user identification and permissions to use data;

   Wny VNF in VNF Pools

   User load patterns or access patterns will impact how much load the
   network information VNF functions (DNS, DHCP, URL processing, AAA
   (Diameter/Radius) encounter.  The VNF Pools with a good VNF Pool
   manager can spread the load locally or between different systems.

   The applications and the application usage will also determine how
   loaded the VNF Function is that monitors CPU utilization, storage,
   and network resources.  Again, the VNF supported by VNF Pools can
   expand or shrink horizontally.

   The rest of the VNF functions needs for VNF Pools have been described

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document includes no request to IANA.

11.  Security Considerations

   This document has no security issues as just contains use cases.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

12.2.  Informative References

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              Zong, N., Dunbar, L., Shore, M., Lopez, D., and G.
              Karagiannis, "Virtualized Network Function (VNF) Pool
              Problem Statement", draft-zong-vnfpool-problem-
              statement-06 (work in progress), July 2014.

Author's Address

   Susan Hares
   7453 Hickory Hill
   Saline, CA  48176

   Email: shares@ndzh.com

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