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Network Working Group                                           J. Jeong
Internet-Draft                                                    J. Kim
Intended status: Standards Track                                 D. Hong
Expires: May 19, 2019                            Sungkyunkwan University
                                                                S. Hares
                                                                  L. Xia
                                                                  Huawei
                                                             H. Birkholz
                                                          Fraunhofer SIT
                                                       November 15, 2018


   A YANG Data Model for Monitoring I2NSF Network Security Functions
             draft-hong-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-06

Abstract

   This document proposes an information model and the corresponding
   YANG data model for monitoring Network Security Functions (NSFs) in
   the Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) framework.  If
   the monitoring of NSFs is performed in a comprehensive way, it is
   possible to detect the indication of malicious activity, anomalous
   behavior or the potential sign of denial of service attacks in a
   timely manner.  This monitoring functionality is based on the
   monitoring information that is generated by NSFs.  Thus, this
   document describes not only a YANG data diagram to specify an
   information model for monitoring NSFs, but also the corresponding
   YANG data model for monitoring NSFs.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on May 19, 2019.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Classification of NSF Monitoring Data . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.1.  Retention and Emission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.2.  Notifications and Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.3.  Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     5.4.  I2NSF Monitoring Terminology for Retained Information . .   8
   6.  Conveyance of NSF Monitoring Information  . . . . . . . . . .   9
     6.1.  Information Types and Acquisition Methods . . . . . . . .  10
   7.  Basic Information Model for All Monitoring Data . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data  . . . . . . .  11
     8.1.  System Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       8.1.1.  Memory Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       8.1.2.  CPU Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       8.1.3.  Disk Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       8.1.4.  Hardware Alarm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       8.1.5.  Interface Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     8.2.  System Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       8.2.1.  Access Violation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       8.2.2.  Configuration Change  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     8.3.  System Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       8.3.1.  Access Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       8.3.2.  Resource Utilization Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       8.3.3.  User Activity Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     8.4.  System Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       8.4.1.  Interface counters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     8.5.  NSF Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       8.5.1.  DDoS Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       8.5.2.  Session Table Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18



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       8.5.3.  Virus Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       8.5.4.  Intrusion Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       8.5.5.  Botnet Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       8.5.6.  Web Attack Event  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     8.6.  NSF Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       8.6.1.  DDoS Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       8.6.2.  Virus Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       8.6.3.  Intrusion Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       8.6.4.  Botnet Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       8.6.5.  DPI Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       8.6.6.  Vulnerabillity Scanning Logs  . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       8.6.7.  Web Attack Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     8.7.  NSF Counters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       8.7.1.  Firewall counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
       8.7.2.  Policy Hit Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   9.  YANG Data Diagrams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   10. NSF Monitoring Management in I2NSF  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   11. YANG Data Model Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
   12. YANG Data Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71
     14.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72
   Appendix A.  Changes from draft-hong-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-
                model-05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   Appendix B.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   Appendix C.  Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74

1.  Introduction

   According to [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], the interface provided by
   a Network Security Function (NSF) (e.g., Firewall, IPS, Anti-DDoS, or
   Anti-Virus function) to administrative entities (e.g., Security
   Controller) to enable remote management (i.e., configuring and
   monitoring) is referred to as an I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm].  Monitoring procedures
   intent to acquire vital types of data with respect to NSFs, (e.g.,
   alarms, records, and counters) via data in motion (e.g., queries,
   notifications, and events).  The monitoring of NSF plays an important
   role in an overall security framework, if it is done in a timely and
   comprehensive way.  The monitoring information generated by an NSF
   can be a good, early indication of anomalous behavior or malicious
   activity, such as denial of service attacks (DoS).

   This document defines a comprehensive NSF monitoring information
   model that provides visibility for an NSF for Security Controller.
   It specifies the information and illustrates the methods that enable



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   an NSF to provide the information required in order to be monitored
   in a scalable and efficient way via the NSF-Facing Interface.  The
   information model for monitoring presented in this document is a
   complementary information model to the information model for the
   security policy provisioning functionality of the NSF-Facing
   Interface specified in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability].

   This document also defines a YANG [RFC6020] data model for monitoring
   NSFs, which is derived from the information model for NSF monitoring.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminology described in
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology][RFC8329].

   o  Information Model: An information model is a representation of
      concepts of interest to an environment in a form that is
      independent of data repository, data definition language, query
      language, implementation language, and protocol.

   o  Data Model: A data model is a representation of concepts of
      interest to an environment in a form that is dependent on data
      repository, data definition language, query language,
      implementation language, and protocol.

4.  Use Cases for NSF Monitoring Data

   As mentioned earlier, monitoring plays a critical role in an overall
   security framework.  The monitoring of the NSF provides very valuable
   information to the security controller in maintaining the provisioned
   security posture.  Besides this, there are various other reasons to
   monitor the NSF as listed below:

   o  The security administrator with I2NSF User can configure a policy
      that is triggered on a specific event occurring in the NSF or the
      network[RFC8329] [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm].
      If a security controller detects the specified event, it
      configures additional security functions as defined by policies.

   o  The events triggered by an NSF as a result of security policy
      violation can be used by Security Information and Event Management




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      (SIEM) to detect any suspicious activity in a larger correlation
      context.

   o  The events and activity logs from an NSF can be used to build
      advanced analytics, such as behavior and predictive models to
      improve security posture in large deployments.

   o  The security controller can use events from the NSF for achieving
      high availability.  It can take corrective actions such as
      restarting a failed NSF and horizontally scaling up the NSF.

   o  The events and activity logs from the NSF can aid in the root
      cause analysis of an operational issue, so it can improve
      debugging.

   o  The activity logs from the NSF can be used to build historical
      data for operational and business reasons.

5.  Classification of NSF Monitoring Data

   In order to maintain a strong security posture, it is not only
   necessary not only to configure an NSF's security policies but also
   to continuously monitor the NSF by consuming acquirable and
   observable information.  This enables security administrators to
   assess the state of the network topology in a timely fashion.  It is
   not possible to block all the internal and external threats based on
   static security posture.  A more practical approach is supported by
   enabling dynamic security measures, for which continuous visibility
   is required.  This document defines a set of information elements
   (and their scope) that can be acquired from an NSF and can be used as
   NSF monitoring information.  In essence, these types of monitoring
   information can be leveraged to support constant visibility on
   multiple levels of granularity and can be consumed by the
   corresponding functions.

   Three basic domains about the monitoring information originating from
   a system entity [RFC4949] or an NSF are highlighted in this document.

   o  Retention and Emission

   o  Notifications and Events

   o  Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push

   The Alarm Management Framework in [RFC3877] defines an Event as
   something that happens which may be of interest.  It defines a fault
   as a change in status, crossing a threshold, or an external input to
   the system.  In the I2NSF domain, I2NSF events



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   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] are created and the scope of the Alarm
   Management Framework's Events is still applicable due to its broad
   definition.  The model presented in this document elaborates on the
   workflow of creating I2NSF events in the context of NSF monitoring
   and on the way initial I2NSF events are created.

   As with I2NSF components, every generic system entity can include a
   set of capabilities [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] that creates
   information about the context, composition, configuration, state or
   behavior of that system entity.  This information is intended to be
   provided to other consumers of information and in the scope of this
   document, which deals with NSF information monitoring in an automated
   fashion.

5.1.  Retention and Emission

   Typically, a system entity populates standardized interface, such as
   SNMP, NETCONF, RESTCONF or CoMI to provide and emit created
   information directly via NSF-Facing Interface
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology].  Alternatively, the created information
   is retained inside the system entity (or a hierarchy of system
   entities in a composite device) via records or counters that are not
   exposed directly via NSF-Facing Interfaces.

   Information emitted via standardized interfaces can be consumed by an
   I2NSF User [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology] that includes the capability
   to consume information not only via an I2NSF Interface(e.g.,
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]) but also via
   interfaces complementary to the standardized interfaces a generic
   system entity provides.

   Information retained on a system entity requires a corresponding
   I2NSF User to access aggregated records of information, typically in
   the form of log-files or databases.  There are ways to aggregate
   records originating from different system entities over a network,
   for examples via Syslog Protocol [RFC5424] or Syslog over TCP
   [RFC6587].  But even if records are conveyed, the result is the same
   kind of retention in form of a bigger aggregate of records on another
   system entity.

   An I2NSF User is required to process fresh [RFC4949] records created
   by I2NSF Functions in order to provide them to other I2NSF Components
   via the corresponding I2NSF Interfaces in a timely manner.  This
   process is effectively based on homogenizing functions, which can
   access and convert specific kinds of records into information that
   can be provided and emitted via I2NSF interfaces.





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   When retained or emitted, the information required to support
   monitoring processes has to be processed by an I2NSF User at some
   point in the workflow.  Typical locations of these I2NSF Users are:

   o  a system entity that creates the information

   o  a system entity that retains an aggregation of records

   o  an I2NSF Component that includes the capabilities of using
      standardized interfaces provided by other system entities that are
      not I2NSF Components

   o  an I2NSF Component that creates the information

5.2.  Notifications and Events

   A specific task of I2NSF User is to process I2NSF Policy Rules
   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology].  The rules of a policy are composed of
   three clauses: Events, Conditions, and Actions.  In consequence, an
   I2NSF Event is specified to trigger an I2NSF Policy Rule.  Such an
   I2NSF Event is defined as any important occurrence over time in the
   system being managed, and/or in the environment of the system being
   managed in [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology], which aligns well with the
   generic definition of Event from [RFC3877].

   The model illustrated in this document introduces a complementary
   type of information that can be a conveyed notification.

   Notification:  An occurrence of a change of context, composition,
      configuration, state or behavior of a system entity that can be
      directly or indirectly observed by an I2NSF User and can be used
      as input for an event-clause in I2NSF Policy Rules.

      A notification is similar to an I2NSF Event with the exception
      that it is created by a system entity that is not an I2NSF
      Component and that its importance is yet to be assessed.
      Semantically, a notification is not an I2NSF Event in the context
      of I2NSF, although they can potentially use the exact same
      information or data model.  In respect to [RFC3877], a
      Notification is a specific subset of events, because they convey
      information about something that happens which may be of interest.
      In consequence, Notifications may contain information with very
      low expressiveness or relevance.  Hence, additional post-
      processing functions, such as aggregation, correlation or simple
      anomaly detection, might have to be employed to satisfy a level of
      expressiveness that is required for an event-clause of an I2NSF
      Policy Rule.




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   It is important to note that the consumer of a notification (the
   observer) assesses the importance of a notification and not the
   producer.  The producer can include metadata in a notification that
   supports the observer in assessing the importance (even metadata
   about severity), but the deciding entity is an I2NSF User.

5.3.  Unsolicited Poll and Solicited Push

   The freshness of the monitored information depends on the acquisition
   method.  Ideally, an I2NSF User is accessing every relevant
   information about the I2NSF Component and is emitting I2NSF Events to
   a monitor entity(e.g., Security Controller and I2NSF User) NSF
   timely.  Publication of events via a pubsub/broker model, peer-2-peer
   meshes, or static defined channels are only a few examples on how a
   solicited push of I2NSF Events can be facilitated.  The actual
   mechanic implemented by an I2NSF Component is out of the scope of
   this document.

   Often, the corresponding management interfaces have to be queried in
   intervals or on-demand if required by an I2NSF Policy rule.  In some
   cases, a collection of information has to be conducted via login
   mechanics provided by a system entity.  Accessing records of
   information via this kind of unsolicited polls can introduce a
   significant latency in regard to the freshness of the monitored
   information.  The actual definition of intervals implemented by an
   I2NSF Component is also out of scope of this document.

5.4.  I2NSF Monitoring Terminology for Retained Information

   Records:  Unlike information emitted via notifications and events,
      records do not require immediate attention from an analyst but may
      be useful for visibility and retroactive cyber forensic.
      Depending on the record format, there are different qualities in
      regard to structure and detail.  Records are typically stored in
      log-files or databases on a system entity or NSF.  Records in the
      form of log-files usually include less structures but potentially
      more detailed information in regard to the changes of a system
      entity's characteristics.  In contrast, databases often use more
      strict schemas or data models, therefore enforcing a better
      structure.  However, they inhibit storing information that do not
      match those models ("closed world assumption").  Records can be
      continuously processed by I2NSF Agents that act as I2NSF Producer
      and emit events via functions specifically tailored to a certain
      type of record.  Typically, records are information generated
      either by an NSF or a system entity about operational and
      informational data, or various changes in system characteristics,
      such as user activities, network/traffic status, and network




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      activity.  They are important for debugging, auditing and security
      forensic.

   Counters:  A specific representation of continuous value changes of
      information elements that potentially occur in high frequency.
      Prominent example are network interface counters, e.g., PDU amount
      or byte amount, drop counters, and error counters.  Counters are
      useful in debugging and visibility into operational behavior of an
      NSF.  An I2NSF Agent that observes the progression of counters can
      act as an I2NSF Producer and emit events in respect to I2NSF
      Policy Rules.

6.  Conveyance of NSF Monitoring Information

   As per the use cases of NSF monitoring data, information needs to be
   conveyed to various I2NSF Consumers based on requirements imposed by
   I2NSF Capabilities and workflows.  There are multiple aspects to be
   considered in regard to the emission of monitoring information to
   requesting parties as listed below:

   o  Pull-Push Model: A set of data can be pushed by an NSF to a
      requesting party or pulled by a requesting party from an NSF.
      Specific types of information might need both the models at the
      same time if there are multiple I2NSF Consumers with varying
      requirements.  In general, any I2NSF Event including a high
      severity assessment is considered to be of great importance and
      should be processed as soon as possible (push-model).  Records, in
      contrast, are typically not as critical (pull-model).  The I2NSF
      Architecture does not mandate a specific scheme for each type of
      information and is therefore out of scope of this document.

   o  Pub-Sub Model: In order for an I2NSF Provider to push monitoring
      information to multiple appropriate I2NSF Consumers, a
      subscription can be maintained by both I2NSF Components.
      Discovery of available monitoring information can be supported by
      an I2NSF Controller that takes the role of a broker and therefore
      includes I2NSF Capabilities that support registration.

   o  Export Frequency: Monitoring information can be emitted
      immediately upon generation by an NSF to requesting I2NSF
      Consumers or can be pushed periodically.  The frequency of
      exporting the data depends upon its size and timely usefulness.
      It is out of the scope of I2NSF and left to each NSF
      implementation.

   o  Authentication: There may be a need for authentication between an
      I2NSF Producer of monitoring information and its corresponding
      I2NSF Consumer to ensure that critical information remains



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      confidential.  Authentication in the scope of I2NSF can also
      require its corresponding content authorization.  This may be
      necessary, for example, if an NSF emits monitoring information to
      an I2NSF Consumer outside its administrative domain.  The I2NSF
      Architecture does not mandate when and how specific authentication
      has to be implemented.

   o  Data-Transfer Model: Monitoring information can be pushed by an
      NSF using a connection-less model that does require a persistent
      connection or streamed over a persistent connection.  An
      appropriate model depends on the I2NSF Consumer requirements and
      the semantics of the information to be conveyed.

   o  Data Model and Interaction Model for Data in Motion: There are a
      lot of transport mechanisms such as IP, UDP, and TCP.  There are
      also open source implementations for specific set of data such as
      systems counter, e.g.  IPFIX [RFC7011] and NetFlow [RFC3954].  The
      I2NSF does not mandate any specific method for a given data set,
      so it is up to each implementation.

6.1.  Information Types and Acquisition Methods

   In this document, most defined information types defined benefit from
   high visibility with respect to value changes, e.g., alarms and
   records.  In contrast, values that change monotonically in a
   continuous way do not benefit from this high visibility.  On the
   contrary, emitting each change would result in a useless amount of
   value updates.  Hence, values, such as counter, are best acquired in
   periodic intervals.

   The mechanisms provided by YANG Push [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push] and
   YANG Subscribed Notifications
   [I-D.ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications] address exactly these set
   of requirements.  YANG also enables semantically well-structured
   information, as well as subscriptions to datastores or event streams
   - by changes or periodically.

   In consequence, this information model in this document is intended
   to support data models used in solicited or unsolicited event streams
   that potentially are facilitated by a subscription mechanism.  A
   subset of information elements defined in the information model
   address this domain of application.

7.  Basic Information Model for All Monitoring Data

   As explained in the above section, there is a wealth of data
   available from the NSF that can be monitored.  Firstly, there must be
   some general information with each monitoring message sent from an



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   NSF that helps a consumer to identify meta data with that message,
   which are listed as below:

   o  message_version: It indicates the version of the data format and
      is a two-digit decimal numeral starting from 01.

   o  message_type: Event, Alert, Alarm, Log, Counter, etc.

   o  time_stamp: It indicates the time when the message is generated.

   o  vendor_name: The name of the NSF vendor.

   o  NSF_name: The name (or IP) of the NSF generating the message.

   o  Module_name: The module name outputting the message.

   o  Severity: It indicates the level of the logs.  There are total
      eight levels, from 0 to 7.  The smaller the numeral is, the higher
      the severity is.

8.  Extended Information Model for Monitoring Data

   This section covers the additional information associated with the
   system messages.  The extended information model is only for the
   structured data such as alarm.  Any unstructured data is specified
   with basic information model only.

8.1.  System Alarm

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription

   o  emission_type: on-change

   o  dampening_type: no-dampening

8.1.1.  Memory Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Memory Alarm:

   o  event_name: MEM_USAGE_ALARM

   o  module_name: It indicates the NSF module responsible for
      generating this alarm.

   o  usage: specifies the amount of memory used.




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   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: The memory usage exceeded the threshold

8.1.2.  CPU Alarm

   The following information should be included in a CPU Alarm:

   o  event_name: CPU_USAGE_ALARM

   o  usage: Specifies the amount of CPU used.

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: The CPU usage exceeded the threshold.

8.1.3.  Disk Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Disk Alarm:

   o  event_name: DISK_USAGE_ALARM

   o  usage: Specifies the amount of disk space used.

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: The disk usage exceeded the threshold.

8.1.4.  Hardware Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Hardware Alarm:

   o  event_name: HW_FAILURE_ALARM

   o  component_name: It indicates the HW component responsible for
      generating this alarm.

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the alarm




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   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: The HW component has failed or degraded.

8.1.5.  Interface Alarm

   The following information should be included in a Interface Alarm:

   o  event_name: IFNET_STATE_ALARM

   o  interface_Name: The name of interface

   o  interface_state: UP, DOWN, CONGESTED

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  severity: The severity of the alarm such as critical, high,
      medium, low

   o  message: Current interface state

8.2.  System Events

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription

   o  emission_type: on-change

   o  dampening_type: on-repetition

8.2.1.  Access Violation

   The following information should be included in this event:

   o  event_name: ACCESS_DENIED

   o  user: Name of a user

   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, Single Sign-On (SSO) Authentication




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   o  message: access is denied.

8.2.2.  Configuration Change

   The following information should be included in this event:

   o  event_name: CONFIG_CHANGE

   o  user: Name of a user

   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, SSO Authentication

   o  message: Configuration is modified.

8.3.  System Log

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription

   o  emission_type: on-change

   o  dampening_type: on-repetition

8.3.1.  Access Logs

   Access logs record administrators' login, logout, and operations on a
   device.  By analyzing them, security vulnerabilities can be
   identified.  The following information should be included in an
   operation report:

   o  Administrator: Administrator that operates on the device

   o  login_ip_address: IP address used by an administrator to log in

   o  login_mode: Specifies the administrator logs in mode e.g.  root,
      user

   o  operation_type: The operation type that the administrator execute,
      e.g., login, logout, and configuration.

   o  result: Command execution result



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   o  content: Operation performed by an administrator after login.

8.3.2.  Resource Utilization Logs

   Running reports record the device system's running status, which is
   useful for device monitoring.  The following information should be
   included in running report:

   o  system_status: The current system's running status

   o  CPU_usage: Specifies the CPU usage.

   o  memory_usage: Specifies the memory usage.

   o  disk_usage: Specifies the disk usage.

   o  disk_left: Specifies the available disk space left.

   o  session_number: Specifies total concurrent sessions.

   o  process_number: Specifies total number of system processes.

   o  in_traffic_rate: The total inbound traffic rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_rate: The total outbound traffic rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_speed: The total inbound traffic speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_speed: The total outbound traffic speed in bps

8.3.3.  User Activity Logs

   User activity logs provide visibility into users' online records
   (such as login time, online/lockout duration, and login IP addresses)
   and the actions that users perform.  User activity reports are
   helpful to identify exceptions during a user's login and network
   access activities.

   o  user: Name of a user

   o  group: Group to which a user belongs

   o  login_ip_address: Login IP address of a user

   o  authentication_mode: User authentication mode. e.g., Local
      Authentication, Third-Party Server Authentication, Authentication
      Exemption, SSO Authentication




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   o  access_mode: User access mode. e.g., PPP, SVN, LOCAL

   o  online_duration: Online duration

   o  lockout_duration: Lockout duration

   o  type: User activities. e.g., Successful User Login, Failed Login
      attempts, User Logout, Successful User Password Change, Failed
      User Password Change, User Lockout, User Unlocking, Unknown

   o  cause: Cause of a failed user activity

8.4.  System Counters

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription or query

   o  emission_type: periodical

   o  dampening_type: none

8.4.1.  Interface counters

   Interface counters provide visibility into traffic into and out of an
   NSF, and bandwidth usage.

   o  interface_name: Network interface name configured in NSF

   o  in_total_traffic_pkts: Total inbound packets

   o  out_total_traffic_pkts: Total outbound packets

   o  in_total_traffic_bytes: Total inbound bytes

   o  out_total_traffic_bytes: Total outbound bytes

   o  in_drop_traffic_pkts: Total inbound drop packets

   o  out_drop_traffic_pkts: Total outbound drop packets

   o  in_drop_traffic_bytes: Total inbound drop bytes

   o  out_drop_traffic_bytes: Total outbound drop bytes

   o  in_traffic_ave_rate: Inbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_peak_rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in pps



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   o  in_traffic_ave_speed: Inbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  in_traffic_peak_speed: Inbound traffic peak speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_ave_rate: Outbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_peak_rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_ave_speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_peak_speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bps

8.5.  NSF Events

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription

   o  emission_type: on-change

   o  dampening_type: none

8.5.1.  DDoS Event

   The following information should be included in a DDoS Event:

   o  event_name: SEC_EVENT_DDoS

   o  sub_attack_type: Any one of SYN flood, ACK flood, SYN-ACK flood,
      FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood, ICMP flood, HTTPS
      flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood, DNS reply flood, SIP flood,
      and etc.

   o  dst_ip: The IP address of a victum under attack

   o  dst_port: The port number that the attrack traffic aims at.

   o  start_time: The time stamp indicating when the attack started

   o  end_time: The time stamp indicating when the attack ended.  If the
      attack is still undergoing when sending out the alarm, this field
      can be empty.

   o  attack_rate: The PPS of attack traffic

   o  attack_speed: the bps of attack traffic

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered



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   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches.

8.5.2.  Session Table Event

   The following information should be included in a Session
   Table Event:

   o  event_name: SESSION_USAGE_HIGH

   o  current: The number of concurrent sessions

   o  max: The maximum number of sessions that the session table can
      support

   o  threshold: The threshold triggering the event

   o  message: The number of session table exceeded the threshold.

8.5.3.  Virus Event

   The following information should be included in a Virus Event:

   o  event_Name: SEC_EVENT_VIRUS

   o  virus_type: Type of the virus. e.g., trojan, worm, macro virus
      type

   o  virus_name: Name of the virus

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet where the virus
      is found

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet where the virus is
      found

   o  src_port: The source port of the packet where the virus is found

   o  dst_port: The destination port of the packet where the virus is
      found

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet where the virus
      is found

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet where the
      virus is found




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   o  file_type: The type of the file where the virus is hided within

   o  file_name: The name of the file where the virus is hided within

   o  virus_info: The brief introduction of the virus

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches.

8.5.4.  Intrusion Event

   The following information should be included in an Intrustion Event:

   o  event_name: The name of event. e.g., SEC_EVENT_Intrusion

   o  sub_attack_type: Attack type, e.g., brutal force and buffer
      overflow

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port:The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g.,TCP and UDP

   o  app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g.,HTTP and FTP

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches

   o  intrusion_info: Simple description of intrusion




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   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event

8.5.5.  Botnet Event

   The following information should be included in a Botnet Event:

   o  event_name: The name of event. e.g., SEC_EVENT_Botnet

   o  botnet_name: The name of the detected botnet

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port: The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  protocol: The employed transport layer protocol. e.g.,TCP and UDP

   o  app: The employed application layer protocol. e.g.,HTTP and FTP

   o  role: The role of the communicating parties within the botnet:

      1.  The packet from the zombie host to the attacker

      2.  The packet from the attacker to the zombie host

      3.  The packet from the IRC/WEB server to the zombie host

      4.  The packet from the zombie host to the IRC/WEB server

      5.  The packet from the attacker to the IRC/WEB server

      6.  The packet from the IRC/WEB server to the attacker

      7.  The packet from the zombie host to the victim

   o  botnet_info: Simple description of Botnet

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered



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   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

8.5.6.  Web Attack Event

   The following information should be included in a Web Attack Alarm:

   o  event_name: The name of event. e.g., SEC_EVENT_WebAttack

   o  sub_attack_type: Concret web attack type. e.g., SQL injection,
      command injection, XSS, CSRF

   o  src_ip: The source IP address of the packet

   o  dst_ip: The destination IP address of the packet

   o  src_port: The source port number of the packet

   o  dst_port: The destination port number of the packet

   o  src_zone: The source security zone of the packet

   o  dst_zone: The destination security zone of the packet

   o  req_method: The method of requirement.  For instance, "PUT" and
      "GET" in HTTP

   o  req_url: Requested URL

   o  url_category: Matched URL category

   o  filtering_type: URL filtering type. e.g., Blacklist, Whitelist,
      User-Defined, Predefined, Malicious Category, and Unknown

   o  rule_id: The ID of the rule being triggered

   o  rule_name: The name of the rule being triggered

   o  profile: Security profile that traffic matches

8.6.  NSF Logs

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription




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   o  emission_type: on-change

   o  dampening_type: on_repetition

8.6.1.  DDoS Logs

   Besides the fields in a DDoS Alarm, the following information should
   be included in a DDoS Logs:

   o  attack_type: DDoS

   o  attack_ave_rate: The average pps of the attack traffic within the
      recorded time

   o  attack_ave_speed: The average bps of the attack traffic within the
      recorded time

   o  attack_pkt_num: The number of attack packets within the recorded
      time

   o  attack_src_ip: The source IP addresses of attack traffics.  If
      there are a large number of IP addresses, then pick a certain
      number of resources according to different rules.

   o  action: Actions against DDoS attacks. e.g., Allow, Alert, Block,
      Discard, Declare, Block-ip, and Block-service.

8.6.2.  Virus Logs

   Besides the fields in a Virus Alarm, the following information should
   be included in a Virus Logs:

   o  attack_type: Virus

   o  protocol: The transport layer protocol

   o  app: The name of the application layer protocol

   o  times: The time of detecting the virus

   o  action: The actions dealing with the virus. e.g., alert and block

   o  os: The OS that the virus will affect. e.g., all, android, ios,
      unix, and windows







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8.6.3.  Intrusion Logs

   Besides the fields in an Intrusion Alarm, the following information
   should be included in an Intrusion Logs:

   o  attack_type: Intrusion

   o  times: The times of intrusions happened in the recorded time

   o  os: The OS that the intrusion will affect. e.g., all, android,
      ios, unix, and windows

   o  action: The actions dealing with the intrusions. e.g., Allow,
      Alert, Block, Discard, Declare, Block-ip, and Block-service

   o  attack_rate: NUM the pps of attack traffic

   o  attack_speed: NUM the bps of attack traffic

8.6.4.  Botnet Logs

   Besides the fields in a Botnet Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Botnet Logs:

   o  attack_type: Botnet

   o  botnet_pkt_num:The number of the packets sent to or from the
      detected botnet

   o  action: The actions dealing with the detected packets. e.g.,
      Allow, Alert, Block, Discard, Declare, Block-ip, and Block-
      service.

   o  os: The OS that the attack aims at. e.g., all, android, ios, unix,
      and windows.

8.6.5.  DPI Logs

   DPI Logs provide statistics on uploaded and downloaded files and
   data, sent and received emails, and alert and block records on
   websites.  It is helpful to learn risky user behaviors and why access
   to some URLs is blocked or allowed with an alert record.

   o  type: DPI action types. e.g., File Blocking, Data Filtering, and
      Application Behavior Control

   o  file_name: The file name




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   o  file_type: The file type

   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of traffic

   o  dst_region: Destination region of traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic

   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches

   o  action: Action defined in the file blocking rule, data filtering
      rule, or application behavior control rule that traffic matches.

8.6.6.  Vulnerabillity Scanning Logs

   Vulnerability scanning logs record the victim host and its related
   vulnerability information that should to be fixed.  The following
   information should be included in the report:

   o  victim_ip: IP address of the victim host which has vulnerabilities

   o  vulnerability_id: The vulnerability id

   o  vulnerability_level: The vulnerability level. e.g., high, middle,
      and low

   o  OS: The operating system of the victim host

   o  service: The service which has vulnerabillity in the victim host




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   o  protocol: The protocol type. e.g., TCP and UDP

   o  port: The port number

   o  vulnerability_info: The information about the vulnerability

   o  fix_suggestion: The fix suggestion to the vulnerability.

8.6.7.  Web Attack Logs

   Besides the fields in an Web Attack Alarm, the following information
   should be included in a Web Attack Report:

   o  attack_type: Web Attack

   o  rsp_code: Response code

   o  req_clientapp: The client application

   o  req_cookies: Cookies

   o  req_host: The domain name of the requested host

   o  raw_info: The information describing the packet triggering the
      event.

8.7.  NSF Counters

   Characteristics:

   o  acquisition_method: subscription or query

   o  emission_type: periodical

   o  dampening_type: none

8.7.1.  Firewall counters

   Firewall counters provide visibility into traffic signatures,
   bandwidth usage, and how the configured security and bandwidth
   policies have been applied.

   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of traffic




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   o  dst_region: Destination region of traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic

   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches

   o  in_interface: Inbound interface of traffic

   o  out_interface: Outbound interface of traffic

   o  total_traffic: Total traffic volume

   o  in_traffic_ave_rate: Inbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_peak_rate: Inbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  in_traffic_ave_speed: Inbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  in_traffic_peak_speed: Inbound traffic peak speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_ave_rate: Outbound traffic average rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_peak_rate: Outbound traffic peak rate in pps

   o  out_traffic_ave_speed: Outbound traffic average speed in bps

   o  out_traffic_peak_speed: Outbound traffic peak speed in bps.

8.7.2.  Policy Hit Counters

   Policy Hit Counters record the security policy that traffic matches
   and its hit count.  It can check if policy configurations are
   correct.




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   o  src_zone: Source security zone of traffic

   o  dst_zone: Destination security zone of traffic

   o  src_region: Source region of the traffic

   o  dst_region: Destination region of the traffic

   o  src_ip: Source IP address of traffic

   o  src_user: User who generates traffic

   o  dst_ip: Destination IP address of traffic

   o  src_port: Source port of traffic

   o  dst_port: Destination port of traffic

   o  protocol: Protocol type of traffic

   o  app: Application type of traffic

   o  policy_id: Security policy id that traffic matches

   o  policy_name: Security policy name that traffic matches

   o  hit_times: The hit times that the security policy matches the
      specified traffic.

9.  YANG Data Diagrams

   A simplified graphical representation of the data model is used in
   this document.  The meaning of the symbols in these diagrams
   [I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-data-model] is as follows:

   o  Brackets "[" and "]" enclose list keys.

   o  Abbreviations before data node names: "rw" means configuration
      (read-write) and "ro" state data (read-only).

   o  Symbols after data node names: "?" means an optional node and "*"
      denotes a "list" and "leaf-list".

   o  Parentheses enclose choice and case nodes, and case nodes are
      alsoconfigure marked with a colon (":").

   o  Ellipsis ("...") stands for contents of subtrees that are not
      shown.



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10.  NSF Monitoring Management in I2NSF

   A standard model for monitoring data is required for an administrator
   to check the monitoring data generated by an NSF.  The administrator
   can check the monitoring data through the following process.  When
   the NSF monitoring data that is under the standard format is
   generated, the NSF forwards it to the security controller.  The
   security controller delivers it to I2NSF Consumer or Developer's
   Management System (DMS) so that the administrator can know the state
   of the I2NSF framework.

   In order to communicate with other components, an I2NSF framework
   [RFC8329] requires the interfaces.  The three main interfaces in
   I2NSF framwork are used for sending monitoring data as follows:

   o  I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]: When an I2NSF User
      makes a security policy and forwards it to the Security Controller
      via Consumer-Facing Interface, it can specify the threat-feed for
      threat prevention, the custom list, the malicious code scan group,
      and the event map group.  They can be used as an event to be
      monitored by an NSF.

   o  I2NSF Registration Interface
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm]: The Network Functions
      Virtualization (NFV) architecture provides the lifecycle
      management of a Virtual Network Function (VNF) via the Ve-Vnfm
      interface.  The role of Ve-Vnfm is to request VNF lifecycle
      management (e.g., the instantiation and de-instantiation of an
      NSF, and load balancing among NSFs), exchange configuration
      information, and exchange status information for a network
      service.  In the I2NSF framework, the DMS manages data about
      resource states and network traffic for the lifecycle management
      of an NSF.  Therefore, the generated monitoring data from NSFs are
      delivered from the Security Controller to the DMS via Registration
      Interface.  These data are delivered from the DMS to the VNF
      Manager in the Management and Orchestration (MANO) in the NFV
      system [I-D.yang-i2nsf-nfv-architecture].

   o  I2NSF NSF-Facing Interface
      [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]: After a high-level
      security policy from I2NSF User is translated by security policy
      translator [I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation] in the
      Security Controller, the translated security policy (i.e., low-
      level policy) is applied to an NSF via NSF-Facing Interface.  The
      monitoring data model specifies the list of events that can
      trigger Event-Condition-Action (ECA) policies via NSF-Facing
      Interface.



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11.  YANG Data Model Structure

   Figure 1 shows the overview of a YANG data tree of the NSF monitoring
   information model.

   module: ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-dm
       +--rw counters
          +--rw system-interface
          |  +--rw acquisition-method?        identityref
          |  +--rw emission-type?             identityref
          |  +--rw dampening-type?            identityref
          |  +--rw interface-name?            string
          |  +--rw in-total-traffic-pkts?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-total-traffic-pkts?    uint32
          |  +--rw in-total-traffic-bytes?    uint32
          |  +--rw out-total-traffic-bytes?   uint32
          |  +--rw in-drop-traffic-pkts?      uint32
          |  +--rw out-drop-traffic-pkts?     uint32
          |  +--rw in-drop-traffic-bytes?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-drop-traffic-bytes?    uint32
          |  +--rw total-traffic?             uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-ave-rate?       uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-peak-rate?      uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-ave-speed?      uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-peak-speed?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-ave-rate?      uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-peak-rate?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-ave-speed?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-peak-speed?    uint32
          |  +--rw message?                   string
          |  +--rw time-stamp?                yang:date-and-time
          |  +--rw vendor-name?               string
          |  +--rw nsf-name?                  string
          |  +--rw module-name?               string
          |  +--rw severity?                  severity
          +--rw nsf-firewall
          |  +--rw acquisition-method?       identityref
          |  +--rw emission-type?            identityref
          |  +--rw dampening-type?           identityref
          |  +--rw src-ip?                   inet:ipv4-address
          |  +--rw dst-ip?                   inet:ipv4-address
          |  +--rw src-port?                 inet:port-number
          |  +--rw dst-port?                 inet:port-number
          |  +--rw src-zone?                 string
          |  +--rw dst-zone?                 string
          |  +--rw src-region?               string
          |  +--rw dst-region?               string
          |  +--rw policy-id?                uint8



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          |  +--rw policy-name?              string
          |  +--rw src-user?                 string
          |  +--rw protocol?                 identityref
          |  +--rw app?                      string
          |  +--rw total-traffic?            uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-ave-rate?      uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-peak-rate?     uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-ave-speed?     uint32
          |  +--rw in-traffic-peak-speed?    uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-ave-rate?     uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-peak-rate?    uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-ave-speed?    uint32
          |  +--rw out-traffic-peak-speed?   uint32
          +--rw nsf-policy-hits
             +--rw acquisition-method?   identityref
             +--rw emission-type?        identityref
             +--rw dampening-type?       identityref
             +--rw src-ip?               inet:ipv4-address
             +--rw dst-ip?               inet:ipv4-address
             +--rw src-port?             inet:port-number
             +--rw dst-port?             inet:port-number
             +--rw src-zone?             string
             +--rw dst-zone?             string
             +--rw src-region?           string
             +--rw dst-region?           string
             +--rw policy-id?            uint8
             +--rw policy-name?          string
             +--rw src-user?             string
             +--rw protocol?             identityref
             +--rw app?                  string
             +--rw message?              string
             +--rw time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
             +--rw vendor-name?          string
             +--rw nsf-name?             string
             +--rw module-name?          string
             +--rw severity?             severity
             +--rw hit-times?            uint32

     notifications:
       +---n system-detection-alarm
       |  +--ro alarm-catagory?       identityref
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro usage?                uint8
       |  +--ro threshold?            uint8
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time



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       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n system-detection-event
       |  +--ro event-catagory?       identityref
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro user                  string
       |  +--ro group                 string
       |  +--ro login-ip-addr         inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro authentication?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-detection-flood
       |  +--ro event-name?        identityref
       |  +--ro dst-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-port?          inet:port-number
       |  +--ro rule-id            uint8
       |  +--ro rule-name          string
       |  +--ro profile?           string
       |  +--ro raw-info?          string
       |  +--ro sub-attack-type?   identityref
       |  +--ro start-time         yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro end-time           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro attack-rate?       uint32
       |  +--ro attack-speed?      uint32
       |  +--ro message?           string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?        yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?       string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?          string
       |  +--ro module-name?       string
       |  +--ro severity?          severity
       +---n nsf-detection-session-table
       |  +--ro current-session?   uint8
       |  +--ro maximum-session?   uint8
       |  +--ro threshold?         uint8
       |  +--ro message?           string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?        yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?       string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?          string
       |  +--ro module-name?       string
       |  +--ro severity?          severity



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       +---n nsf-detection-virus
       |  +--ro src-ip?        inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-ip?        inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro src-port?      inet:port-number
       |  +--ro dst-port?      inet:port-number
       |  +--ro src-zone?      string
       |  +--ro dst-zone?      string
       |  +--ro rule-id        uint8
       |  +--ro rule-name      string
       |  +--ro profile?       string
       |  +--ro raw-info?      string
       |  +--ro virus?         identityref
       |  +--ro virus-name?    string
       |  +--ro file-type?     string
       |  +--ro file-name?     string
       |  +--ro message?       string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?    yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?   string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?      string
       |  +--ro module-name?   string
       |  +--ro severity?      severity
       +---n nsf-detection-intrusion
       |  +--ro src-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro src-port?          inet:port-number
       |  +--ro dst-port?          inet:port-number
       |  +--ro src-zone?          string
       |  +--ro dst-zone?          string
       |  +--ro rule-id            uint8
       |  +--ro rule-name          string
       |  +--ro profile?           string
       |  +--ro raw-info?          string
       |  +--ro protocol?          identityref
       |  +--ro app?               string
       |  +--ro sub-attack-type?   identityref
       |  +--ro message?           string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?        yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?       string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?          string
       |  +--ro module-name?       string
       |  +--ro severity?          severity
       +---n nsf-detection-botnet
       |  +--ro src-ip?        inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-ip?        inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro src-port?      inet:port-number
       |  +--ro dst-port?      inet:port-number
       |  +--ro src-zone?      string
       |  +--ro dst-zone?      string



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       |  +--ro rule-id        uint8
       |  +--ro rule-name      string
       |  +--ro profile?       string
       |  +--ro raw-info?      string
       |  +--ro attack-type?   identityref
       |  +--ro protocol?      identityref
       |  +--ro botnet-name?   string
       |  +--ro role?          string
       |  +--ro message?       string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?    yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?   string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?      string
       |  +--ro module-name?   string
       |  +--ro severity?      severity
       +---n nsf-detection-web-attack
       |  +--ro src-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro src-port?          inet:port-number
       |  +--ro dst-port?          inet:port-number
       |  +--ro src-zone?          string
       |  +--ro dst-zone?          string
       |  +--ro rule-id            uint8
       |  +--ro rule-name          string
       |  +--ro profile?           string
       |  +--ro raw-info?          string
       |  +--ro sub-attack-type?   identityref
       |  +--ro request-method?    identityref
       |  +--ro req-uri?           string
       |  +--ro uri-category?      string
       |  +--ro filtering-type*    identityref
       |  +--ro message?           string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?        yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?       string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?          string
       |  +--ro module-name?       string
       |  +--ro severity?          severity
       +---n system-access-log
       |  +--ro login-ip              inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro administrator?        string
       |  +--ro login-mode?           login-mode
       |  +--ro operation-type?       operation-type
       |  +--ro result?               string
       |  +--ro content?              string
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       +---n system-res-util-log
       |  +--ro system-status?        string



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       |  +--ro cpu-usage?            uint8
       |  +--ro memory-usage?         uint8
       |  +--ro disk-usage?           uint8
       |  +--ro disk-left?            uint8
       |  +--ro session-num?          uint8
       |  +--ro process-num?          uint8
       |  +--ro in-traffic-rate?      uint32
       |  +--ro out-traffic-rate?     uint32
       |  +--ro in-traffic-speed?     uint32
       |  +--ro out-traffic-speed?    uint32
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       +---n system-user-activity-log
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro user                  string
       |  +--ro group                 string
       |  +--ro login-ip-addr         inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro authentication?       identityref
       |  +--ro access?               identityref
       |  +--ro online-duration?      string
       |  +--ro logout-duration?      string
       |  +--ro addtional-info?       string
       +---n nsf-log-ddos
       |  +--ro attack-type?          identityref
       |  +--ro attack-ave-rate?      uint32
       |  +--ro attack-ave-speed?     uint32
       |  +--ro attack-pkt-num?       uint32
       |  +--ro attack-src-ip?        inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro action?               log-action
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-virus
       |  +--ro attack-type?          identityref
       |  +--ro action?               log-action
       |  +--ro os?                   string
       |  +--ro time                  yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref



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       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-intrusion
       |  +--ro attack-type?          identityref
       |  +--ro action?               log-action
       |  +--ro time                  yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro attack-rate?          uint32
       |  +--ro attack-speed?         uint32
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-botnet
       |  +--ro attack-type?          identityref
       |  +--ro action?               log-action
       |  +--ro botnet-pkt-num?       uint8
       |  +--ro os?                   string
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-dpi
       |  +--ro attack-type?          dpi-type
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro src-ip?               inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro dst-ip?               inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro src-port?             inet:port-number
       |  +--ro dst-port?             inet:port-number
       |  +--ro src-zone?             string
       |  +--ro dst-zone?             string
       |  +--ro src-region?           string



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       |  +--ro dst-region?           string
       |  +--ro policy-id?            uint8
       |  +--ro policy-name?          string
       |  +--ro src-user?             string
       |  +--ro protocol?             identityref
       |  +--ro app?                  string
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-vuln-scan
       |  +--ro vulnerability-id?     uint8
       |  +--ro victim-ip?            inet:ipv4-address
       |  +--ro protocol?             identityref
       |  +--ro port-num?             inet:port-number
       |  +--ro level?                severity
       |  +--ro os?                   string
       |  +--ro vulnerability-info?   string
       |  +--ro fix-suggestion?       string
       |  +--ro service?              string
       |  +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
       |  +--ro emission-type?        identityref
       |  +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
       |  +--ro message?              string
       |  +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
       |  +--ro vendor-name?          string
       |  +--ro nsf-name?             string
       |  +--ro module-name?          string
       |  +--ro severity?             severity
       +---n nsf-log-web-attack
          +--ro attack-type?          identityref
          +--ro rsp-code?             string
          +--ro req-clientapp?        string
          +--ro req-cookies?          string
          +--ro req-host?             string
          +--ro raw-info?             string
          +--ro acquisition-method?   identityref
          +--ro emission-type?        identityref
          +--ro dampening-type?       identityref
          +--ro message?              string
          +--ro time-stamp?           yang:date-and-time
          +--ro vendor-name?          string
          +--ro nsf-name?             string
          +--ro module-name?          string
          +--ro severity?             severity




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              Figure 1: Information Model for NSF Monitoring

12.  YANG Data Model

   This section introduces a YANG data model for the information model
   of the NSF monitoring inforamtion model.

 <CODE BEGINS> file "ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-dm@2018-11-15.yang"
 module ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-dm {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace
       "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-dm";
     prefix
       monitoring-information;
     import ietf-inet-types{
       prefix inet;
     }
     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
     }
     organization
       "IETF I2NSF (Interface to Network Security Functions)
        Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web: <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/i2nsf>
        WG List: <mailto:i2nsf@ietf.org>

        WG Chair: Linda Dunbar
        <mailto:Linda.duhbar@huawei.com>

        Editor: Jaehoon Paul Jeong
        <mailto:pauljeong@skku.edu>

        Editor: Dongjin Hong
        <mailto:dong.jin@skku.edu>";

     description
       "This module defines a YANG data module for monitoring NSFs.";

     revision "2018-11-15" {
       description "Seventh revision";
       reference
         "draft-zhang-i2nsf-info-model-monitoring-07";
     }

     typedef severity {
       type enumeration {
         enum high {



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           description
             "high-level";
         }
         enum middle {
           description
             "middle-level";
         }
         enum low {
           description
             "low-level";
         }
       }
       description
         "An indicator representing severity";
     }
     typedef log-action {
       type enumeration {
         enum allow {
           description
             "If action is allow";
         }
         enum alert {
           description
             "If action is alert";
         }
         enum block {
           description
             "If action is block";
         }
         enum discard {
           description
             "If action is discard";
         }
         enum declare {
           description
             "If action is declare";
         }
         enum block-ip {
           description
             "If action is block-ip";
         }
         enum block-service{
           description
             "If action is block-service";
         }
       }
       description
         "This is used for protocol";



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     }
     typedef dpi-type{
       type enumeration {
         enum file-blocking{
           description
             "DPI for blocking file";
         }
         enum data-filtering{
           description
             "DPI for filtering data";
         }
         enum application-behavior-control{
           description
             "DPI for controlling application behavior";
         }
       }
       description
         "This is used for dpi type";
     }
     typedef operation-type{
       type enumeration {
         enum login{
           description
             "Login operation";
         }
         enum logout{
           description
             "Logout operation";
         }
         enum configuration{
           description
             "Configuration operation";
         }
       }
       description
         "An indicator representing operation-type";
     }
     typedef login-mode{
       type enumeration {
         enum root{
           description
             "Root login-mode";
         }
         enum user{
           description
             "User login-mode";
         }
         enum guest{



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           description
             "Guest login-mode";
         }
       }
       description
         "An indicater representing login-mode";
     }

     identity characteristics {
       description
       "Base identity for monitoring information
       characteristics";
     }
     identity acquisition-method {
       base characteristics;
       description
       "The type of acquisition-method. Can be multiple types at once.";
     }
     identity subscription {
       base acquisition-method;
       description
       "The acquisition-method type is subscription";
     }
     identity query {
       base acquisition-method;
       description
       "The acquisition-method type is query";
     }
     identity emission-type {
       base characteristics;
       description
       "The type of emission-type.";
     }
     identity periodical {
       base emission-type;
       description
       "The emission-type type is periodical.";
     }
     identity on-change {
       base emission-type;
       description
       "The emission-type type is on-change.";
     }
     identity dampening-type {
       base characteristics;
       description
       "The type of dampening-type.";
     }



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     identity no-dampening {
       base dampening-type;
       description
       "The dampening-type is no-dampening.";
     }
     identity on-repetition {
       base dampening-type;
       description
       "The dampening-type is on-repetition.";
     }
     identity none {
       base dampening-type;
       description
       "The dampening-type is none.";
     }

     identity authentication-mode {
       description
         "User authentication mode types: e.g., Local Authentication,
          Third-Party Server Authentication,
          Authentication Exemption, or Single Sign-On (SSO)
          Authentication.";
     }
     identity local-authentication {
       base authentication-mode;
       description
         "Authentication-mode : local authentication.";
     }
     identity third-party-server-authentication {
       base authentication-mode;
       description
         "If authentication-mode is
         third-part-server-authentication";
     }
     identity exemption-authentication {
       base authentication-mode;
       description
       "If authentication-mode is
       exemption-authentication";
     }
     identity sso-authentication {
       base authentication-mode;
       description
       "If authentication-mode is
       sso-authentication";
     }

     identity alarm-type {



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       description
         "Base identity for detectable alarm types";
     }
     identity MEM-USAGE-ALARM {
       base alarm-type;
       description
       "A memory alarm is alerted";
     }
     identity CPU-USAGE-ALARM {
       base alarm-type;
       description
       "A cpu alarm is alerted";
     }
     identity DISK-USAGE-ALARM {
       base alarm-type;
       description
       "A disk alarm is alerted";
     }
     identity HW-FAILURE-ALARM {
       base alarm-type;
       description
       "A hardware alarm is alerted";
     }
     identity IFNET-STATE-ALARM {
       base alarm-type;
       description
       "An interface alarm is alerted";
     }
     identity event-type {
       description
         "Base identity for detectable event types";
     }
     identity ACCESS-DENIED {
       base event-type;
       description
       "The system event is access-denied.";
     }
     identity CONFIG-CHANGE {
       base event-type;
       description
       "The system event is config-change.";
     }

     identity flood-type {
       description
         "Base identity for detectable flood types";
     }
     identity syn-flood {



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       base flood-type;
       description
         "A SYN flood is detected";
     }
     identity ack-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "An ACK flood is detected";
     }
     identity syn-ack-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "An SYN-ACK flood is detected";
     }
     identity fin-rst-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A FIN-RST flood is detected";
     }
     identity tcp-con-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A TCP connection flood is detected";
     }
     identity udp-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A UDP flood is detected";
     }
     identity icmp-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "An ICMP flood is detected";
     }
     identity https-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A HTTPS flood is detected";
     }
     identity http-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A HTTP flood is detected";
     }
     identity dns-reply-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A DNS reply flood is detected";



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     }
     identity dns-query-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A DNS query flood is detected";
     }
     identity sip-flood {
       base flood-type;
       description
         "A SIP flood is detected";
     }

     identity nsf-event-name {
       description
       "Base identity for detectable nsf event types";
     }
     identity SEC-EVENT-DDOS {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is sec-event-ddos.";
     }
     identity SESSION-USAGE-HIGH {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is session-usage-high";
     }
     identity SEC-EVENT-VIRUS {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is sec-event-virus";
     }
     identity SEC-EVENT-INTRUSION {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is sec-event-intrusion";
     }
     identity SEC-EVENT-BOTNET {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is sec-event-botnet";
     }
     identity SEC-EVENT-WEBATTACK {
       base nsf-event-name;
       description
       "The nsf event is sec-event-webattack";
     }
     identity attack-type {
       description



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         "The root ID of attack based notification
         in the notification taxonomy";
     }
     identity system-attack-type {
       base attack-type;
       description
         "This ID is intended to be used
         in the context of system events";
     }
     identity nsf-attack-type {
       base attack-type;
       description
         "This ID is intended to be used in the context of nsf event";
     }
     identity botnet-attack-type {
       base nsf-attack-type;
       description
         "This is a ID stub limited to indicating
         that this attack type is botnet.
         The usual semantic and taxonomy is missing
         and name is used.";
     }
     identity virus-type {
       base nsf-attack-type;
       description
         "The type of virus. Can be multiple types at once. This attack
          type is associated with a detected system-log virus-attack";
     }
     identity trojan {
       base virus-type;
       description
         "The detected virus type is trojan";
     }
     identity worm {
       base virus-type;
       description
         "The detected virus type is worm";
     }
     identity macro {
       base virus-type;
       description
         "The detected virus type is macro";
     }
     identity intrusion-attack-type {
       base nsf-attack-type;
       description
         "The attack type is associatied with
         a detectedsystem-log intrusion";



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     }
     identity brute-force {
       base intrusion-attack-type;
       description
         "The intrusion type is brute-force";
     }
     identity buffer-overflow {
       base intrusion-attack-type;
       description
         "The intrusion type is buffer-overflow";
     }
     identity web-attack-type {
       base nsf-attack-type;
       description
         "The attack type associated with
         a detected system-log web-attack";
     }
     identity command-injection {
       base web-attack-type;
       description
         "The detected web attack type is command injection";
     }
     identity xss {
       base web-attack-type;
       description
         "The detected web attack type is XSS";
     }
     identity csrf {
       base web-attack-type;
       description
         "The detected web attack type is CSRF";
     }
     identity ddos-attack-type {
       base nsf-attack-type;
       description
         "The attack type is associated with a detected nsf-log event";
     }

     identity req-method {
       description
         "A set of request types (if applicable).
          For instance, PUT or GET in HTTP";
     }
     identity put-req {
       base req-method;
       description
         "The detected request type is PUT";
     }



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     identity get-req {
       base req-method;
       description
         "The detected request type is GET";
     }

     identity filter-type {
       description
         "The type of filter used to detect, for example,
          a web-attack. Can be applicable to more than
          web-attacks. Can be more than one type.";
     }
     identity whitelist {
       base filter-type;
       description
         "The applied filter type is whitelist";
     }
     identity blacklist {
       base filter-type;
       description
         "The applied filter type is blacklist";
     }
     identity user-defined {
       base filter-type;
       description
         "The applied filter type is user-defined";
     }
     identity balicious-category {
       base filter-type;
       description
         "The applied filter is balicious category";
     }
     identity unknown-filter {
       base filter-type;
       description
         "The applied filter is unknown";
     }

     identity access-mode {
       description
         "Base identity for detectable access mode.";
     }
     identity ppp {
       base access-mode;
       description
         "Access-mode : ppp";
     }
     identity svn {



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       base access-mode;
       description
         "Access-mode : svn";
     }
     identity local {
       base access-mode;
       description
         "Access-mode : local";
     }

     identity protocol-type {
       description
         "An identity used to enable type choices in leafs
          and leaflists wrt protocol metadata.";
     }
     identity tcp {
       base ipv4;
       base ipv6;
       description
         "TCP protocol type.";
     }
     identity udp {
       base ipv4;
       base ipv6;
       description
       "UDP protocol type.";
     }
     identity icmp {
       base ipv4;
       base ipv6;
       description
         "General ICMP protocol type.";
     }
     identity icmpv4 {
       base ipv4;
       description
         "ICMPv4 protocol type.";
     }
     identity icmpv6 {
       base ipv6;
       description
         "ICMPv6 protocol type.";
     }
     identity ip {
       base protocol-type;
       description
         "General IP protocol type.";
     }



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     identity ipv4 {
       base ip;
       description
         "IPv4 protocol type.";
     }
     identity ipv6 {
       base ip;
       description
         "IPv6 protocol type.";
     }
     identity http {
       base tcp;
       description
         "HTPP protocol type.";
     }
     identity ftp {
       base tcp;
       description
        "FTP protocol type.";
     }
     grouping common-monitoring-data {
       description
       "The data set of common monitoring";
       leaf message {
         type string;
         description
           "This is a freetext annotation of
           monitoring notification content";
       }
       leaf time-stamp {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         description
           "Indicates the time of message generation";
       }
       leaf vendor-name {
         type string;
         description
           "The name of the NSF vendor";
       }
       leaf nsf-name {
         type string;
         description
           "The name (or IP) of the NSF
           generating the message";
       }
       leaf module-name {
         type string;
         description



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           "The module name outputting the message";
       }
       leaf severity {
         type severity;
         description
           "The severity of the alarm such
           asvcritical, high, middle, low.";
       }
     }
     grouping characteristics{
       description
         "A set of monitoring information characteristics";
       leaf acquisition-method {
         type identityref {
           base acquisition-method;
         }
         description
           "The acquisition-method for characteristics";
       }
       leaf emission-type {
         type identityref {
           base emission-type;
         }
         description
           "The emission-type for characteristics";
       }
       leaf dampening-type {
         type identityref {
           base dampening-type;
         }
         description
           "The dampening-type for characteristics";
       }
     }
     grouping i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content {
       description
         "A set of system alarm type contents";
       leaf usage {
         type uint8;
         description
           "specifies the amount of usage";
       }
       leaf threshold {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The threshold triggering the alarm or the event";
       }
     }



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     grouping i2nsf-system-event-type-content {
       description
         "System event metadata associated with system events caused
          by user activity.";
       leaf user {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Name of a user";
       }
       leaf group {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Group to which a user belongs.";
       }
       leaf login-ip-addr {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Login IP address of a user.";
       }
       leaf authentication {
         type identityref {
           base authentication-mode;
         }
         description
           "The authentication-mode for authentication";
       }
     }
     grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend {
       description
         "A set of common IPv4-related NSF event
         content elements";
       leaf src-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The source IP address of the packet";
       }
       leaf dst-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The destination IP address of the packet";
       }
       leaf src-port {
         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "The source port of the packet";



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       }
       leaf dst-port {
         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "The destination port of the packet";
       }
       leaf src-zone {
         type string;
         description
           "The source security zone of the packet";
       }
       leaf dst-zone {
         type string;
         description
           "The destination security zone of the packet";
       }
       leaf rule-id {
         type uint8;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The ID of the rule being triggered";
       }
       leaf rule-name {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The name of the rule being triggered";
       }
       leaf profile {
         type string;
         description
           "Security profile that traffic matches.";
       }
       leaf raw-info {
         type string;
         description
           "The information describing the packet
           triggering the event.";
       }
     }
     grouping i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content {
       description
         "A set of common IPv4-related NSF event
         content elements";
       leaf dst-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The destination IP address of the packet";



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       }
       leaf dst-port {
         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "The destination port of the packet";
       }
       leaf rule-id {
         type uint8;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The ID of the rule being triggered";
       }
       leaf rule-name {
         type string;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The name of the rule being triggered";
       }
       leaf profile {
         type string;
         description
           "Security profile that traffic matches.";
       }
       leaf raw-info {
         type string;
         description
           "The information describing the packet
           triggering the event.";
       }
     }
     grouping traffic-rates {
       description
         "A set of traffic rates
         for statistics data";
       leaf total-traffic {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total traffic";
       }
       leaf in-traffic-ave-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Inbound traffic average rate in pps";
       }
       leaf in-traffic-peak-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Inbound traffic peak rate in pps";



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       }
       leaf in-traffic-ave-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Inbound traffic average speed in bps";
       }
       leaf in-traffic-peak-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Inbound traffic peak speed in bps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-ave-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Outbound traffic average rate in pps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-peak-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Outbound traffic peak rate in pps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-ave-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Outbound traffic average speed in bps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-peak-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Outbound traffic peak speed in bps";
       }
     }
     grouping i2nsf-system-counter-type-content{
       description
         "A set of system counter type contents";
       leaf interface-name {
         type string;
         description
           "Network interface name configured in NSF";
       }
       leaf in-total-traffic-pkts {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total inbound packets";
       }
       leaf out-total-traffic-pkts {
         type uint32;
         description



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           "Total outbound packets";
       }
       leaf in-total-traffic-bytes {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total inbound bytes";
       }
       leaf out-total-traffic-bytes {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total outbound bytes";
       }
       leaf in-drop-traffic-pkts {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total inbound drop packets";
       }
       leaf out-drop-traffic-pkts {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total outbound drop packets";
       }
       leaf in-drop-traffic-bytes {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total inbound drop bytes";
       }
       leaf out-drop-traffic-bytes {
         type uint32;
         description
           "Total outbound drop bytes";
       }
       uses traffic-rates;
     }
     grouping i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content{
       description
         "A set of nsf counters type contents";
       leaf src-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The source IP address of the packet";
       }
       leaf dst-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The destination IP address of the packet";
       }
       leaf src-port {



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         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "The source port of the packet";
       }
       leaf dst-port {
         type inet:port-number;
         description
           "The destination port of the packet";
       }
       leaf src-zone {
         type string;
         description
           "The source security zone of the packet";
       }
       leaf dst-zone {
         type string;
         description
           "The destination security zone of the packet";
       }
       leaf src-region {
         type string;
         description
           "Source region of the traffic";
       }
       leaf dst-region{
         type string;
         description
           "Destination region of the traffic";
       }
       leaf policy-id {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The ID of the policy being triggered";
       }
       leaf policy-name {
         type string;
         description
           "The name of the policy being triggered";
       }
       leaf src-user{
         type string;
         description
           "User who generates traffic";
       }
       leaf protocol {
         type identityref {
           base protocol-type;
         }



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         description
           "Protocol type of traffic";
       }
       leaf app {
         type string;
         description
           "Application type of traffic";
       }
     }

     notification system-detection-alarm {
       description
         "This notification is sent, when a system alarm
         is detected.";
       leaf alarm-catagory {
         type identityref {
           base alarm-type;
         }
         description
           "The alarm catagory for
           system-detection-alarm notification";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses i2nsf-system-alarm-type-content;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification system-detection-event {
       description
         "This notification is sent, when a security-sensitive
          authentication action fails.";
       leaf event-catagory {
         type identityref {
           base event-type;
         }
         description
           "The event catagory for system-detection-event";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-flood {
       description
         "This notification is sent,
         when a specific flood type is detected";
       leaf event-name {
         type identityref {
          base SEC-EVENT-DDOS;



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         }
         description
         "The event name for nsf-detection-flood";
       }
       uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content;
       leaf sub-attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base flood-type;
         }
         description
           "Any one of Syn flood, ACK flood, SYN-ACK flood,
            FIN/RST flood, TCP Connection flood, UDP flood,
            Icmp flood, HTTPS flood, HTTP flood, DNS query flood,
            DNS reply flood, SIP flood, and etc.";
       }
       leaf start-time {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The time stamp indicating when the attack started";
       }
       leaf end-time {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The time stamp indicating when the attack ended";
       }
       leaf attack-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The PPS rate of attack traffic";
       }
       leaf attack-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The BPS speed of attack traffic";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-session-table {
       description
         "This notification is sent, when an a session table event
          is deteced";
       leaf current-session {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The number of concurrent sessions";
       }



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       leaf maximum-session {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The maximum number of sessions that the session
            table can support";
       }
       leaf threshold {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The threshold triggering the event";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-virus {
       description
         "This notification is sent, when a virus is detected";
       uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
       leaf virus {
         type identityref {
           base virus-type;
         }
         description
           "The virus type for nsf-detection-virus notification";
       }
       leaf virus-name {
         type string;
         description
         "The name of the detected virus";
       }

       leaf file-type {
         type string;
         description
           "The type of file virus code is found in (if appicable).";
       }
       leaf file-name {
         type string;
         description
            "The name of file virus code is found in (if appicable).";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-intrusion {
       description
         "This notification is send, when an intrusion event
          is detected.";
       uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
       leaf protocol {



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         type identityref {
           base protocol-type;
         }
         description
           "The protocol type for nsf-detection-intrusion notification";
       }
       leaf app {
         type string;
         description
           "The employed application layer protocol";
       }
       leaf sub-attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base intrusion-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The sub attack type for intrusion attack";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-botnet {
       description
         "This notification is send, when a botnet event is
          detected";
       uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base botnet-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The attack type for botnet attack";
       }
       leaf protocol {
         type identityref {
           base protocol-type;
         }
         description
           "The protocol type for nsf-detection-botnet notification";
       }
       leaf botnet-name {
         type string;
         description
           "The name of the detected botnet";
       }
       leaf role {
         type string;
         description
           "The role of the communicating



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            parties within the botnet";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-detection-web-attack {
       description
         "This notification is send, when an attack event is
          detected";
       uses i2nsf-nsf-event-type-content-extend;
       leaf sub-attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base web-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "Concret web attack type, e.g., sql injection,
            command injection, XSS, CSRF";
       }
       leaf request-method {
         type identityref {
           base req-method;
         }
         description
           "The method of requirement. For instance, PUT or
           GET in HTTP";
       }
       leaf req-uri {
         type string;
         description
         "Requested URI";
       }
       leaf uri-category {
         type string;
         description
         "Matched URI category";
       }
       leaf-list filtering-type {
         type identityref {
           base filter-type;
         }
         description
           "URL filtering type, e.g., Blacklist, Whitelist,
            User-Defined, Predefined, Malicious Category,
            Unknown";
       }
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification system-access-log {
       description



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         "The notification is send, if there is
         a new system log entry about
          a system access event";
       leaf login-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Login IP address of a user";
       }
       leaf administrator {
         type string;
         description
           "Administrator that maintains the device";
       }
       leaf login-mode {
         type login-mode;
         description
           "Specifies the administrator log-in mode";
       }
       leaf operation-type {
         type operation-type;
         description
           "The operation type that the administrator execute";
       }
       leaf result {
         type string;
         description
           "Command execution result";
       }
       leaf content {
         type string;
         description
           "The Operation performed by an administrator after login";
       }
       uses characteristics;
     }
     notification system-res-util-log {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new log entry representing ressource
          utiliztation updates.";
       leaf system-status {
          type string;
          description
            "The current systems
            running status";
       }
       leaf cpu-usage {



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         type uint8;
         description
           "Specifies the relative amount of
           cpu usage wrt plattform ressources";
       }
       leaf memory-usage {
          type uint8;
          description
            "Specifies the amount of memory usage";
       }
       leaf disk-usage {
         type uint8;
         description
           "Specifies the amount of disk usage";
       }
       leaf disk-left {
          type uint8;
          description
            "Specifies the amount of disk left";
       }
       leaf session-num {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The total number of sessions";
       }
       leaf process-num {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The total number of process";
       }
       leaf in-traffic-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The total inbound traffic rate in pps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
            "The total outbount traffic rate in pps";
       }
       leaf in-traffic-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The total inbound traffic speed in bps";
       }
       leaf out-traffic-speed {
         type uint32;
         description



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           "The total outbound traffic speed in bps";
       }
       uses characteristics;
     }
     notification system-user-activity-log {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new user activity log entry";
       uses characteristics;
       uses i2nsf-system-event-type-content;
       leaf access {
         type identityref {
           base access-mode;
         }
         description
           "The access type for system-user-activity-log notification";
       }
       leaf online-duration {
         type string;
         description
           "Online duration";
       }
       leaf logout-duration {
         type string;
         description
           "Lockout duration";
       }
       leaf addtional-info {
         type string;
         description
           "User activities. e.g., Successful
           User Login, Failed Login attempts,
           User Logout, Successful User
           Password Change, Failed User
           Password Change, User Lockout,
           User Unlocking, Unknown";
       }
     }
     notification nsf-log-ddos {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new DDoS event log entry in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base ddos-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The ddos attack type for



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           nsf-log-ddos notification";
       }
       leaf attack-ave-rate {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The ave PPS of attack traffic";
       }
       leaf attack-ave-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "the ave bps of attack traffic";
       }
       leaf attack-pkt-num {
         type uint32;
         description
           "the number of attack packets";
       }
       leaf attack-src-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "The source IP addresses of attack
            traffics. If there are a large
            amount of IP addresses, then
            pick a certain number of resources
            according to different rules.";
       }
       leaf action {
         type log-action;
         description
           "Action type: allow, alert,
           block, discard, declare,
           block-ip, block-service";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-virus {
       description
         "This notification is send, If there is
         a new virus event log enry in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base virus-type;
         }
         description
           "The virus type for nsf-log-virus notification";
       }
       leaf action {



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         type log-action;
         description
           "Action type: allow, alert,
           block, discard, declare,
           block-ip, block-service";
       }
       leaf os{
         type string;
         description
           "simple os information";
       }
       leaf time {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Indicate the time when the message is generated";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-intrusion {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new intrusion event log entry in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base intrusion-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The intrusion attack type for
           nsf-log-intrusion notification";
       }
       leaf action {
         type log-action;
         description
           "Action type: allow, alert,
           block, discard, declare,
           block-ip, block-service";
       }
       leaf time {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Indicate the time when the message is generated";
       }
       leaf attack-rate {
         type uint32;
         description



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           "The PPS of attack traffic";
       }
       leaf attack-speed {
         type uint32;
         description
           "The bps of attack traffic";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-botnet {
       description
         "This noticiation is send, if there is
         a new botnet event log in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base botnet-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The botnet attack type for
           nsf-log-botnet notification";
       }
       leaf action {
         type log-action;
         description
           "Action type: allow, alert,
           block, discard, declare,
           block-ip, block-service";
       }
       leaf botnet-pkt-num{
         type uint8;
         description
           "The number of the packets sent to
           or from the detected botnet";
       }
       leaf os{
         type string;
         description
           "simple os information";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-dpi {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new dpi event in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {



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         type dpi-type;
         description
           "The type of the dpi";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-vuln-scan {
       description
         "This notification is send, if there is
         a new vulnerability-scan report in the nsf log";
       leaf vulnerability-id {
         type uint8;
         description
           "The vulnerability id";
       }
       leaf victim-ip {
         type inet:ipv4-address;
         description
           "IP address of the victim host which has vulnerabilities";
       }
       leaf protocol {
         type identityref {
           base protocol-type;
         }
         description
           "The protocol type for
           nsf-log-vuln-scan notification";
       }
       leaf port-num {
         type inet:port-number;
           description
             "The port number";
       }
       leaf level {
         type severity;
         description
           "The vulnerability severity";
       }
       leaf os {
         type string;
         description
           "simple os information";
       }
       leaf vulnerability-info {
         type string;
         description



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           "The information about the vulnerability";
       }
       leaf fix-suggestion {
         type string;
         description
           "The fix suggestion to the vulnerability";
       }
       leaf service {
         type string;
         description
           "The service which has vulnerabillity in the victim host";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     notification nsf-log-web-attack {
       description
         "This notificatio is send, if there is
         a new web-attack event in the nsf log";
       leaf attack-type {
         type identityref {
           base web-attack-type;
         }
         description
           "The web attack type for
           nsf-log-web-attack notification";
       }
       leaf rsp-code {
         type string;
         description
           "Response code";
       }
       leaf req-clientapp {
         type string;
         description
           "The client application";
       }
       leaf req-cookies {
         type string;
         description
           "Cookies";
       }
       leaf req-host {
         type string;
         description
           "The domain name of the requested host";
       }
       leaf raw-info {



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         type string;
         description
           "The information describing
           the packet triggering the event.";
       }
       uses characteristics;
       uses common-monitoring-data;
     }
     container counters {
       description
         "This is probably better covered by an import
         as this will not be notifications.
         Counter are not very suitable as telemetry, maybe
         via periodic subscriptions, which would still
         violate principle of least surprise.";
       container system-interface {
         description
           "The system counter type is interface counter";
         uses characteristics;
         uses i2nsf-system-counter-type-content;
         uses common-monitoring-data;
       }
       container nsf-firewall {
         description
           "The nsf counter type is firewall counter";
         uses characteristics;
         uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
         uses traffic-rates;
       }
       container nsf-policy-hits {
         description
           "The counters of policy hit";
         uses characteristics;
         uses i2nsf-nsf-counters-type-content;
         uses common-monitoring-data;
         leaf hit-times {
           type uint32;
           description
             "The hit times for policy";
         }
       }
     }
   }
 <CODE ENDS>

                    Figure 2: Data Model of Monitoring





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13.  Security Considerations

   The monitoring information of NSF should be protected by the secure
   communication channel, to ensure its confidentiality and integrity.
   In another side, the NSF and security controller can all be faked,
   which lead to undesireable results, i.e., leakage of an NSF's
   important operational information, faked NSF sending false
   information to mislead security controller.  The mutual
   authentication is essential to protected against this kind of attack.
   The current mainstream security technologies (i.e., TLS, DTLS, IPSEC,
   X.509 PKI) can be employed approriately to provide the above security
   functions.

   In addition, to defend against the DDoS attack caused by a lot of
   NSFs sending massive monitoring information to the security
   controller, the rate limiting or similar mechanisms should be
   considered in an NSF and security controller, whether in advance or
   just in the process of DDoS attack.

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-netconf-subscribed-notifications]
              Voit, E., Clemm, A., Prieto, A., Nilsen-Nygaard, E., and
              A. Tripathy, "Customized Subscriptions to a Publisher's
              Event Streams", draft-ietf-netconf-subscribed-
              notifications-17 (work in progress), September 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-netconf-yang-push]
              Clemm, A., Voit, E., Prieto, A., Tripathy, A., Nilsen-
              Nygaard, E., Bierman, A., and B. Lengyel, "Subscription to
              YANG Datastores", draft-ietf-netconf-yang-push-20 (work in
              progress), October 2018.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3877]  Chisholm, S. and D. Romascanu, "Alarm Management
              Information Base (MIB)", RFC 3877, September 2004.

   [RFC4949]  Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2",
              RFC 4949, August 2007.

   [RFC5424]  Gerhards, R., "The Syslog Protocol", RFC 5424, March 2009.






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   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for the
              Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              October 2010.

   [RFC6587]  Gerhards, R. and C. Lonvick, "Transmission of Syslog
              Messages over TCP", RFC 6587, April 2012.

   [RFC7011]  Claise, B., Trammell, B., and P. Aitken, "Specification of
              the IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the
              Exchange of Flow Information", RFC 7011, September 2013.

14.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-capability]
              Xia, L., Strassner, J., Basile, C., and D. Lopez,
              "Information Model of NSFs Capabilities", draft-ietf-
              i2nsf-capability-04 (work in progress), October 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm]
              Jeong, J., Kim, E., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares,
              "I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", draft-
              ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-02 (work in
              progress), November 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm]
              Kim, J., Jeong, J., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin,
              "I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG
              Data Model", draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-dm-02
              (work in progress), November 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-registration-interface-dm]
              Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Roh, T., Wi, S., and J. Park, "I2NSF
              Registration Interface YANG Data Model", draft-ietf-i2nsf-
              registration-interface-dm-01 (work in progress), November
              2018.

   [I-D.ietf-i2nsf-terminology]
              Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H.
              Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
              Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-06 (work in
              progress), July 2018.

   [I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-data-model]
              Wang, L., Chen, M., Dass, A., Ananthakrishnan, H., Kini,
              S., and N. Bahadur, "A YANG Data Model for Routing
              Information Base (RIB)", draft-ietf-i2rs-rib-data-model-10
              (work in progress), February 2018.




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   [I-D.yang-i2nsf-nfv-architecture]
              Yang, H., Kim, Y., Jeong, J., and J. Kim, "I2NSF on the
              NFV Reference Architecture", draft-yang-i2nsf-nfv-
              architecture-04 (work in progress), November 2018.

   [I-D.yang-i2nsf-security-policy-translation]
              Yang, J., Jeong, J., and J. Kim, "I2NSF Registration
              Interface YANG Data Model", draft-yang-i2nsf-security-
              policy-translation-02 (work in progress), October 2018.

   [RFC3954]  Claise, B., "Cisco Systems NetFlow Services Export Version
              9", RFC 3954, October 2004.

   [RFC8329]  Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
              Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
              Functions", RFC 8329, February 2018.



































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Appendix A.  Changes from draft-hong-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-data-model-05

   The following changes are made from draft-hong-i2nsf-nsf-monitoring-
   data-model-05:

   1.  This version includes the contents of draft-zhang-i2nsf-info-
       model-monitoring-07 for an information model for NSF monitoring.

   2.  Typos are corrected.

Appendix B.  Acknowledgments

   This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications
   Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government
   (MSIP) (R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security Intelligence
   Technology Development for the Customized Security Service
   Provisioning).

Appendix C.  Contributors

   This document is made by the group effort of I2NSF working group.
   Many people actively contributed to this document.  The following are
   considered co-authors:

   o  Dacheng Zhang (Huawei)

   o  Yi Wu (Aliababa Group)

   o  Rakesh Kumar (Juniper Networks)

   o  Anil Lohiya (Juniper Networks)

Authors' Addresses

   Jaehoon Paul Jeong
   Department of Software
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 31 299 4957
   Fax:   +82 31 290 7996
   EMail: pauljeong@skku.edu
   URI:   http://iotlab.skku.edu/people-jaehoon-jeong.php






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   Jinyong Tim Kim
   Department of Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 10 8273 0930
   EMail: timkim@skku.edu


   Dongjin Hong
   Department of Computer Engineering
   Sungkyunkwan University
   2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
   Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do  16419
   Republic of Korea

   Phone: +82 10 7630 5473
   EMail: dong.jin@skku.edu


   Susan Hares
   Huawei
   7453 Hickory Hill
   Saline, MI  48176
   USA

   Phone: +1-734-604-0332
   EMail: shares@ndzh.com


   Liang Xia (Frank)
   Huawei
   101 Software Avenue, Yuhuatai District
   Nanjing, Jiangsu
   China

   EMail: Frank.xialiang@huawei.com


   Henk Birkholz
   Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology
   Rheinstrasse 75
   Darmstadt  64295
   Germany

   EMail: henk.birkholz@sit.fraunhofer.de



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