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Network Working Group                                          J. Levine
Internet-Draft                                      Taughannock Networks
Intended status: Informational                                P. Hoffman
Expires: February 16, 2014                     Cybersecurity Association
                                                         August 15, 2013


               Top-Level Domains that Are Already Dotless
                    draft-hoffine-already-dotless-02

Abstract

   Recent statements from the Internet Architecture Board and ICANN's
   Security and Stability Advisory Committee have discussed the problems
   that the DNS is likely to experience with top-level domains that have
   address records in them (so-called "dotless domains").  However,
   these statements spoke of the problem mostly as theoretical, when in
   fact there are such TLDs today.  This document lists the current
   dotless TLDs, and gives a script for finding them.  This document
   lists data about dotless TLDs, but does not address the policy and
   technology issues other than to point to the statements of others.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 16, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents



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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Current Dotless Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     2.1.  TLDs with A Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  TLDs with AAAA Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.3.  TLDs with MX Records  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   Appendix A.  Script for Finding Dotless Domains . . . . . . . . .   5
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5

1.  Introduction

   In the past few years, well-respected groups have issued documents
   about top-level domains in the DNS that have address records in them
   (so-called "dotless domains").  The Security and Stability Advisory
   Committee (SSAC) of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
   Numbers (ICANN) issued a report called "Report on Dotless Domains" in
   February, 2012 [SAC053].  The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
   issued a statement called "Dotless Domains Considered Harmful"
   [IAB-DOTLESS] in July, 2013.  (The authors of this document note that
   they are on neither the SSAC nor the IAB.)

   Both of these documents consider the effects of dotless domains
   without describing the extent of their current deployment.  In order
   to help researchers determine the extent of the problems with dotless
   domains, this document lists the known dotless domains at the time of
   publication, and shows how researchers can find them in the future.
   This document is meant to provide current data to the Internet
   community, but does not give advice.

   Many people have expressed a belief that ICANN prohibits all TLDs
   from being dotless.  That belief is not true; ICANN's policies apply
   only to their contracted TLDs.

2.  Current Dotless Domains

   The following shows the data found at the time of publication of this
   document.



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   We checked every TLD in the root zone to see which ones had A, AAAA,
   or MX records.  We found that about 5% of the TLDs did, and all of
   the TLDs that do are two letter TLDs (which are also known as
   ccTLDs).

2.1.  TLDs with A Records

   At the time this document is published, the following TLDs have A
   records.

   AC has address 193.223.78.210
   AI has address 209.59.119.34
   CM has address 195.24.205.60
   DK has address 193.163.102.24
   gg has address 87.117.196.80
   IO has address 193.223.78.212
   je has address 87.117.196.80
   KH has address 203.223.32.21
   PN has address 80.68.93.100
   SH has address 193.223.78.211
   TK has address 217.119.57.22
   TM has address 193.223.78.213
   TO has address 216.74.32.107
   UZ has address 91.212.89.8
   VI has address 193.0.0.198
   WS has address 64.70.19.33


2.2.  TLDs with AAAA Records

   At the time this document is published, the following TLD has an AAAA
   record.

   DK has IPv6 address 2a01:630:0:40:b1a:b1a:2011:1


2.3.  TLDs with MX Records

   At the time this document is published, the following TLDs have MX
   records.  The SSAC report implies, but does not explicitly say, that
   MX records would cause a TLD to be considered dotless; the IAB report
   does not mention MX records at all.

   AI mail is handled by 10 mail.offshore.AI.
   AX mail is handled by 5 mail.aland.net.
   CF mail is handled by 0 mail.intnet.CF.
   DM mail is handled by 10 mail.nic.DM.
   GP mail is handled by 10 ns1.worldsatelliteservices.com.



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   GP mail is handled by 5 ns1.nic.GP.
   GT mail is handled by 10 ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 20 ALT1.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 20 ALT2.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 30 ASPMX2.GOOGLEMAIL.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 30 ASPMX3.GOOGLEMAIL.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 30 ASPMX4.GOOGLEMAIL.COM.
   GT mail is handled by 30 ASPMX5.GOOGLEMAIL.COM.
   HR mail is handled by 5 alpha.carnet.HR.
   IO mail is handled by 10 mailer2.IO.
   KH mail is handled by 10 ns1.dns.net.KH.
   KM mail is handled by 100 mail1.comorestelecom.KM.
   LK mail is handled by 10 malithi-slt.nic.LK.
   LK mail is handled by 20 malithi-lc.nic.LK.
   MQ mail is handled by 10 mx1-mq.mediaserv.net.
   PA mail is handled by 5 ns.PA.
   TT mail is handled by 10 ALT1.ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM.
   TT mail is handled by 1 ASPMX.L.GOOGLE.COM.
   UA mail is handled by 10 mr.kolo.net.
   VA mail is handled by 100 raphaelmx3.posta.VA.
   VA mail is handled by 10 raphaelmx1.posta.VA.
   VA mail is handled by 10 raphaelmx2.posta.VA.
   WS mail is handled by 10 mail.worldsite.WS.
   YE mail is handled by 10 mail.yemen.net.YE.


3.  IANA Considerations

   The script in Appendix A relies on IANA continuing to publish a copy
   of the TLDs in the root zone at http://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-
   by-domain.txt.

4.  Security Considerations

   This document lists the known dotless domains; it does not express an
   opinion whether or not there are security considerations with the
   existence of dotless domains.  The referenced IAB and SSAC reports
   discuss the opinions of the respective bodies on the security and
   stability considerations of dotless domains.

5.  Acknowledgements

   Andrew Sullivan and Marc Blanchet gave helpful comments on this
   document.

6.  Informative References

   [IAB-DOTLESS]



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              Internet Architecture Board, "Dotless Domains Considered
              Harmful", July 2013, <https://www.iab.org/2013/07/10/iab-
              statement-dotless-domains-considered-harmful/>.

   [SAC053]   ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee, "SSAC
              Report on Dotless Domains", February 2012, <http://
              www.icann.org/en/groups/ssac/documents/sac-053-en.pdf>.

Appendix A.  Script for Finding Dotless Domains

   The following Bourne shell script was used for finding the data in
   this document.  The authors believe that this script will work
   correctly on a wide variety of operating systems, and will continue
   to do so in the foreseeable future.  As is customary in the current
   legal environment, the authors make no assurance that the script is
   correct or that the script will not cause damage on a system where it
   is run.

   The script checks each nameserver for each TLD instead of just doing
   a simple query because the nameservers for some of the TLDs have
   inconsistent data in them with respect to the records shown here.

   #! /bin/sh
   # Get the current list of TLDs from IANA
   wget -O orig.txt http://data.iana.org/TLD/tlds-alpha-by-domain.txt
   # Remove the comment at the top of the file
   grep -v '^#' orig.txt > TLDs.txt
   # Get all the nameservers
   while read tld; do host -t NS $tld; done < TLDs.txt > TLD-servers.txt
   # Do queries for each record type, and do them on each nameserver
   for rec in A AAAA MX; do
     while read tld ignorea ignoreb ns; do
       host -t $rec $tld. $ns;
     done < TLD-servers.txt;
   done > all-out.txt
   # Print the results
   grep "has address" all-out.txt | sort -uf
   grep "has IPv6" all-out.txt | sort -uf
   grep "mail is handled" all-out.txt | sort -uf


Authors' Addresses

   John Levine
   Taughannock Networks

   Email: standards@taugh.com




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   Paul Hoffman
   Cybersecurity Association

   Email: paul.hoffman@cybersecurity.org














































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