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BIER Workgroup                                           H. Bidgoli, Ed.
Internet Draft                                               A. Dolganow
Intended status: Standard Track                                    Nokia
                                                              Fengman Xu

Expires: December 23, 2017                                 June 21, 2017

                    PIM Tunneling Through BIER Core


   Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER) is an architecture that
   provides multicast forwarding through a "BIER domain" without
   requiring intermediate routers to maintain multicast related per-flow
   state.  Neither does BIER require an explicit tree-building protocol
   for its operation.  A multicast data packet enters a BIER domain at a
   "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), and leaves the BIER domain at
   one or more "Bit-Forwarding Egress Routers" (BFERs).  The BFIR router
   adds a BIER header to the packet.  Such header contains a bit-string
   in which each bit represents exactly one BFER to forward the packet
   to.  The set of BFERs to which the multicast packet needs to be
   forwarded is expressed by the according set of bits switched on in
   BIER packet header.

   This document describes the procedure needed for PIM to be tunneled
   through a BIER core. Allowing access CEs or PEs to run traditional
   PIM multicast services including draft rosen multicast MVPN through a
   core of BIER.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list

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   of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 8, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3. PIM Tunneling Through BIER domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1. PIM-BFIR procedure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.1. BIER packet construction at PIM BFIR  . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2. Tunneling PIM through the BIER domain procedure . . . . . .  7
     3.3. PIM-BFER procedure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4. Datapath Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.1. BIER reverse path forwarding table  . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.2. Datapath traffic flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5. PIM-ASM behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6. Draft Rosen multicast vpn behavior  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.1. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     7.2. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1. Introduction

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   Most Service Providers understand the benefit of BIER and would like
   a Core network that supports scalable multicast solution by removing
   the multicast states and deploying BIER.

   That said greenfield deployment of BIER might not be possible for
   providers that deploy MVPN technology, or have more than 256 PEs in
   their network. Consider the following:

   1.Most service providers deploy MVPN technology for multicast today.
     Their network structure typically is a Core network, which connects
     edge networks containing PEs. These PEs run MVPN services like
     draft rosen multicast vpns. In a typical tier one provider the
     number of PEs is well beyond 1K of routers. As the edge network
     expands the scale of multicast states in the core could test the
     routers limits. As such it is attractive to create a stateless BIER
     core which can transport MVPN technology. By deploying BIER in the
     core of the network the bottle necks for multicast states is
     removed. By pushing the multicast states to the edge provider (P)
     routers, a more manageable multicast state can be achieved.

   2.Deploying greenfield BIER services for most providers could be a
     challenge. It might be attractive to deploy bier in multiple
     phases. Starting from the core of the network to remove the massive
     multicast state generated by traditional MVPN services is an ideal
     evolution path. By tunneling traditional MVPN technology through a
     BIER core an scalable and manageable network can be created.

   3.Most vendors support 256 bits in the BIER header. Identifying only
     256 PEs or CEs via a single BIER packet. Scaling beyond 256 PEs or
     CEs "might" require packet duplation depending on network topology.
     This packet duplication will be done via BIER Set Index (SI) which
     is explained in draft-ietf-bier-architecture. In the cases that
     packet duplication can't be avoid it might be desirable to segment
     the network to traditional MVPN technology at the access and BIER
     in the core. By moving the Bier in the core all core routers could
     be presented via the 256 bits in the BIER header.

   In all above cases it might be attractive to be able to tunnel
   traditional MVPN services over a BIER core.

   This draft explains the procedure to tunnel PIM through a BIER core,
   as such enable tunneling of traditional MVPN services like draft-
   rosen multicast vpns through a core of BIER.

   The procedures of PIM tunneling should be used at the BIER edge
   routers. The BIER edge routers (BER) are connected to legacy PIM
   routers on one side and BIER routers on the other side. PIM routers
   continue to send PIM state messages to the BER but the BER does not

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   propagate PIM packets natively into the BIER sub-domain. Instead it
   will tunnel the PIM through BIER network.

   In this draft the BFIR and BFER are the BER from multicast traffic
   point of view and not PIM signaling. That said the PIM BFIR (P-BFIR)
   and PIM (P-BFER) are BER from PIM signaling point of view.

   As such a P-BFIR would be a BFER of the multicast traffic and a P-
   BFER would be a BFIR of the multicast traffic.

2. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.1. Definitions

   Some of the terminology specified in [I-D.draft-ietf-bier-
   architecture-05] is replicated here and extended by necessary


          Bit Index Explicit Replication (The overall architecture of
          forwarding multicast using a Bit Position).


          Bit Forwarding Router (A router that participates in Bit Index
          Multipoint Forwarding).  A BFR is identified by a unique BFR-
          prefix in a BIER domain.


          Bit Forwarding Ingress Router (The ingress border router that
          inserts the BM into the packet).  Each BFIR must have a valid
          BFR-id assigned. In this draft BIER will be used for
          forwarding and tunneling of control plain packet (i.e. PIM)
          and forwarding dataplain packets. BFIR is term used for
          dataplain packet forwarding.


          Bit Forwarding Egress Router.  A router that participates in
          Bit Index Forwarding as leaf.  Each BFER must be a BFR.  Each
          BFER must have a valid BFR-id assigned. In this draft BIER
          will be used for forwarding and tunneling of control plain

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          packet (i.e. PIM) and forwarding dataplain packets. BFIR is
          term used for dataplain packet forwarding.


          PIM-Bit Forwarding ingress router. Ingress boundary router
          between PIM domain and BIER domain. It tunnels PIM packet
          through a BIER domain toward the source.


          PIM-Bit Forwarding egress router. Egress boundary router
          between BIER domain and PIM domain. It decapsulates PIM packet
          from a BIER tunnel and forwards it to the PIM domain.


          BIER RPF Table, is built on the P-BFER. It tracks which P-BFIR
          is interested in a group. It is used to map the group to the
          P-BFIR BIER prefix.


          Bit Forwarding Tree used to reach all BFERs in a domain.


          Bit Index Forwarding Table.

   BIER sub-domain:

          A further distinction within a BIER domain identified by its
          unique sub-domain identifier.  A BIER sub-domain can support
          multiple BitString Lengths.


          An optional, unique identifier for a BFR within a BIER sub-

3. PIM Tunneling Through BIER domain

   Suppose BIER sub-domain is to be an IGP area or instance. The BIER
   edge routers (BER) can be ABRs that are connected to edge network via
   IGP or BGP, or they can be any provider (P) router that is selected
   to act as the BER in that BIER sub-domain.

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   Each BER is configured as per BIER requirements explained in draft-

   The BERs receive PIM joins from the downstream routers because they
   are on the path toward the source. Additionally, on these BERs all
   interfaces which are PIM enabled are configured to tunnel PIM over

3.1. PIM-BFIR procedure

   When PIM joins for a certain (S,G) arrives on a BER, in this case the
   P-BFIR (BFIR from PIM signaling point of view). This router first
   find the route to the source. The route to the source is assumed to
   be an IGP route. The BER tries to resolve the source (S), in the
   process it of resolving the source the SPF calculation can return the
   P-BFER that is in the path to the source.

   The procedure to find the P-BFER (BFER from PIM signaling point of
   view) can be via 2 mechanism and is beyond the scope of this draft.

   1.The P-BFER can be an ABR or ASBR router which is summarizing the
     route to the source, and as such is the source of this route.

   2.The P-BFER can be resolved via SPF calculation and finding the
     first BFIR in the path the source.

   The P-BFIR will become the BFER for multicast traffic point of view.
   This P-BFIR will track all the PIM interfaces that are interested in
   the (S,G) and create multicast states for all PIM routers attach to
   it. This BFER route will have incoming interface (RPF) as BIER
   "tunnel" interface and outgoing interface as the interface on which
   PIM Join was received. If there is another PIM Join for the same
   multicast (S,G) entry on some other interface, that interface gets
   added in the outgoing interface list.

   The P-BFIR after discovering the P-BFER and its BFR-ID (flooded via
   IGP BIER extension) will construct the BIER header via the BIFT. The
   PIM packet is encapsulated in the BIER header and transported through
   BIER domain to P-BFER.

3.1.1. BIER packet construction at PIM BFIR

   The BIER header will be encoded with the BFR-id of the P-BFER(with
   appropriate bit set in the bitstring) and PIM Join is then
   encapsulated in the packet.

          0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1

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    |              BIFT-id                  | TC  |S|     TTL       |
    |Nibble |  Ver  |  BSL  |              Entropy                  |
    |OAM|Rsv|    DSCP   |   Proto   |            BFIR-id            |
    |                BitString  (first 32 bits)                     ~
    ~                                                               ~
    ~                BitString  (last 32 bits)                      |

        BIERHeader.Proto = PIM

   BIERHeader.BitString= Bit corresponding to the BFR-ID of the P-BFER

   BIERHeader.BFIR-id = BFR-Id of the BER originating the encapsulated
   PIM packet, i.e. the P-BFIR.

   Rest of the values in the BIER header are determined based on the
   network (MPLS/non-MPLS), capabilities (BSL), and network

3.2. Tunneling PIM through the BIER domain procedure

   Throughout the BIER domain the BIER forwarding procedure is in par
   with draft-ietf-bier-architecture. No BIER router will examine the
   tunnel PIM packet. As such there is no multicast state build in the
   BIER domain.

   The packet will be forwarded through the BIER domain until it reaches
   the BER with matching BFR-ID as in the BIERHeader.Bitstring. This BER
   (P-BFER) will examine the packet and know that it is a PIM packet
   from BIERHeader.Proto field and farther processing is needed.

3.3. PIM-BFER procedure

   After receiving the BIER packet and processing the PIM payload
   encapsulated in BIER packet the P-BFER will remove the BIER header
   from PIM packet and lookup the route to the source, if the source is
   in PIM domain, it forwards the PIM packet toward the source.

   With same token the P-BFER creates a multicast state with incoming
   interface as same interface that PIM join packet was forwarded and
   outgoing interfaces of BIER-Header.BFIR-id.

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   The P-BFER will also build a BIER reverse path forwarding table (BRT)
   table, using the BIERHeader.BFIR-id and the Group specified in the
   arriving PIM packet (S,G). BRT will be used by BFIR for datapath

   The router keeps track of all BFIR-ids interested in the Group
   specified in the (S,G) and updates the multicast state and populates
   the BRT accordingly.

   It should be noted this router can also receive and forward PIM
   packet from other routers in the PIM domain and update the muticast
   state accordingly.

   At this point the end-to-end multicast traffic flow setup is

4. Datapath Forwarding

4.1. BIER reverse path forwarding table

   The BIER RPF table (BRT) is needed on the BFIR so the multicast
   traffic can find the P-BFIR ID and append the correct BIT index to
   the BIER header for the multicast traffic before forwarding to BIER

   This table is built on the P-BFER buy using info from PIM packet and
   its corresponding BIER header. The PIM packet can provide the
   specific Group (G) address, meanwhile its corresponding BIER header
   can provide the originating P-BFIR ID. The P-BFIR is the last BIER
   router in the BIER domain or the BFER from datapath point of view.

   These two pieces of information will be used to build BRT.

   It should be noted that a single group can be associated with
   multiple P-BFIR IDs, as an example multiple MVPN leaf routers behind
   BIER domain are interested in the same group. These LEAF PEs are
   reachable via different P-BFIRs.

   When the correct P-BFIR(s) (BFER(s)) are found in this table their P-
   BFIR ID can be used to do a lookup in BIFT and appropriate BIT
   indexes appended to the BIER header before forwarding the packet to
   BIER domain.

   As an example in the network below:

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       (BFIR)                   (BFER)
   S--(P-BFER)---BIER-DOMAIN---(P-BFIR)--A (join (S,G1),(S,G2))
                                   |-----C (join (S,G1),(S,G3))
                                   |-----E (join (S,G3))

   The BRT is as follow:
                      |    Group   |  P-BFIR |
                      |    (G1)    |    C,A  |
                      |    (G2)    |     A   |
                      |    (G3)    |    E,C  |

   And the BIFT is as follow:
                      |      BFR-id    | BFR-NBR |
                      | (SI:Bitstring) |         |
                      |   1 (0:0001)   |    C    |
                      |   3 (0:0100)   |    E    |
                      |   4 (0:1000)   |    A    |

   As such a multicast dataplain packet arriving with destination G1
   will have the BITs (0:1001) and a packet arriving with destination of
   G3 will have the BITs of (0:0101)

4.2. Datapath traffic flow

   When the multicast data traffic arrives on the BFIR (P-BFER) the
   router will find the destination IP of the traffic (i.e. group
   address) in the BRT. The BFIR then finds all the P-BFIR (BFER) that
   are interested in this group from the BRT table. The router then
   constructs the BIERHeader.BitString with all the BFIR interested in
   the group and will forward the packet to the BIER domain. The BFER(s)
   will accept the packets and remove the BIER header and forward the
   multicast packet as per pre-build multicast state for (G) and its
   outgoing interfaces.

5. PIM-ASM behavior

   In case of PIM ASM the procedure for LEAFs joining RP or the source

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   is same as above. The unicast (source registration) traffic from
   source to RP will be flooded throughout the BIER domain as regular
   unicast traffic without BIER involvement.

6. Draft Rosen multicast vpn behavior

   Over the years draft rosen mvpn has evolved with many different type
   of signaling.

   As an example, with AD and C-Multicast signaling of PIM or C-
   Multicast of PIM and AD of BGP.

   The above mechanism works with draft rosen mvpn as long the C-
   multicast signaling is done via PIM. The provider PIM for MVPN can be
   forwarded from Root and LEAF PE with above explained mechanism.

   The multicast traffic has to be forwarded via GRE tunnel. That said
   the AD signaling can be done via MP-BGP.

   Future drafts will address the NG-MVPN and MPLS tunneling.

7. Security Considerations


7.1. Normative References

   [BIER_ARCH] Wijnands, IJ., Rosen, E., Dolganow, A., Przygienda, T.,
   and S. Aldrin, "Multicast using Bit Index Explicit Replication",
   internet-draft draft-ietf-bier-architecture-05, October 2016.

   [DRAFT ROSEN] E. Rosen, Y. Cai, I. Wijnands, draft-rosen-vpn.mcast-
   15, June 2010 (RFC 6037)

7.2. Informative References

   [BGP_BIER_EXTENSIONS] Xu, X., Chen, M., Patel, K., Wijnands, I., and
   A. Przygienda, "BGP Extensions for BIER", internet-draft draft-ietf-
   bier-idr-extensions-02.txt, June 2017.

   [BIER-OAM] Kumar, N., Pignataro, C., Akiya, N., Zheng, L., Chen, M.,
   and G. Mirsky, "BIER Ping and Trace", internet-draft draft-ietf-bier-
   ping-01.txt, January 2017.

   [BIER_MVPN] Rosen, E., Ed., Sivakumar, M., Wijnands, IJ., Aldrin, S.,
   Dolganow, A., and T. Przygienda, "Multicast VPN Using Bier",
   internet-draft draft-ietf-bier-mvpn-05, January 2017.

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   [ISIS_BIER_EXTENSIONS] Ginsberg, L., Przygienda, T., Aldrin, S., and
   Z. Zhang, "BIER Support via ISIS", internet-draft draft-ietf-bier-
   isis-extensions-04.txt, March 2017.

   [OSPF_BIER_EXTENSIONS] Psenak, P., Kumar, N., Wijnands, IJ.,
   Dolganow, A., Przygienda, T., Zhang, Z., and S. Aldrin, "OSPF
   Extensions for Bit Index Explicit Replication", internet-draft draft-
   ietf-ospf-bier-extensions-05.txt, March 2017.

8. Acknowledgments <Add any acknowledgements>

Authors' Addresses

   Hooman Bidgoli (editor)
   600 March Rd.
   Ottawa, Ontario K2K 2E6

   Email: hooman.bidgoli@nokia.com

   Fengman Xu
   400 International PKWY
   Richardson, Tx 75081

   Email: fengman.xu@verizon.com

   Andrew Dolganow
   750D Chai Chee Rd
   06-06, Viva Business Park
   Singapore 469004

   Email: Andrew.dolganow@nokia.com

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