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Versions: 00 RFC 3051

INTERNET-DRAFT                                                Jeff Heath
September 5, 2000                                            John Border
Expires: March 5, 2001                            Hughes Network Systems


         IP Payload Compression Using ITU-T V.44 Packet Method

                     draft-heath-ipcomp-v44-00.txt

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026.

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Status of this Memo

   This memo is an Internet-Draft that provides information for the
   Internet community.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   Comments are invited and should be addressed to the authors whose
   contact information is in Section 8.

   This Internet-Draft expires on March 5, 2001.

Abstract

   This document describes a compression method based on the data
   compression algorithm described in ITU-T Recommendation V.44 [V44].
   Recommendation V.44 is a modem standard but Annex B, Clause B.1,
   of the recommendation describes the implementation of V.44 in packet
   networks (e.g. V.44 Packet Method).  This document defines the
   the application of V.44 Packet Method to the IP Payload Compression
   Protocol [IPCOMP].  [IPCOMP] defines a method for applying lossless
   compression to the payload portion of Internet Protocol datagrams.

   V.44 Packet Method is based upon the LZJH data compression
   algorithm.  Thoughout the remainder of this document the terms V.44
   Packet Method and LZJH are synonomous.





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IP Payload Compression Using ITU-T V.44 Packet Method     September 2000


Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................2
      1.1 General....................................................2
      1.2 Background of LZJH Data Compression........................2
      1.3 Licensing..................................................3
      1.4 Specification of Requirements..............................3
   2. Compression Process............................................3
      2.1 Encoder Dictionary.........................................4
      2.2 Encoder Output.............................................4
      2.3 Padding....................................................4
   3. Decompression Process..........................................4
      3.1 Compressed Datagram........................................4
      3.2 Original Uncompressed Datagram.............................5
   4. IPComp Association (IPCA) Parameters...........................5
      4.1 ISAKMP Transform ID........................................5
      4.2 ISAKMP Security Association Attributes.....................5
      4.3 Manual configuration.......................................5
      4.4 Minimum packet size threshold..............................5
      4.5 Compressibility test.......................................5
   5. Security Considerations........................................6
   6. IANA Considerations............................................6
   7. Acknowledgements...............................................6
   8. References.....................................................6
   9. Authors' Address...............................................7
  10. Full Copyright Statement.......................................7

1. Introduction

1.1 General

   This document specifies the application of LZJH data compression, a
   lossless data compression algorithm, to IP datagram payloads. LZJH
   data compression is to be used in conjunction with the IP Payload
   Compression Protocol [IPCOMP].  This document is written with the
   assumption that the reader has an understanding of the IPComp
   protocol.

1.2 Background of LZJH Data Compression

   LZJH is similar to the algorithm described in [LZ2] although it also
   has aspects which are similar to the algorithm described in [LZ1].
   As such, it provides the execution speed and low memory requirements
   of [LZ2] with compression ratios that are better than [LZ1].
   Originally developed for the satellite industry to compress IP
   datagrams independently, it is ideal for the IPComp application.  The
   LZJH algorithm was modified to compress a continuous stream of data
   for a modem environment and this modified version is the basis for
   Recommendation V.44.  LZJH is an adaptive, general purpose, lossless
   data compression algorithm that provides excellent performance across
   a wide variety of data types, particularly web HTML's.  It provides
   superior compression ratios, per MIP and memory utilized, and better


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   overall performance than other data compression algorithms.  Its
   encoder is extemely efficient and can encode a two character string
   with 3 bits the second time that string is encountered in the data.

   A typical [LZ2] compression algorithm, such as V.42bis, is not
   suitable for an IPComp application since it takes too long to build
   up its dictionary, resulting in poor compression ratios on IP
   datagrams that are compressed independently.  It also requires too
   many cycles to reset an [LZ2] dictionary between datagrams which
   adversely affects execution times.

   Similarly, a typical [LZ1] compression algorithm suffers in the
   IPComp application due to poor execution times.  Hash tables, that
   help improve execution times when compressing continuous data, may
   cause deterioration of execution times in an IPComp application
   since they must be reset to an initial state between each datagram.

   LZJH not only has superior execution times when encoding or decoding
   packet data, but the reset of the dictionary between IP datagrams is
   trivial.  The encoder requires only the initialization of a 256 word
   array and a handful of variables while the decoder requires only the
   initialization of a handful of variables.

   The LZJH algorithm uses a dictionary of 1500 entries for the IPComp
   application.  During the encode process unmatched characters are
   encoded as ordinals and matched redundant strings of characters are
   encoded as codewords or string-extension lengths that represent the
   redundant strings.  During the decode process the ordinals,
   codewords, and string-extension lengths are interpeted to re-create
   exactly the original datagram payload.

   The details of LZJH data compression can be found in [V44].

1.3 Licensing

   Hughes Network Systems holds patents on the LZJH algorithm.  Licenses
   are available on a fair and reasonable basis.  Source code is also
   available at no additional cost.  For information contact Hughes
   Network Systems, 10450 Pacific Center Court, San Diego, CA, 92121.
   Additional information can be obtained from either www.lzjh.com or
   www.v-44.com.

1.4 Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2. Compression Process

   The compression of datagrams is performed by a function called the
   Encoder.


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2.1 Encoder Dictionary

   The transmitting entity MUST reset the encoder dictionary prior to
   processing each datagram's payload, as specified in clause 7.5.1 of
   [V44]. This ensures that each datagram's payload can be correctly
   decompressed independently of any other, as required in an
   environment where datagrams may be lost or received out of order.

   The transmitting entity MUST flush unprocessed encoder data after the
   last byte of the datagram has been passed into the encoder such that
   the compressed datagram can be transmitted as a unit.  The flush
   ensures that all data is processed and included in the output,
   i.e. the compressed datagram is complete and no data from the current
   datagram will be processed with the next datagram.

2.2 Encoder Output

   The input to the payload compression algorithm is an IP datagram
   payload. The output of the algorithm is a new (and hopefully smaller)
   payload. The output payload contains the input payload's data in
   either compressed or uncompressed format. The input and output
   payloads are each an integral number of bytes in length.

   If the uncompressed form is used, the output payload is identical to
   the input payload and the IPComp header is omitted.  If the
   compressed form is used, the output payload is prepended with the
   IPComp header and encoded as defined in clause 6.3 of [V44].

2.3 Padding

   A datagram payload compressed using LZJH always ends with a FLUSH
   codeword in the last one or two compressed data bytes.  The FLUSH
   codeword may start in the 2nd to the last compressed data byte and
   end in the last compressed data byte or be totally within the last
   data byte. The FLUSH codeword is used to signal the end of the
   compressed data and differentiate compressed data from padding.  Any
   bits or bytes beyond the FLUSH codeword within the compressed payload
   are to be considered padding.

   The size of a compressed payload MUST be in whole octet units.

3. Decompression Process

   The decompression of datagrams is performed by a function called the
   Decoder.

3.1 Compressed Datagram

   If the received datagram is compressed, the receiver MUST reset the
   decoder dictionary prior to processing the datagram. This ensures
   that each datagram can be decoded independently of any other datagram
   in the event datagrams are lost or received out of order. Beginning


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   with the decoder dictionary in the initial state, as specified in
   clause 7.5.2 of [V44], the receiver decodes the payload data field of
   the datagram according to the procedure specified in clause 6.4 of
   [V44].

3.2 Original Uncompressed Datagram

   If the received datagram is not compressed, the receiver does not
   perform compression decoding and passes the payload data field of the
   datagram unaltered to the next protocol layer.

4. IPComp Association (IPCA) Parameters

   ISAKMP [RFC-2408] MAY be used to negotiate the use of the LZJH
   compression algorithm to establish an IPCA, as defined in [IPCOMP].

4.1 ISAKMP Transform ID

   The value of the LZJH Transform ID is TBD.  When assigned, this value
   is used to negotiate the use of the LZJH data compression algorithm
   under the ISAKMP protocol.

4.2 ISAKMP Security Association Attributes

   There are no other parameters required for the negotiation of
   the LZJH compression algorithm under ISAKMP.

4.3 Manual configuration

   The CPI value for a manually configured IPComp Compression
   Association of LZJH is TBD.

4.4 Minimum packet size threshold

   As stated in [IPCOMP], small packets may not compress well.  Informal
   tests using the LZJH algorithm on internet web pages and e-mail files
   show that the average payload size that typically produces expanded
   data is approximately 50 bytes.  Thus, implementations may prefer not
   to attempt to compress payloads of approximately 50 bytes or smaller.

4.5 Compressibility test

   The LZJH algorithm, as described in [V44], is easily modified to
   incorperate an adaptive compressibility test, as referenced in
   [IPCOMP].  Annex B of [V44] specifies the mechanism for including
   such a test in LZJH.








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5. Security Considerations

   This document does not add any further security considerations to
   those discussed in [IPCOMP].

6. IANA Considerations

   This document does not introduce any new name spaces.  The transform
   ID and CPI values referenced in Sections 4.1 and 4.3, respectively,
   should be assigned according to the IANA considerations provided in
   [RFC 2407] for assigning IPComp transform identifiers.

7. Acknowledgements

   This document is modeled upon [RFC-2395].

8. References

   [IPCOMP]   Shacham, A., "IP Payload Compression Protocol (IPComp)",
              RFC 2393, December 1998.

   [LZ1]      Lempel, A., and Ziv, J., "A Universal Algorithm for
              Sequential Data Compression", IEEE Transactions On
              Information Theory, Vol.  IT-23, No. 3, May 1977.

   [LZ2]      Lempel, A., and Ziv, J., "Compression of Individual
              Sequences via Variable Rate Coding", IEEE Transactions
              On Information Theory, Vol.  IT-24, No. 5, Sep 1978.

   [RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC-2395] Friend, R., and Monsour, R., "IP Payload Compression Using
              LZS", RFC 2395, December, 1998.

   [RFC-2407] Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
              Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November, 1998.

   [RFC-2408] Maughan, D., Schertler, M., Schneider, M., and Turner, J.,
              "Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
              (ISAKMP)", RFC 2408, November, 1998.

   [V44]      ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
              Recommendation V.44 "Data Compression Procedures",
              determined June 2000.









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9. Authors' Addresses

   Jeff Heath
   Hughes Network Systems
   10450 Pacific Center Ct.
   San Diego, CA  92121

   voice: 858-452-4826
   fax: 858-597-8979
   e-mail: jheath@hns.com

   John Border
   Hughes Network Systems
   11717 Exploration Lane
   Germantown, MD  20876

   voice: 301-601-4099
   fax: 301-601-4275
   e-mail: border@hns.com



10. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


   This Internet-Draft expires on March 5, 2001.


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