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BMWG                                                       L. Huang, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                R. Gu, Ed.
Intended status: Informational                              China Mobile
Expires: January 18, 2018                                Bob. Mandeville
                                                                Iometrix
                                                         Brooks. Hickman
                                                  Spirent Communications
                                                           July 17, 2017


    Benchmarking Methodology for Virtualization Network Performance
            draft-huang-bmwg-virtual-network-performance-03

Abstract

   As the virtual network has been widely established in IDC, the
   performance of virtual network has become a valuable consideration to
   the IDC managers.  This draft introduces a benchmarking methodology
   for virtualization network performance based on virtual switch.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 18, 2018.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.



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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Test Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Key Performance Indicators  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Test Setup  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Benchmarking Tests  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Throughput  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       6.1.1.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       6.1.2.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       6.1.3.  Test parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       6.1.4.  Test process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       6.1.5.  Test result format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     6.2.  Frame loss rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       6.2.1.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.2.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.3.  Test parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.4.  Test process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       6.2.5.  Test result format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     6.3.  CPU consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       6.3.1.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       6.3.2.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       6.3.3.  Test parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       6.3.4.  Test process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       6.3.5.  Test result format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.4.  MEM consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       6.4.1.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       6.4.2.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       6.4.3.  Test parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       6.4.4.  Test process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       6.4.5.  Test result format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     6.5.  Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       6.5.1.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.5.2.  Configuration parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.5.3.  Test parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.5.4.  Test process  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       6.5.5.  Test result format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   As the virtual network has been widely established in IDC, the
   performance of virtual network has become a valuable consideration to
   the IDC managers.  This draft introduces a benchmarking methodology



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   for virtualization network performance based on virtual switch as the
   DUT.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Test Considerations

   In a conventional test setup with Non-Virtual test ports, it is quite
   legitimate to assume that test ports provide the golden standard in
   measuring the performance metrics.  If test results are sub optimal,
   it is automatically assumed that the Device-Under-Test (DUT) is at
   fault.  For example, when testing throughput at a given frame size,
   if the test result shows less than 100% throughput, we can safely
   conclude that it's the DUT that can not deliver line rate forwarding
   at that frame size(s).  We never doubt that the tester can be an
   issue.

   While in a virtual test environment where both the DUT as well as the
   test tool itself are software based, it's quite a different story.
   Just like the DUT, tester running as software will have its own
   performance peak under various conditions.

   There are two types of vSwitch according to different installation
   location.  One is VM based vSwitch which is installed on a virtual
   machine, another is vSwitch directly installed on the host OS
   (similar to hypervisor).The latter is much more popular currently.

   Tester's calibration is essential in benchmarking testing in a
   virtual environment.  Furthermore, to reduce the enormous combination
   of various conditions, tester must be calibrated with the exact same
   combination and parameter settings the user wants to measure against
   the DUT.  A slight variation of conditions and parameter values will
   cause inaccurate measurements of the DUT.

   While it is difficult to list the exact combination and parameter
   settings, the following table attempts to give the most common
   example how to calibrate a tester before testing a DUT (VSWITCH).

   Sample calibration permutation:








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   ----------------------------------------------------------------
   | Hypervisor | VM VNIC |   VM Memory   |   Frame  |            |
   |    Type    |  Speed  |CPU Allocation |   Size   |  Throughput|
   ----------------------------------------------------------------
   |   ESXi       1G/10G     512M/1Core   |    64    |            |
   |                                      |   128    |            |
   |                                      |   256    |            |
   |                                      |   512    |            |
   |                                      |  1024    |            |
   |                                      |  1518    |            |
   ----------------------------------------------------------------

                 Figure 1: Sample Calibration Permutation

   Key points are as following:

   a) The hypervisor type is of ultimate importance to the test results.
   VM tester(s) MUST be installed on the same hypervisor type as the DUT
   (VSWITCH).  Different hypervisor type has an influence on the test
   result.

   b) The VNIC speed will have an impact on testing results.  Testers
   MUST calibrate against all VNIC speeds.

   c) VM allocations of CPU resources and memory have an influence on
   test results.

   d) Frame sizes will affect the test results dramatically due to the
   nature of virtual machines.

   e) Other possible extensions of above table: The number of VMs to be
   created, latency reading, one VNIC per VM vs. multiple VM sharing one
   VNIC, and uni-directional traffic vs. bi-directional traffic.

   Besides, the compute environment including the hardware should be
   also recorded.















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             -----------------------------------------------------
             | Compute encironment componenets |        Model    |
             -----------------------------------------------------
             |              CPU                |                 |
             -----------------------------------------------------
             |             Memory              |                 |
             -----------------------------------------------------
             |            Hard Disk            |                 |
             -----------------------------------------------------
             |           10G Adaptors          |                 |
             -----------------------------------------------------
             |         Blade/Motherboard       |                 |
             -----------------------------------------------------

                       Figure 2: Compute Environment

   It's important to confirm test environment for tester's calibration
   as close to the environment a virtual DUT (VSWITCH) involved in for
   the benchmark test.  Key points which SHOULD be noticed in test setup
   are listed as follows.

   1.  One or more VM tester(s) need to be created for both traffic
   generation and analysis.

   2. vSwitch has an influence on performance penalty due to extra
   resource occupation.

   3.  VNIC and its type is needed in the test setup to once again
   accommodate performance penalty when DUT (VSWITCH) is created.

   In summary, calibration should be done in such an environment that
   all possible factors which may negatively impact test results should
   be taken into consideration.

4.  Key Performance Indicators

   We listed numbers of key performance indicators for virtual network
   below:

   a) Throughput under various frame sizes: forwarding performance under
   various frame sizes is a key performance indicator of interest.

   b) DUT consumption of CPU: when adding one or more VM(s), DUT
   (VSWITCH) will consume more CPU.  Vendors can allocate appropriate
   CPU to reach the line rate performance.






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   c) DUT consumption of MEM: when adding one or more VM(s), DUT
   (VSWITCH) will consume more memory.  Vendors can allocate appropriate
   MEM to reach the line rate performance.

   d) Latency readings: Some applications are highly sensitive on
   latency.  It's important to get the latency reading with respective
   to various conditions.

   Other indicators such as VxLAN maximum supported by the virtual
   switch and so on can be added in the scene when VxLAN is needed.

5.  Test Setup

   The test setup is classified into two traffic models: Model A and
   Model B.

   In traffic model A: A physical tester connects to the server which
   bears the DUT (VSWITCH) and Virtual tester to verify the benchmark of
   server.

                           ________________________________________
                          |                                        |
   -----------------      |   ----------------    ---------------- |
   |Physical tester|------|---|DUT (VSWITCH) |----|Virtual tester| |
   -----------------      |   ----------------    ---------------- |
                          |  Server                                |
                          |________________________________________|

                          Figure 3: test model A

   In traffic model B: Two virtual testers are used to verify the
   benchmark.  In this model, two testers are installed in one server.

    ______________________________________________________________
   |                                                              |
   |   ----------------    ----------------     ----------------  |
   |   |Virtual tester|----|DUT (VSWITCH) |-----|Virtual tester|  |
   |   ----------------    ----------------     ----------------  |
   |  Server                                                      |
   |______________________________________________________________|

                          Figure 4: test model B

   In our test, the test bed is constituted by physical servers of the
   Dell with a pair of 10GE NIC and physical tester.  Virtual tester
   which occupies 2 vCPU and 8G MEM and DUT (VSWITCH) are installed in
   the server. 10GE switch and 1GE switch are used for test traffic and
   management respectively.



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   This test setup is also available in the VxLAN measurement.

6.  Benchmarking Tests

6.1.  Throughput

   Unlike traditional test cases where the DUT and the tester are
   separated, virtual network test has been brought in unparalleled
   challenges.  In virtual network test, the virtual tester and the DUT
   (VSWITCH) are in one server which means they are physically
   converged, so the test and DUT (VSWITCH) are sharing the same CPU and
   MEM resources of one server.  Theoretically, the virtual tester's
   operation may have influence on the DUT (VSWITCH)'s performance.
   However, for the specialty of virtualization, this method is the only
   way to test the performance of a virtual DUT.

   Under the background of existing technology, when we test the virtual
   switch's throughput, the concept of traditional physical switch
   CANNOT be applicable.  The traditional throughput indicates the
   switches' largest forwarding capability, for certain bytes selected
   and under zero-packet-lose conditions.  But in virtual environments,
   virtual variations on virtual network will be much greater than that
   of dedicated physical devices.  As the DUT and the tester cannot be
   separated, it proves that the DUT (VSWITCH) realize such network
   performances under certain circumstances.

   Therefore, we change the bytes in virtual environment to test the
   maximum value which we think of the indicator of throughput.  It's
   conceivable that the throughput should be tested on both the test
   model A and B.  The tested throughput has certain referential
   meanings to value the performance of the virtual DUT.

6.1.1.  Objectives

   The objective of the test is to determine the throughput of the DUT
   (VSWITCH), which the DUT can support.

6.1.2.  Configuration parameters

   Network parameters should be defined as follows:

   a) the number of virtual tester (VMs)

   b) the number of vNIC of virtual tester

   c) the CPU type of the server

   d) vCPU allocated for virtual tester (VMs)



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   e) memory allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   f) the number and rate of server NIC

6.1.3.  Test parameters

   a) test repeated times

   b) test frame length

6.1.4.  Test process

   1.  Configure the VM tester to offer traffic to the V-Switch.

   2.  Increase the traffic rate of tester until packet loss happens.

   3.  Record the max traffic rate without packet loss on VSwitch.

   4.  Change the frame length and repeat from step1 to step4.

6.1.5.  Test result format

                           --------------------------
                           | Byte| Throughput (Gbps)|
                           --------------------------
                           |  64 |                  |
                           --------------------------
                           | 128 |                  |
                           --------------------------
                           | 256 |                  |
                           --------------------------
                           | 512 |                  |
                           --------------------------
                           | 1024|                  |
                           --------------------------
                           | 1518|                  |
                           --------------------------


                       Figure 5: test result format

6.2.  Frame loss rate

   Frame loss rate is also an important indicator in evaluating the
   performance of virtual switch.As is defined in RFC 1242, percentage
   of frames that should have been forwarded which actually fails to be
   forwarded due to lack of resources needs to be tested.Both model A




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   and model B are tested.Frame loss rate is an important indicator in
   evaluating the performance of virtual switches.

6.2.1.  Objectives

   The objective of the test is to determine the frame loss rate under
   different data rates and frame sizes..

6.2.2.  Configuration parameters

   Network parameters should be defined as follows:

   a) the number of virtual tester (VMs)

   b) the number of vNIC of virtual tester

   c) the CPU type of the server

   d) vCPU allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   e) memory allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   f) the number and rate of server NIC

6.2.3.  Test parameters

   a) test repeated times

   b) test frame length

   c) test frame rate

6.2.4.  Test process

   1.  Configure the VM tester to offer traffic to the V-Switch with the
   input frame changing from the maximum rate to the rate with no frame
   loss at reducing 10% intervals according to RFC 2544.

   2.  Record the input frame count and output count on VSwitch.

   3.  Calculate the frame loss percentage under different frame rate.

   4.  Change the frame length and repeat from step1 to step4.








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6.2.5.  Test result format

   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   |Byte|Maxmum rate |90% Maximum |80% Maximum |...|  rate with    |
   |    |   (Gbps)   | rate (Gbps)| rate (Gbps)|   | no loss (Gbps)|
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   |  64|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   | 128|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   | 256|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   | 512|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   |1024|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------
   |1518|            |            |            |   |               |
   -----------------------------------------------------------------


                       Figure 6: test result format

6.3.  CPU consumption

   The objective of the test is to determine the CPU load of
   DUT(VSWITCH).  The operation of DUT (VSWITCH) can increase the CPU
   load of host server.  Different V-Switches have different CPU
   occupation.  This can be an important indicator in benchmarking the
   virtual network performance.

6.3.1.  Objectives

   The objective of this test is to verify the CPU consumption caused by
   the DUT (VSWITCH).

6.3.2.  Configuration parameters

   Network parameters should be defined as follows:

   a) the number of virtual tester (VMs)

   b) the number of vNIC of virtual tester

   c) the CPU type of the server

   d) vCPU allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   e) memory allocated for virtual tester (VMs)



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   f) the number and rate of server NIC

6.3.3.  Test parameters

   a) test repeated times

   b) test frame length

   c) traffic rate

6.3.4.  Test process

   1.  Configure the VM tester to offer traffic to the V-Switch with
   certain traffic rate.  The traffic rate could be different ratio of
   NIC's speed.

   2.  Record vSwitch's CPU usage on the host OS if no packets loss
   happens.

   3.  Change the traffic rate and repeat from step1 to step2.

   4.  Change the frame length and repeat from step1 to step3.

6.3.5.  Test result format



























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         --------------------------------------------------
         | Byte| Traffic Rate(Gbps)| CPU usage of vSwitch |
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |  64 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         | 128 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------
         ~     ~                   ~                      ~
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |1500 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------

                       Figure 7: test result format

6.4.  MEM consumption

   The objective of the test is to determine the Memory load of
   DUT(VSWITCH).  The operation of DUT (VSWITCH) can increase the Memory
   load of host server.  Different V-Switches have different memory
   occupation.  This can be an important indicator in benchmarking the
   virtual network performance.

6.4.1.  Objectives

   The objective of this test is to verify the memory consumption by the
   DUT (VSWITCH) on the Host server.

6.4.2.  Configuration parameters

   Network parameters should be defined as follows:

   a) the number of virtual tester (VMs)

   b) the number of vNIC of virtual tester

   c) the CPU type of the server



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   d) vCPU allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   e) memory allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   f) the number and rate of server NIC

6.4.3.  Test parameters

   a) test repeated times

   b) test frame length

6.4.4.  Test process

   1.  Configure the VM tester to offer traffic to the V-Switch with
   certain traffic rate.  The traffic rate could be different ratio of
   NIC's speed.

   2.  Record vSwitch's MEM usage on the host OS if no packets loss
   happens.

   3.  Change the traffic rate and repeat from step1 to step2.

   4.  Change the frame length and repeat from step1 to step3.

6.4.5.  Test result format

























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         --------------------------------------------------
         | Byte| Traffic Rate(Gbps)| MEM usage of vSwitch |
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |  64 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         | 128 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------
         ~     ~                   ~                      ~
         --------------------------------------------------
         |     | 50% of NIC speed  |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |1500 |         75%       |                      |
         |     |-------------------------------------------
         |     |         90%       |                      |
         --------------------------------------------------

                       Figure 8: test result format

6.5.  Latency

   Physical tester's time refers from its own clock or other time
   source, such as GPS, which can achieve the accuracy of 10ns.  While
   in virtual network circumstances, the virtual tester gets its
   reference time from the clock of Linux systems and it's hard to make
   the physical and virtual tester keep precisely synchronized.  So We
   use the traffic model B as the latency test model.

    ______________________________________________________________
   |                                                              |
   |   ----------------    ----------------     ----------------  |
   |   |Virtual tester|----|DUT (VSWITCH) |-----|Virtual tester|  |
   |   ----------------    ----------------     ----------------  |
   |  Server                                                      |
   |______________________________________________________________|


                      Figure 9: time delay test model






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6.5.1.  Objectives

   The objective of this test is to verify the DUT (VSWITCH) for latency
   of the flow.  This can be an important indicator in benchmarking the
   virtual network performance.

6.5.2.  Configuration parameters

   Network parameters should be defined as follows:

   a) the number of virtual tester (VMs)

   b) the number of vNIC of virtual tester

   c) the CPU type of the server

   d) vCPU allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   e) memory allocated for virtual tester (VMs)

   f) the number and rate of server NIC

6.5.3.  Test parameters

   a) test repeated times

   b) test frame length

6.5.4.  Test process

   1.  Configure the virtual tester to offer traffic to the V-Switch
   with the traffic value of throughput tested in 6.1.

   2.  Keep the traffic for a while and then stop it, record the
   minimum, maximum and average latency.

   3.  Change the frame length and repeat from step1 to step4.

6.5.5.  Test result format












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    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | Byte|  Min Latency    |  Max Latency    |  Average Latency |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    |  64 |                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | 128 |                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | 256 |                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | 512 |                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | 1024|                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+
    | 1518|                 |                 |                  |
    +-----+-----------------+-----------------+------------------+

                       Figure 10: test result format

7.  Security Considerations

   None.

8.  IANA Considerations

   None.

9.  Normative References

   [RFC1242]  Bradner, S., "Benchmarking Terminology for Network
              Interconnection Devices", RFC 1242, DOI 10.17487/RFC1242,
              July 1991, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1242>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, DOI 10.17487/RFC2234,
              November 1997, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2234>.

   [RFC2544]  Bradner, S. and J. McQuaid, "Benchmarking Methodology for
              Network Interconnect Devices", RFC 2544,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2544, March 1999,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2544>.






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Authors' Addresses

   Lu Huang (editor)
   China Mobile
   32 Xuanwumen West Ave, Xicheng District
   Beijing  100053
   China

   Email: hlisname@yahoo.com


   Rong Gu (editor)
   China Mobile
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   Beijing  100053
   China

   Email: gurong@chinamobile.com


   Bob Mandeville
   Iometrix
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   San Francisco, CA  94123
   USA

   Email: bob@iometrix.com


   Brooks Hickman
   Spirent Communications
   1325 Borregas Ave
   Sunnyvale, CA  94089
   USA

   Email: Brooks.Hickman@spirent.com















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