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RAP Working Group                                             L-N. Hamer
Internet Draft                                               B. Kosinski
Expires August 23, 2001                                          B. Gage
                                                         Nortel Networks
                                                       February 23, 2001

                      Session Authorization for RSVP

                   draft-hkg-rap-rsvp-authsession-00.txt


Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026 [1].

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of
   six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other
   documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
   reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt
   The list of Internet- Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   The distribution of this memo is unlimited. This memo is filed as
   <draft-hkg-rap-rsvp-authsession-00.txt>, and expires August 23,
   2001. Please send comments to the authors.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the representation of session authorization
   information in the POLICY_DATA object [POL-EXT] for supporting
   policy-based per-session authorization and admission control in
   RSVP.  The goal of session authorization is to allow the exchange
   of information between network elements in order to authorize the
   use of resources for a service and to co-ordinate actions between
   the signaling and transport planes.  This document describes how a
   process on a system authorizes the reservation of resources by a
   host and then provides that host with a session authorization
   policy element which can be inserted into the RSVP PATH message to
   facilitate proper and secure reservation of those resources within
   the network. We describe the encoding of media authorization
   information as RSVP policy elements and provide details relating to
   operations, processing rules and error scenarios.





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1. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2. Introduction

   RSVP [RFC-2205] is a resource reservation setup protocol designed
   for an integrated services [RFC-1633] or DiffEdge [RFC-2998]
   Internet.  The RSVP protocol is used by a host to request specific
   qualities of service from the network for particular application
   data streams or flows.  RSVP is also used by routers to deliver
   quality-of-service (QoS) requests to all nodes along the path(s) of
   the flows and to establish and maintain state to provide the
   requested service.  RSVP requests will generally result in
   resources being reserved in each node along the data path.  RSVP
   allows users to obtain preferential access to network resources,
   under the control of an admission control mechanism.  Such
   admission control is often based on user or application identity
   [I-REP], however, it is also valuable to provide the ability for
   per-session admission control.

   In order to allow for per-session admission control, it is necessary
   to provide a mechanism for ensuring an RSVP request from a host has
   been properly pre-authorized before allowing the reservation of
   resources.  In order to meet this requirement, there must be
   information in the RSVP message which may be used to verify the
   validity of the RSVP request.  This may be done by providing the host
   with a token upon authorization which may be inserted into the RSVP
   PATH message and verified by the network.

   We describe the session authorization element (AUTH_SESSION)
   contained in the POLICY_DATA object.  The user process must obtain an
   AUTH_SESSION object from an authorizing entity, which it may then
   pass to the RSVP process (service) on the originating host.  The RSVP
   service then inserts the AUTH_SESSION object into the RSVP PATH
   message to allow verification of the network resource request.
   Network elements, such as routers, verify the request and then admit
   the RSVP message based on admission policy.

   [S-AUTH] describes a framework in which a session authorization
   policy element may be utilized to contain information relevant to
   the network's decision to grant a reservation request.











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3. Policy Element for Session Authorization Data

3.1 Policy Data Object Format

   POLICY_DATA objects contain policy information and are carried by
   RSVP messages. A detail description of the format of POLICY_DATA
   object can be found in "RSVP Extensions for Policy Control" [POL-
   EXT].

3.2 Session Authorization Data Policy Element

   In this section we describe a policy element (PE) called session
   authorization data (AUTH_SESSION).  The AUTH_SESSION policy element
   contains a list of fields which describe the session, along with
   other attributes.

       +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
       | Length                    | P-Type = AUTH_SESSION     |
       +-------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
       // Session Authorization Attribute List                //
       +-------------------------------------------------------+

   Length
        The length of the policy element (including the Length and
        P-Type) is in number of octets (MUST be in multiples of 4) and
        indicates the end of the session authorization information
        block.

   P-Type (Session Authorization Type)
        The Policy element type (P-type) of this element.  The
        Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) acts as a registry
        for policy element types for identity as described in
        [POL-EXT].  The definition for AUTH_SESSION is currently to be
        defined.

   Session Authorization Attribute List
        The session authorization attribute list is a collection of
        objects which describes the session and provides other
        information necessary to verify the RSVP request.

3.3 Session Authorization Attributes

   A session authorization attribute may contain a variety of
   information and has both an attribute type and subtype.  The
   attribute itself MUST be a multiple of 4 octets in length, and any
   attributes that are not a multiple of 4 octets long MUST be padded
   to a 4-octet boundary.








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   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
   | Length          | S-Type |SubType |
   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
   | Value ...
   +--------+--------+--------+--------+


   Length
        The length field is two octets and indicates the actual length
        of the attribute (including Length, S-Type and SubType fields)
        in number of octets.  The length does NOT include any bytes
        padding to the value field to make the attribute a multiple of
        4 octets long.

   S-Type
        Session authorization attribute type (S-Type) field is one
        octet.  IANA SHALL act as a registry for S-Types as described
        in section 7, IANA Considerations.  Initially, the registry
        contains the following S-Types:

            1  AUTH_ENT_ID          The unique identifier of the entity
                                    which authorized the session.

            2  AUTH_ENT_CRED        The credentials of the authorizing
                                    entity, such as a digital
                                    certificate.

            3  SESSION_ID           Unique identifier for this session.

            4  SOURCE_ADDR          Address specification for the
                                    session originator.

            5  DEST_ADDR            Address specification for the
                                    session end-point.

            6  START_TIME           The starting time for the session.

            7  END_TIME             The end time for the session.

            8  RESOURCES            The resources which the user is
                                    authorized to request.

            9  DIGITAL_SIGNATURE    Digital signature of the session
                                    authorization policy element.


   SubType
        Session authorization attribute sub-type is one octet in
        length.  The value of the SubType depends on the S-Type.

   Value
        The attribute specific information.



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3.3.1 Authorizing Entity Identifier

   AUTH_ENT_ID is used to identify the entity which authorized the
   initial service request and generated the session authorization
   policy element.  The AUTH_ENT_ID may be represented in various
   formats, and the SubType is used to define the format for the ID.
   The format for AUTH_ENT_ID is as follows:

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        AUTH_ENT_ID

   SubType
        The following sub-types for AUTH_ENT_ID are defined.  IANA
        SHALL act as a registry for AUTH_ENT_ID sub-types as described
        in section 7, IANA Considerations.  Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub-types of AUTH_ENT_ID:

            1  IPV4_ADDRESS        IPv4 address

            2  IPV6_ADDRESS        IPv6 address

            3  FQDN                Fully Qualified Domain Name

            4  ASCII_DN            X.500 Distinguished name as defined
                                   in RFC-1779 as an ASCII string.

            5  UNICODE_DN          X.500 Distinguished name as defined
                                   in RFC-1779 as a UNICODE string.

            6  URI                 Universal Resource Identifier, as
                                   defined in RFC-2396.

            7  KRB_PRINCIPAL       Kerberos principal name as defined in
                                   RFC-1510.

   OctetString
        Contains the authorizing entity identifier.









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3.3.2 Authorizing Entity Credentials

   AUTH_ENT_CRED contains the credentials of the authorizing entity,
   which can then be used by the network to ensure that the entity
   which generated this session authorization policy element is a
   valid trusted entity.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        AUTH_ENT_CRED

   SubType
        The type of credentials contained in this attribute.  IANA
        SHALL act as a registry for AUTH_ENT_CRED sub-types as
        described in section 7, IANA Considerations.  Initially, the
        registry contains the following sub-types:

            1  ASCII_ID      The authorizing entity identification in a
                             plain ASCII text string.

            2  UNICODE_ID    The authorizing entity identification in a
                             plain UNICODE text string.

            3  X509_V3_CERT  A chain of authorizing entity's X.509 V3
                             digital certificates.

            4  PGP_CERT      The PGP digital certificate of the
                             authorizing entity.

   OctetString
        Contains the authorizing entity credentials.

3.3.3 Session Identifier

   SESSION_ID is a unique identifier for this session.  It may be used
   for a number of purposes, including replay detection, or even
   mapping this request to a policy decision entry made by the
   authorizing entity.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+



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   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        SESSION_ID

   SubType
        The following sub-types for SESSION_ID are defined.  IANA
        SHALL act as a registry for SESSION_ID sub-types as described
        in section 7, IANA Considerations.  Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub-types of SESSION_ID:

            1  ASCII_ID        Simple plain ASCII string identifier.

            2  UNICODE_ID      Simple plain UNICODE string identifier.

            3  OCTET_ID        Raw octet string identifier.

   OctetString
        Contains the actual session identifier.

3.3.4 Source Address

   SOURCE_ADDR is used to identify the source address specification of
   the authorized session. This S-Type MAY be useful in some scenarios
   to make sure the resource request has been authorized for that
   particular source IP address and/or port.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        SOURCE_ADDR

   SubType
        The following sub types for SOURCE_ADDR are defined. IANA
        SHALL act as a registry for SOURCE_ADDR sub-types as
        described in section 7, IANA Considerations. Initially, the
        registry contains the following sub types for SOURCE_ADDR:

            1  IPV4_ADDRESS        IPv4 address

            2  IPV6_ADDRESS        IPv6 address






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            3  UDP_PORT            UDP port specification

            4  TCP_PORT            TCP port specification

   OctetString
        The OctetString contains the source address information.

3.3.5 Destination Address

   DEST_ADDR is used to identify the destination address of the
   authorized session. This S-Type MAY be useful in some scenarios to
   make sure the resource request has been authorized for that
   particular destination IP address and/or port.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        DEST_ADDR

   SubType
        The following sub types for DEST_ADDR are defined. IANA SHALL
        act as a registry for DEST_ADDR sub-types as described in
        section 7, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub types for DEST_ADDR:

            1  IPV4_ADDRESS        IPv4 address

            2  IPV6_ADDRESS        IPv6 address

            3  UDP_PORT            UDP port specification

            4  TCP_PORT            TCP port specification

   OctetString
        The OctetString contains the destination address specification.

3.3.6 Start time

   START_TIME is used to identify the start time of the authorized
   session. This S-Type MAY be useful in some scenarios to specify a
   start time for the authorized session.







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   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        START_TIME

   SubType
        The following sub types for START_TIME are defined. IANA SHALL
        act as a registry for START_TIME sub-types as described in
        section 7, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub types for START_TIME:

            1  NTP_TIMESTAMP        NTP Timestamp Format as defined in
                                    RFC-1305.

   OctetString
        The OctetString contains the start time.

3.3.7 End time

   END_TIME is used to identify the end time of the authorized
   session. This S-Type MAY be useful in some scenarios to specify a
   end time for the authorized session.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        END_TIME

   SubType
        The following sub types for END_TIME are defined. IANA SHALL
        act as a registry for END_TIME sub-types as described in
        section 7, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub types for END_TIME:

            1  NTP_TIMESTAMP        NTP Timestamp Format as defined in
                                    RFC-1305.





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   OctetString
        The OctetString contains the end time.

3.3.8 Resources Authorized

   RESOURCES is used to define the characteristics of the authorized
   session. This S-Type MAY be useful in some scenarios to specify the
   specific resources authorized to ensure the request fits the
   authorized specifications.

   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        RESOURCES

   SubType
        The following sub-types for RESOURCES are defined. IANA SHALL
        act as a registry for RESOURCES sub-types as described in
        section 7, IANA Considerations. Initially, the registry
        contains the following sub types for RESOURCES:

            1  BANDWIDTH     Maximum bandwidth (kbps) authorized.

            2  FLOW_SPEC     Flow spec specification as defined in
                             RFC-2205.

            3  SDP           SDP Media Descriptor as defined in
                             RFC-2327.

            4  DSCP          Differentiated services codepoint as
                             defined in RFC-2474.

   OctetString
        The OctetString contains the resources specification.

3.3.9 Digital Signature

   The DIGITAL_SIGNATURE attribute contains the digital signature of
   the AUTH_SESSION policy element and signs all the data in the
   policy element up to the DIGITAL_SIGNATURE.  If the
   DIGITAL_SIGNATURE attribute has been included in the AUTH_SESSION
   policy element, it MUST be the last attribute in the list.

   A summary of DIGITAL_SIGNATURE attribute format is described below.




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   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | Length        |S-Type |SubType|
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+
   | OctetString ...
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+

   Length
        Length of the attribute, which MUST be >= 4.

   S-Type
        DIGITAL_SIGNATURE

   SubType
        The following sub-types for DIGITAL_SIGNATURE are
        defined. IANA SHALL act as a registry for DIGITAL_SIGNATURE
        sub-types as described in section 7, IANA
        Considerations. Initially, the registry contains the following
        sub types for DIGITAL_SIGNATURE:

            1  DSA_SHA1      DSA signature using SHA1 [X.509].

            2  RSA_SHA1      RSA signature using SHA1 [X.509].

            3  RSA_MD5       RSA signature using MD5 [X.509].

            4  HMAC_SHA1     HMAC with SHA1 [RFC 2104].

            5  HMAC_MD5      HMAC with MD5 [RFC 2104].

   OctetString
       OctetString contains the digital signature of the AUTH_SESSION.

4. Framework

   [S-AUTH] describes a framework in which the session authorization
   policy element may be utilized to transport information for use in
   authorizing resource reservation for media flows.

5. Message Processing Rules

5.1 Message Generation (RSVP Host)

   An RSVP message is created as specified in [RFC-2205] with following
   modifications.

   1. RSVP message MUST contain at most one AUTH_SESSION policy element.









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   2. A Session Authorization policy element (AUTH_SESSION) is created
      and the IdentityType field is set to indicate the identity type
      in the policy element. Only the required Session Authorization
      attributes are added.

   3. POLICY_DATA object (containing the AUTH_SESSION policy element)
      is inserted in the RSVP message in the appropriate place.

5.2 Message Reception (Router)

   RSVP message is processed as specified in [RFC-2205] with following
   modifications.

   1. If router is policy aware then it SHOULD send the RSVP
      message to the PDP and wait for response. If the router is
      policy unaware then it ignores the policy data objects and
      continues processing the RSVP message.

   2. Reject the message if the response from the PDP is negative.

   3. Continue processing the RSVP message.

5.3 Authorization (Router/PDP)

   1. Retrieve the AUTH_SESSION policy element. Check the PE type
      field and return an error if the identity type is not supported.

   2. Verify the authorizing entity credentials and message integrity.

      - Pre-shared key authentication: Get entity ID, identify
        appropriate pre-shared key for the authorizing entity, and
        validate signature.

      - Public Key: Validate the certificate chain against
        trusted Certificate Authority (CA) and valide the
        message signature using the public key.

      - Kerberos Ticket: Request a ticket for the authorizing entity
        from the local KDC. Use the ticket to access the authorizing
        entity and obtain authentication data for the message (e.g.
        the signing key) or the data itself.

    3. Verify the requested QoS does not exceed the authorized QoS.












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6. Error Signaling

   If PDP fails to verify the AUTH_SESSION policy element then it MUST
   return policy control failure (Error Code = 02) to the PEP. The
   error values are described in [RFC-2205] and [POL-EXT]. Also PDP
   SHOULD supply a policy data object containing an AUTH_DATA
   Policy Element with A-Type=POLICY_ERROR_CODE containing more
   details on the Policy Control failure [I-REP]. The PEP
   will include this Policy Data object in the outgoing RSVP Error
   message.

7. IANA Considerations

   Following the policies outlined in [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS], session
   authorization attribute types (S-Type)in the range 0-127 are
   allocated through an IETF Consensus action, S-Type values between
   128-255 are reserved for Private Use and are not assigned by IANA.

   Following the policies outlined in [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS],
   AUTH_ENT_ID, AUTH_ENT_CRED, SESSION_ID, START_TIME, STOP_TIME,
   SOURCE_IP, DEST_IP, RESOURCES and DIGITAL_SIGNATURE SubType values
   in the range 0-127 are allocated through an IETF Consensus action,
   SubType values between 128-255 are reserved for Private Use and are
   not assigned by IANA.

8. Security Considerations

   The purpose of this draft is to describe a mechanism for media
   authorization to prevent theft of service. It does not cover other
   possible security breaches such as IP spoofing.

9. Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank Francois Audet, Don Wade, Hamid Syed, Matt
   Broda, and many others for their valuable comments.

   In addition, we would like to thank S. Yadav, et al, for their
   efforts on RFC 2752, as this document borrows heavily from their
   work.

10. References

   [I-REP]               S. Yadav et al, "Identity Representation for
                         RSVP", Internet-draft,
                         draft-ietf-rap-rsvp-newidentity-01.txt,
                         January 2000

   [S-AUTH]              Hamer, L-N. and Gage, B, "Framework for
                         session setup with media authorization",
                         Internet-Draft,
                         draft-hamer-rap-session-auth-00.txt,
                         February 2001.


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   [ASCII]               Coded Character Set -- 7-Bit American Standard
                         Code for Information Interchange, ANSI X3.4-
                         1986.

   [IANA-CONSIDERATIONS] Alvestrand, H. and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
                         Writing an IANA Considerations Section in
                         RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998.

   [POL-EXT]             Herzog, S., "RSVP Extensions for Policy
                         Control", RFC 2750, January 2000.

   [POL-FRAME]           Yavatkar, R., Pendarakis, D. and R. Guerin, "A
                         Framework for Policy-based Admission Control
                         RSVP", RFC 2753, January 2000.

   [RFC-1305]            Mills, David L., "Network Time Protocol
                         (Version 3) Specification, Implementation, and
                         Analysis", RFC 1305, March 1992.

   [RFC-1510]            Kohl, J. and C. Neuman, "The Kerberos Network
                         Authentication Service (V5)", RFC 1510,
                         September 1993.

   [RFC-1633]            Braden, R., Clark, D., Shenker, S.,
                         "Integrated Services in the Internet
                         Architecture: An Overview", RFC 1633,
                         June 1994.

   [RFC-1779]            Killie, S., "A String Representation of
                         Distinguished Names", RFC 1779, March 1995.

   [RFC-2205]            Braden, R., Zhang, L., Berson, S., Herzog, S.
                         and S. Jamin, "Resource ReSerVation Protocol
                         (RSVP) - Version 1 Functional Specification",
                         RFC 2205, September 1997.

   [RFC-2209]            Braden, R. and L. Zhang, "Resource ReSerVation
                         Protocol (RSVP) - Version 1 Message Processing
                         Rules", RFC 2209, September 1997.

   [RFC-2327]            Handley, M., Jacobson, V., "SDP: Session
                         Description Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.

   [RFC-2396]            Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., Irvine, U.C.,
                         Masinter, L., "Uniform Resource Identifiers
                         (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396, August 1998.

   [RFC-2474]            Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., Black, D.,
                         "Definition of the Differentiated Services
                         Field (DS Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6
                         Headers", RFC 2474, December 1998.




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   [RFC-2998]            Bernet, Y., Ford, P., Yavatkar, R., Baker, F.,
                         Zhang, L., Speer, M., Braden, R., Davie, B.,
                         Wroclawski, J., Felstaine, E., "A Framework
                         for Integrated Services Operation over
                         Diffserv Networks", RFC 2998, November 2000.

   [UNICODE]             The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard,
                         Version 2.0", Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA,
                         1996.

   [X.509]               Housley, R., Ford, W., Polk, W. and D. Solo,
                         "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
                         Certificate and CRL Profile", RFC 2459, January
                         1999.

   [X.509-ITU]           ITU-T (formerly CCITT) Information technology -
                         Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory:
                         Authentication Framework Recommendation X.509
                         ISO/IEC 9594-8

11. Author Information

   Louis-Nicolas Hamer
   Nortel Networks
   Ottawa, Canada
   EMail: nhamer@nortelnetworks.com

   Brett Kosinski
   Nortel Networks
   Ottawa, Canada
   EMail: brettk@nortelnetworks.com

   Bill Gage
   Nortel Networks
   Ottawa, Canada
   EMail: gageb@nortelnetworks.com

12. Full Copyright Statement


   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001). All Rights Reserved. This
   document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph
   are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organisations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into.


Expiration Date

   This memo is filed as <draft-hkg-rap-rsvp-authsession-00.txt>, and
   expires August 23, 2001.

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