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Network Working Group                                        D. von Hugo
Internet-Draft                                          Deutsche Telekom
Intended status: Informational                               B. Sarikaya
Expires: July 10, 2018                                          Huawei
                                                               S. Bhatti
                                               University of St. Andrews
                                                              M. Liebsch
                                                               R. Schott
                                                        Deutsche Telekom
                                                                  S. Seo
                                                           Korea Telekom
                                                        January 10, 2018

Access Technology Independent Connectivity and Mobility Control Problem


   This document attempts to make the case for new work involving
   possibly a framework and protocols that need to be developed to be
   used among various virtualized functions and the end user which may
   be moving.  First a set of functional requirements are developed and
   then these requirements are further elaborated in terms of potential
   engineering and design constraints.  The need for the new work is
   described next.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 10, 2018.

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Copyright Notice

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Converged Access-Agnostic Core Network  . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Functional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Non-Functional Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  IP Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   Current networking infrastructure is moving towards a converged
   common core network serving wireline and wireless access networks to
   which the end users are connected (see e.g. [METIS]).  Such a network
   if realized in terms of 5G projects being undertaken worldwide is
   expected to meet the stringent requirements discussed in

   In this document a system architecture which is composed of
   modularised adaptable network functions of control plane and data
   plane and their interconnections is assumed.  Much of this
   functionality is expected to be implemented as virtualized functions
   running in central and/or distributed computation environment (cloud)
   as well as traditional physical entities in parallel.

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   The system architecture we consider brings new set of functional
   requirements that need to be considered in developing new protocols
   as well as potential engineering and design constraints which we will
   elaborate in this document.

   The protocol discussion is based on and builds upon existing
   documents on access technology independent connectivity and mobility
   handling.  Identifier Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) is designed as
   a data plane protocol based on identifier locator separation
   principle for end user mobility with no tunneling [RFC6740].  ILNP
   has control plane components defined using DNS [RFC6742] and ICMPv6

   Identifier Locator Addressing (ILA) protocol is designed as a data
   plane protocol for task communication and migration in L3 based data
   center networks [I-D.herbert-nvo3-ila].  ILA's applicability has been
   investigated in [I-D.mueller-ila-mobility]  by attempting to apply it
   directly to 4G 3GPP Evolved Packet System (EPS).

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Converged Access-Agnostic Core Network

   Key principles and concepts in next generation system architecture
   include separation of User Plane (UP) functions from the Control
   Plane (CP) functions, allowing independent scalability, evolution,
   and a flexible deployment at e.g. centralised location or distributed
   (remote) locations; the concept relies on a new definition of the
   network functions.  Wherever applicable, procedures (i.e. the set of
   interactions between network functions) are defined as services, so
   that their re-use is possible.  The principles include being access
   independent and allowing efficient multiple access.  Each Network
   Function (NF) can interact with the other NF directly if required.
   The architecture does not preclude the use of an intermediate
   function to help route control plane messages.  On the other hand,
   the architecture shall be flexible enough to allow for hassle-free
   introduction of newly specified network services.

   Currently network infrastructure is being transformed into two-layer
   data center or cloud as Core Network (CN) and the Access Network (AN)
   which mainly accommodates wireless access network and wireline access
   network closer to the user.

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   Especially for new ultra low latency services offering vehicular
   communications a placement of both user data plane functions (e.g.
   caches or anchors) and corresponding control plane tasks (e.g.
   activating and monitoring them) near the points of attachment (e.g.
   road side radio antennas) may be required.

   As major control plane functionalities in such a core network the
   handling of network access management including consideration of user
   mobility, measures for providing session continuity as well as
   accounting for security and authentication has been identified.  Data
   plane functions for packet routing and forwarding accordingly have to
   be present also.

4.  Functional Requirements

   The new system architecture brings a set of functional requirements
   which will be set forward in this section.

   o  Harmonised and seamless capability, i.e. one protocol / protocol-
      suite that provides all the functionality listed below together,
      and without disruption to end-to-end connectivity.

   o  Mobility for hosts / end-systems.

   o  Mobility for networks / sites / routers.

   o  Multi-homing for hosts / end-systems, including support for multi-
      path transport.

   o  Multi-homing for networks / sites / routers.

   o  Support for network virtualisation / network partitioning.

5.  Non-Functional Requirements

   Next, we discuss non-functional requirements involving potential
   engineering design constraints.  They arise mainly from the need to
   increase resource usage efficiency by reducing signalling overhead
   and allowing for traffic shaping according to capacity availability.

   o  No use of tunnels, either layer 2 or layer 3.

   o  No use of middle boxes, i.e. no proxies.  Anchor points perform
      important duties such as policy, accounting etc. as well as
      mapping that cannot be ignored.  In anchor-less mobility, without
      anchor points, UE is the only common device in the path to perform

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      these functions.  When anchors are removed then it becomes a
      challenge to provide functions like security and trust.  One
      option is to use the UE as the only remaining single anchor point
      to perform its own accounting and policy and other functions.
      Such an approach however may create further implications to
      network operators which to our knowledge have not yet been dealt

   o  Support for end-to-end privacy and security.  There are secure
      execution environments/processors in UE's these days, where all
      the finger print recognition, password encryption etc. is done and
      perhaps it is possible to extend these to run secure network
      functions.  However, a trusted federation between any UE and the
      corresponding/accessible network entities cannot be assumed
      without doubt in any case.  In view of this, virtualizing and
      distributing anchor point functions, e.g. mapping identifiers to
      the most recent locators, security associations (SA), etc. so they
      can run in the network at the points of attachment close to the UE
      will need to be investigated.

   o  Flexible addressing / numbering, e.g. distinguishing between
      globalised addressing as well as localised addressing.

   o  An end-to-end model (in support to the above four requirements).

   o  Support for current IPv6 addressing, e.g. /64 prefix assignment.

   o  Support for Identifier-Locator separation, e.g. as discussed in

   o  Ability to use for mapping between identifiers and addresses an
      existing name resolution system (e.g.  DNS), but also to make use
      of new/future systems, e.g.  Dynamic Hash Tables (DHT) [RFC7363].

   o  Backwards compatibility for existing applications, e.g. support of
      socket API so that binaries do not need to be recompiled.

   o  Incremental deployment, e.g. only need to update those hosts that
      require new capability (this implies mixed operation, possibly
      dual-stack, within a network).

   The network path selection and user data distribution should work
   transparently.  Access path selection should be independent for
   Uplink and Downlink.  A common core network independent of the access
   networks should be accessible by the UE.  Network path selection
   should be adaptive to the link quality implications to match with
   service specific performance requirements.  Distribution and
   aggregation of user data across multiple network paths at the IP
   layer should be supported.

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   Transport protocol level independence is a strong requirement in
   identifier locator separation based mobility protocols.  This means
   that UE can have a locator or address but it should not be used as
   connection end point.  The identifier which may not be routable
   should be used as the connection end point instead.  This enables
   that no modifications at the transport layer in the host stack are
   required.  However, using current IPv6 addressing, it seems transport
   protocol level independence can not be achieved without possibly
   simple code modifications in widely used transport protocol software.
   In view of the required capability of incremental deployment this
   issue should be solvable.

   Regarding incremental deployment, legacy nodes will exist in the
   network especially in terms of the server nodes.  How to support such
   legacy nodes will need to be investigated.

6.  IP Sessions

   Network layer or IP session normally has two components: source IP
   address and destination IP address.  In case identifier locator
   separation protocol is used IP session has four components, i.e.
   source locator, source identifier, destination locator and
   destination identifier.  With transport layer independence IP session
   should be composed of source identifier and destination identifier

   Session continuity in the case of UE mobility should be provided.  In
   an anchorless system, UE mobility incurs changes to the locators.
   Session management should maintain the established sessions when the
   UE moves.  This also involves informing the destinations of the
   locator change.  This is done in the control plane.

   Enabling the various mobility scenarios while minimizing any negative
   impact on the user experience investigating solutions to coordinate
   the relocation of user-plane flows with the relocation of
   applications (hosted close to the point of attachment of the UE) due
   to the mobility of users can be considered as the challenges.

7.  Goals

   From the requirements set forward above we will derive the goals that
   need to be achieved.  The goals of the work will involve:

   o  Align with the identifier usage, e.g. 64-bit identifier for UE,
      e.g.  International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) as well as
      IPv6 prefix usage, single or multiple unique /64 prefixes

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   o  Propose solution approaches to deal with operational problems such
      as charging or policy and QoS enforcement in a framework not
      relying on tunneling and the information in tunnel headers

   o  Develop a framework involving mobility management without
      tunneling, IP sessions for session continuity, handoff
      improvements, support for virtual network identifiers to be used
      by virtualized network functions in data centers, and support for
      legacy servers

   o  Define a version of the protocol that supports data center
      execution for intercommunication among control plane virtualized
      network functions

   o  Define control plane improvements to enable fast intertechnology

   o  Define proxy node behavior to enable legacy nodes

8.  IANA Considerations


9.  Security Considerations

   Various white papers exist that discuss security considerations
   related to the next generation systems, e.g.  [NGMN].  Due to the
   request for intrinsic realization of security, such aspects have to
   be considered by design for architecture and protocols.

   Especially as a joint usage of resources and network functions by
   different virtual network functions seems to be inevitable in the
   framework of next generation systems outlined in this document the
   need for strong security measures in such an environment is a major

10.  Privacy Considerations

   Support of full privacy of the users (customers and tenants / end
   service providers) is a basic feature of the next generation trusted
   and reliable communications offering system.  Such a high degree of
   ensured privacy shall be reflected in the proposed architecture and
   protocol solutions.

   Especially as Identifiers and mapping of Locators to them are
   addressed some privacy concerns arise.  Mobility solutions tend to
   expose unique identifiers.  A solution inside the mobile network
   exposes these identifiers to the network operator, which is not a big

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   deal since the network operator already has information about the
   device's location.  In contrast, an IP level solution exposes both
   the identifiers and the locations at the IP layer.  That means that
   web sites, for example, can now track the device's successive
   locations by watching the IP address.  Solutions such as transporting
   the identifiers not as part of the IP header should be considered,
   e.g. in the handling of legacy hosts.

11.  Acknowledgements

   This work has been partially performed in the framework of the
   cooperation Config.  Contributions of the project partners are
   gratefully acknowledged.  The project consortium is not liable for
   any use that may be made of any of the information contained therein.

   Comments, constructive criticisms in general on this work (including
   previous versions) from Christian Huitema, Cameron Bynes, Lorenzo
   Colitti, Mikael Abrahamsson, David Lake, Samita Chakrabarti, Jouni
   Korhonen, Zhu Jing are respectfully acknowledged.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

12.2.  Informative References

              Herbert, T. and P. Lapukhov, "Identifier-locator
              addressing for IPv6", draft-herbert-intarea-ila-00 (work
              in progress), October 2017.

              Mueller, J. and T. Herbert, "Mobility Management Using
              Identifier Locator Addressing", draft-mueller-ila-
              mobility-03 (work in progress), February 2017.

              Hugo, D. and B. Sarikaya, "Review on issues in discussion
              of next generation converged networks (5G) from an IP
              point of view", draft-vonhugo-5gangip-ip-issues-03 (work
              in progress), March 2017.

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   [M.2083]   ITU-R, "Rec. ITU-R M.2083-0, IMT Vision-Framework and
              overall objectives of the future development of IMT for
              2020 and beyond", September 2015.

   [METIS]    Elayoubi, S. and et al., "5G Service Requirements and
              Operational Use Cases: Analysis and METIS II Vision",
              Proc. euCNC, 2016.

   [NGMN]     NGMN Alliance, "NGMN White Paper", February 2015.

   [RFC6115]  Li, T., Ed., "Recommendation for a Routing Architecture",
              RFC 6115, DOI 10.17487/RFC6115, February 2011,

   [RFC6740]  Atkinson, RJ. and SN. Bhatti, "Identifier-Locator Network
              Protocol (ILNP) Architectural Description", RFC 6740,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6740, November 2012,

   [RFC6742]  Atkinson, RJ., Bhatti, SN., and S. Rose, "DNS Resource
              Records for the Identifier-Locator Network Protocol
              (ILNP)", RFC 6742, DOI 10.17487/RFC6742, November 2012,

   [RFC6743]  Atkinson, RJ. and SN. Bhatti, "ICMP Locator Update Message
              for the Identifier-Locator Network Protocol for IPv6
              (ILNPv6)", RFC 6743, DOI 10.17487/RFC6743, November 2012,

   [RFC7363]  Maenpaa, J. and G. Camarillo, "Self-Tuning Distributed
              Hash Table (DHT) for REsource LOcation And Discovery
              (RELOAD)", RFC 7363, DOI 10.17487/RFC7363, September 2014,

Authors' Addresses

   Dirk von Hugo
   Deutsche Telekom
   Deutsche-Telekom-Allee 7
   D-64295 Darmstadt

   Email: Dirk.von-Hugo@telekom.de

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   Behcet Sarikaya
   5340 Legacy Dr.
   Plano, TX  75024

   Email: sarikaya@ieee.org

   Saleem Bhatti
   University of St. Andrews

   Email: saleem@st-andrews.ac.uk

   Marco Liebsch

   Email: marco.liebsch@neclab.eu

   Roland Schott
   Deutsche Telekom

   Email: roland.schott@telekom.de

   SungHoon Seo
   Korea Telekom

   Email: sh.seo@kt.com

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