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Thing-to-Thing Research Group                                  K. Hartke
Internet-Draft                                                  Ericsson
Intended status: Experimental                               July 8, 2019
Expires: January 9, 2020


                        Thing-to-Thing Data Hub
                     draft-hartke-t2trg-data-hub-04

Abstract

   The "Thing-to-Thing Data Hub" is a RESTful, hypermedia-driven Web
   application that can be used in Thing-to-Thing communications to
   share data items such as thing descriptions, configurations, resource
   descriptions, or firmware updates at a central location.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2020.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.




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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Data Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Interaction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   6.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   In Thing-to-Thing communication, there is often a need to share data
   items of common interest through a central location.  For example,
   the Resource Directory [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] aggregates
   descriptions of Web resources held on constrained nodes, which
   enables other nodes to easily discover these resources; a Thing
   Directory [W3C.CR-wot-architecture-20190516] stores metadata of IoT
   devices, allowing clients to discover interaction affordances and
   supported protocol bindings of Things; and a Firmware Server
   [I-D.ietf-suit-architecture] stores firmware images and manifests,
   making this data available to deployed devices, commissioning tools,
   and other services.

   As more and more Thing-to-Thing applications are implemented, it
   becomes increasingly important being able to not only share resource
   descriptions and firmware updates but also many other kinds of data,
   such as default configurations for new devices, service locations, or
   certificate revocation lists.  Resource directories and firmware
   servers are not a good fit for these kinds of data, as they're
   specialized to their use cases and generally not accepting any other
   kinds of data.  And creating new, specialized applications for every
   type of data is not practical in the long term.

   This document defines a simple "data hub" application, a RESTful Web
   application with a machine-understandable hypermedia API.  A "data
   hub" generalizes the concept of a central repository for different
   applications and is suitable for constrained environments [RFC7228].
   Specifically, it enables clients to share data items in any format
   and provides means for creating, reading, observing, updating,
   deleting, and finding data items at a data hub server.

   Data hubs are intended to be used primarily with Constrained
   Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252].



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   Features:

   o  General

      The data hub generalizes the concept of a directory or repository
      to data items of any Internet media type.  This means that
      applications using the data hub aren't stuck forever with the same
      media types or limited to just resource descriptions or firmware
      updates.

   o  Searchable

      Clients can retrieve a subset of data items from a data hub based
      on item metadata.

   o  Observable

      Data items published to a data hub are exposed as resources.  As
      such, they can be observed for changes [RFC7641] over CoAP.  This
      allows clients to stay informed of information that other clients
      update over time.  As a result, the data hub functions similar to
      a Publish-Subscribe Broker [I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub].

   o  Evolvable

      The key differentiator of the data hub compared to Resource
      Directory [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] and CoAP Publish-
      Subscribe Broker [I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub] lies in the
      evolvability of the application -- the ability to respond
      effectively to the need for changes without negatively impacting
      existing and new clients.

      Data hubs enable fine-grained evolvability by driving all
      interactions by machine-understandable hypermedia elements.
      Features can be added, changed or removed in a safe, backwards-
      compatible way simply by updating the data hub representation to
      expose appropriate links and forms.

1.1.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   [RFC2119].

   Terms defined in this document appear in _cursive_ where they are
   introduced.




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2.  Data Model

   The data model of the "Thing-to-Thing Data Hub" application consists
   of three elements: the _data hub_ itself, a _data collection_, and a
   number of _data items_ that have been shared (Figure 1).

                                 Data Hub
       +----------------------------------------------------------+
       |                                                          |
       |                 ___                                      |
       |          Data  /   \                                     |
       |    Collection  \___/                                     |
       |                    \                                     |
       |                     \____________________                |
       |                      \___    \___        \___            |
       |                      /   \   /   \  ...  /   \  Data     |
       |                      \___/   \___/       \___/  Items    |
       |                                                          |
       |                                                          |
       +----------------------------------------------------------+

   Figure 1: A Data Collection with a Number of Shared Data Items Hosted
                               at a Data Hub

   Data Hub

      A data hub is a Web application running on a Web server that hosts
      the data collection and the data items.

   Data Collection

      A data collection is a collection resource that contains the data
      items.

      Representations of data collections MUST have the "application/
      coral+cbor" media type [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral].  The
      representations consist primarily of links to the data items.
      These links have the <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/
      item> link relation type [RFC6573].  To reduce the number of
      round-trips, the representations MAY also embed (complete or
      partial) representations of the data items.  Forms contained in
      the representation enable interactions with the data collection
      and the data items, as detailed in the following sections.  The
      representations MAY additionally contain other links and forms
      that are not described in this document, such as a link with the
      <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/alternate> link relation
      type [W3C.REC-html52-20171214] that references an alternate
      representation of the data collection resource.



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      In this version of this document, a data hub is defined to have a
      depth of only one level.  That is, all data item resources are
      organized directly under the top-level data collection resource.
      This could be extended to multiple levels in a future version.

   Data Item

      A data item is a resource that is a member of the data collection
      resource.

      Data item representations can have any media type.  However, a
      data collection MAY restrict the media types it accepts for
      publication.  In this case, the form in the representation of the
      data collection for creating data items MUST list the acceptable
      media types using form fields of type <http://coreapps.org/
      coap#accept>.

      The representations of data items MAY link back to the data
      collection resource using the
      <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/collection> link
      relation type [RFC6573].

3.  Interaction Model

   The interaction model consists of eight potential interactions with a
   data hub: discovering and reading the data collection, and creating,
   reading, observing, updating, deleting, and finding shared data items
   in the data collection.

   Discovering a Data Hub

      In this version of this document, clients are assumed to be pre-
      configured with an entry-point IRI for a data collection at a data
      hub.

   Reading a Collection

      A client can retrieve a representation of a data collection by
      dereferencing the entry-point IRI.  As described above, the
      representation of the data collection includes links to (and,
      optionally, representations of) the data items in the data
      collection.  The representation of the data collection also
      includes forms for creating, updating, deleting, and finding data
      items.

   Creating an Item





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      The representation of a data collection MAY contain a form with
      the <http://coreapps.org/collections#create> operation type.
      Submitting this form with a representation in one of the
      acceptable media types creates a new data item in the data
      collection.  The acceptable media types are indicated by form
      fields of type <http://coreapps.org/coap#accept>.

      Implementations of this version of this document MUST use the
      method implied by the <http://coreapps.org/collections#create>
      operation type, i.e., the POST method [RFC7252].  A form
      indicating different a method MUST be ignored.

      On success, the location of the created data item MUST be conveyed
      in a 2.01 (Created) response using the Location-Path and Location-
      Query options [RFC7252].

   Reading an Item

      A client can retrieve a representation of a data item by following
      a link with the <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/item>
      link relation type in the representation of the data collection.

   Observing an Item

      A client can observe a data item by following a link with the
      <http://www.iana.org/assignments/relation/item> link relation type
      in the representation of the data collection and observing the
      target resource as specified in RFC 7641 [RFC7641].

   Updating an Item

      For each data item in a data collection, the representation of the
      data collection MAY include a form with the <http://coreapps.org/
      base#update> operation type nested within the link to the data
      item.  Submitting this form updates the data item to the submitted
      representation.

      Implementations of this version of this document MUST use the
      method implied by the <http://coreapps.org/base#update> operation
      type, i.e., the PUT method [RFC7252].  A form indicating different
      a method MUST be ignored.

      On success, a 2.04 (Changed) response is returned.

   Deleting an Item

      For each data item in a data collection, the representation of the
      data collection MAY include a form with the <http://coreapps.org/



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      collections#delete> operation type nested within the link to the
      data item.  Submitting this form deletes the data item from the
      data collection.

      Implementations of this version of this document MUST use the
      method implied by the <http://coreapps.org/collections#delete>
      operation type, i.e., the DELETE method [RFC7252].  A form
      indicating different a method MUST be ignored.

      On success, a 2.02 (Deleted) response is returned.

   Searching for Items

      The representation of a data collection MAY contain a form with
      the <http://coreapps.org/base#search> operation type.  This form
      can be used to find data items in the data collection.  Submitting
      this form with a search query returns the subset of data items
      that match the query.

      (TODO: Specify the representation format for search queries.)

      Implementations of this version of this document MUST use the
      method implied by the <http://coreapps.org/base#search> operation
      type, i.e., the FETCH method [RFC8132].  A form indicating
      different a method MUST be ignored.

      On success, a 2.05 (Content) response is returned.

      (TODO: Specify the representation format for the response.)

4.  Security Considerations

   The data hub application relies on a Web transfer protocol like CoAP
   to exchange representations in a CoRAL serialization format.  See
   Section 11 of RFC 7252 [RFC7252] and Section 7 of RFC 7641 [RFC7641]
   for security considerations relating to CoAP.  See Section 7 of RFC
   XXXX [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral] for security considerations relating to
   CoRAL.

   The data hub application does not define any specific mechanisms for
   protecting the confidentiality and integrity of messages exchanged
   between a data hub and a client.  It is recommended that
   implementations employ application layer or transport layer
   mechanisms for interactions with a data hub.

   The data hub application does not define any specific mechanisms for
   protecting the confidentiality and integrity of representations of
   data items shared through a data hub.  For scenarios where end-to-end



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   security matters, such as for firmware updates
   [I-D.ietf-suit-information-model], implementations should employ an
   object security mechanism.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA actions.

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral]
              Hartke, K., "The Constrained RESTful Application Language
              (CoRAL)", draft-hartke-t2trg-coral-09 (work in progress),
              July 2019.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6573]  Amundsen, M., "The Item and Collection Link Relations",
              RFC 6573, DOI 10.17487/RFC6573, April 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6573>.

   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.

   [RFC7641]  Hartke, K., "Observing Resources in the Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7641,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7641, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7641>.

   [RFC8132]  van der Stok, P., Bormann, C., and A. Sehgal, "PATCH and
              FETCH Methods for the Constrained Application Protocol
              (CoAP)", RFC 8132, DOI 10.17487/RFC8132, April 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8132>.

6.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub]
              Koster, M., Keranen, A., and J. Jimenez, "Publish-
              Subscribe Broker for the Constrained Application Protocol
              (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-pubsub-08 (work in
              progress), March 2019.



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   [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]
              Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., Stok, P., and C.
              Amsuess, "CoRE Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-
              resource-directory-22 (work in progress), July 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-suit-architecture]
              Moran, B., Meriac, M., Tschofenig, H., and D. Brown, "A
              Firmware Update Architecture for Internet of Things
              Devices", draft-ietf-suit-architecture-05 (work in
              progress), April 2019.

   [I-D.ietf-suit-information-model]
              Moran, B., Tschofenig, H., and H. Birkholz, "Firmware
              Updates for Internet of Things Devices - An Information
              Model for Manifests", draft-ietf-suit-information-model-02
              (work in progress), January 2019.

   [RFC7228]  Bormann, C., Ersue, M., and A. Keranen, "Terminology for
              Constrained-Node Networks", RFC 7228,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7228, May 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7228>.

   [W3C.CR-wot-architecture-20190516]
              Kovatsch, M., Matsukura, R., Lagally, M., Kawaguchi, T.,
              Toumura, K., and K. Kajimoto, "Web of Things (WoT)
              Architecture", World Wide Web Consortium Candidate
              Recommendation CR-wot-architecture-20190516, May 2019,
              <https://www.w3.org/TR/2019/CR-wot-architecture-20190516>.

   [W3C.REC-html52-20171214]
              Faulkner, S., Eicholz, A., Leithead, T., Danilo, A., and
              S. Moon, "HTML 5.2", World Wide Web Consortium
              Recommendation REC-html52-20171214, December 2017,
              <https://www.w3.org/TR/2017/REC-html52-20171214>.

Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Christian Amsuess and Jaime Jimenez for helpful comments
   and discussions that have shaped the document.

Author's Address










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   Klaus Hartke
   Ericsson
   Torshamnsgatan 23
   Stockholm  SE-16483
   Sweden

   Email: klaus.hartke@ericsson.com












































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