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Internet Engineering Task Force                                 S. Huque
Internet-Draft                                                Salesforce
Intended status: Standards Track                              H. Shulman
Expires: January 23, 2019                           Fraunhofer Institute
                                                                 S. Kerr
                                                              Oracle Dyn
                                                           July 22, 2018

                    Algorithm Negotiation in DNSSEC


   This document specifies a DNS extension that allows a DNS client to
   specify a list of DNSSEC algorithms, in preference order, that the
   client desires to use.  A DNS server upon receipt of this extension
   can choose to selectively respond with DNSSEC signatures using the
   most preferred algorithm they support.  This mechanism may make it
   easier for DNS zone operators to support signing zone data
   simultaneously with multiple DNSSEC algorithms, without significantly
   increasing the size of DNS responses.  It will also allow an easier
   way to transition to new algorithms while still retaining support for
   older DNS validators that do not yet support the new algorithms.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 23, 2019.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  DNSSEC Preferred Algorithms Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Why not use RFC 6975 for Algorithm Signaling? . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Changes to Clients  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Changes to Servers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  Cache Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Preventing Downgrade Attacks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Dealing with Proxies and Middleboxes  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) specifications [RFC4033]
   [RFC4034] [RFC4035] support multiple signature algorithms.  A DNS
   zone can be signed simultaneously with multiple algorithms, but there
   is no provision in the current specifications to negotiate the
   selective delivery of signatures of a specific algorithm in DNS

   In contrast, many other security protocols, like TLS, IKE, SSH and
   others, support an algorithm or cipher suite negotiation mechanism to
   enable the client and server to select the "best" algorithm they
   jointly support.

   This means that DNS servers have to send responses with signatures of
   all algorithms that the requested data are signed with, which can
   result in significantly large responses.  Not only is this
   inefficient in terms of the additional communication and processing
   overhead, but it often causes a variety of operational problems.
   Most DNS queries and responses utilize UDP transport today.  While

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   the EDNS0 specification can support very large DNS over UDP payload
   sizes, once they exceed the common Internet Path MTU (typically about
   1,500 octets), they need to be fragmented at the IP layer.  Many
   studies [add citations] have shown that IP fragmentation does not
   work reliably on today's Internet, because fragments are often
   blocked by network security devices.  Furthermore, fragments can
   cause a variety of security and operational issues, as documented in
   [frag-bad], and previous attempts to deprecate fragments in the IETF.
   Constraining DNS message sizes to sit comfortably within the
   network's Path MTU can avoid these problems, and in fact modern UDP
   Usage Guidelines [RFC8085] strongly recommend this.

   DNS can run over other transports that can obviate the IP
   fragmentation problem, such as TCP (with Path MTU discovery or a
   suitably configured Maximum Segment Size) and TLS.  In fact, some
   operators are known to truncate a DNS payload in preference to
   emitting a a response that is likely to be fragmented, instructing
   the client to re-query over TCP.  However, these alternative
   transports have not been widely deployed in the field, and there is
   some reluctance by operators to make wide use of TCP or TLS because
   of their added processing and performing costs.  This situation may
   change over time, but at least today, the dominant transport for DNS
   query and response remains UDP.

   The response size issue is also a significant barrier to the
   introduction of new algorithms in DNSSEC.  As can be readily seen
   from the RSA to ECDSA transition, very few zones have transitioned
   from RSA to ECDSA, and furthermore, very few have been willing to
   sign their zones with multiple algorithms.  Newer DNSSEC algorithms
   have already appeared or are being proposed: EdDSA [RFC8080], NSEC5
   [nsec5], and it is expected that some time in the future, there will
   be post quantum signature algorithms for DNSSEC.

   It is often not feasible to deploy only a new algorithm before the
   field of deployed validating resolvers have been updated to
   understand it.  This would cause the zone to appear unsigned to those
   validators, negating the security that DNSSEC provides, and posing
   critical security problems for applications like DANE [RFC6698]
   [RFC7671] that rely on DNSSEC authentication.  Thus new algorithms
   will require zone operators to simultaneously deploy multiple
   algorithms, and support older algorithms for an extended period of
   time until the population of validators have upgraded themselves to
   support the newer algorithms.

   This document proposes a new mechanism by which a DNS client when
   sending a query can indicate an ordered list of DNSSEC signature
   algorithms it desires to use.  The DNS server can use this

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   information to selectively construct a response with only the
   signatures using the most preferred algorithm that it supports.

2.  DNSSEC Preferred Algorithms Option

   The EDNS0 specification outlined in [RFC6891] defines a way to
   include new options using a standardized mechanism.  These options
   are contained in the RDATA of the OPT meta resource record.  This
   document defines a new EDNS0 option called "DNSSEC Preferred
   Algorithms" used by a client to indicate an ordered list of DNSSEC
   signature algorithms that it supports and prefers.  This option can
   appear only once in an OPT RR.

          0                       8                      16
          |                  OPTION-CODE                  |
          |                  LIST-LENGTH                  |
          |       ALG-CODE        |        ...            |

   OPTION-CODE is the code (TBD) assigned by IANA for this EDNS0 option.

   LIST-LENGTH is the length of the list of digital signatures or hash
   algorithm codes in octets.  Each algorithm code occupies a single

   ALG-CODE is the list of assigned values of DNSSEC zone signature
   algorithms that the client prefers to be used.  The algorithms are
   listed in the order preferred by the client.

3.  Why not use RFC 6975 for Algorithm Signaling?

   The new EDNS0 option described in this document is very similar to
   the DNSSEC Algorithm Understood (DAU) option defined in [RFC6975]
   (Signaling Cryptographic Algorithm Understanding).  That
   specification has not seen much adoption or even implementation, and
   it has been suggested that it could be repurposed to implement the
   algorithm negotiation mechanism described in this document.

   This document proposes a new option instead, because the RFC6975
   option could not be reused without significantly revising its
   semantics.  For example, it currently says that the list of algorithm
   codes is unordered, and that the server must not infer any ordering

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   or preferences from the list.  Furthermore, it states that the option
   must not trigger any special processing on the server side.

   In addition to algorithm negotiation, this new option could also
   subsume the additional function of signaling algorithm understanding
   originally intended by RFC 6975.

4.  Changes to Clients

   A client is defined to be any DNS speaker that issues a query, e.g. a
   stub resolver, a resolver issuing outbound queries to authoritative
   servers, or to other resolvers etc.

   A client implementing this specification and configured to use it,
   adds an EDNS0 DNSSEC Preferred Algorithms option to the OPT Pseudo
   Resource Record in the Additional Section of the query, listing its
   desired DNSSEC algorithm numbers in preferred order.  It only makes
   sense to add this option if the client is requesting DNSSEC
   signatures, so the DNSSEC-OK bit in the EDNS Flags field MUST also be

   As a general rule, to maximize security, the client should prefer
   stronger DNSSEC algorithms to weaker ones.

5.  Changes to Servers

   A server is defined to be any DNS speaker that sends DNS responses,
   e.g. an authoritative server, or a resolver when answering queries
   from downstream clients.

   Upon receipt of a query with the DNSSEC-OK bit set, and the DNSSEC
   Preferred Algorithms EDNS0 option, an Authoritative Server SHOULD
   include in its response, DNSSEC signatures using only the most
   preferred algorithm that it supports.  It also includes the Preferred
   Algorithms EDNS0 option in the response, to indicate that it
   recognizes the option and has acted on it.

   If an Authoritative Server has no algorithms in common with the
   Preferred Algorithms list in the incoming query, it MUST send back a
   SERVFAIL response (Response Code 2).  This response MUST contain the
   list of algorithms supported by the server in the EDNS0 Preferred
   Algorithms option.  [Note: this specific behavior may be
   controversial since it is a depature from plain DNSSEC's fail open
   behavior.  Alternative behavior could be specified, such as returning
   a NOERROR response with no signatures.]

   If a resolver receives a query from a downstream validating client
   with a Preferred Algorithms list different from its own, then it

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   should send outbound queries with the client's preferred list, and
   return answers appropriately.

6.  Cache Considerations

   A Validating Resolver answering queries with the DNSSEC-OK bit set
   from data in its cache needs to take a few additional steps.  If the
   query does not include the Preferred Algorithms option, and the
   resolver has selectively cached signatures of a subset of algorithms
   supported by the zone containing the query domain name, then it MUST
   re-send outbound queries to the authoritative server without the
   Preferred Algorithms option in order to retrieve the entire set of
   signatures for the query.  If the query includes the Preferred
   Algorithms option, but prefers algorithms known to be supported for
   the name, but different from what has been cached, the resolver MUST
   again send outbound queries to retrieve answers with signatures the
   client prefers, by copying the client's Preferred Algorithms option
   into the outbound query.

7.  Preventing Downgrade Attacks

   There is no cryptographic integrity protection of EDNS0 options.  In
   theory, Transaction Signatures [RFC2845] could be deployed to
   integrity protect the entire query message with per-client keys in
   closed populations of DNS speakers, but this is not a viable
   mechanism in the general case of arbitrary DNS clients and servers on
   the Internet.

   Hence an active man-in-the-middle attacker could strip out stronger
   algorithms from the client's preferred algorithms list and force the
   server to send back signatures with a weaker algorithm than it might
   have otherwise sent.

   In order to detect such attacks, the client MUST compare the zone
   signing algorithms listed in the zone's authenticated DNSKEY RRset,
   and the preferred list in the query that it sent, to the algorithms
   seen in the response signatures.  If signatures by the most preferred
   algorithm they have in common have not been sent, this may indicate
   an algorithm downgrade attack.

8.  Dealing with Proxies and Middleboxes

   EDNS is a hop-by-hop mechanism.  Hence all DNS speakers in the path
   from the querier invoking this option to the responding server need
   to support this mechanism for it to work correctly.  DNS proxies
   along the path that transparently relay requests and responses, and
   largely comply with the implementation guidelines described in
   [RFC5625] should not be a problem.  But more complicated proxies,

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   middleboxes, forwarding resolvers, etc that actively interpret DNS
   messages, but do not understand this new option, will likely strip
   off the unrecognized option in their outbound queries.  The result
   will be that the responding server will send back signatures made
   with the full set of algorithms.

   There is always a danger that a misbehaving middlebox might block or
   drop a DNS packet with an unrecognized EDNS option, but this is a
   threat that applies to almost all DNS extension proposals.
   Deployment of new DNS options provides an opportunity to identify and
   remove or fix such misbehaving devices.

   An alternative end-to-end mechanism is described in [dnssec-nego] to
   workaround DNS speaking middleboxes that haven't been upgraded to
   recognize this option.  It involves the client encoding the ordered
   list of algorithms in a sequence of labels prepended to the query
   name, and the addition of a new DNSKEY RR (with a new algorithm
   number) at the authoritative server to signal to clients that the
   server recognizes these specially constructed query names.  No
   further details of this alternative mechanism are provided in this
   document, but could be incorporated in future revisions if there is
   interest in developing that solution.

9.  Acknowledgements

   This specification builds on earlier work on DNSSEC algorithm
   negotiation by Amir Herzberg and Haya Shulman in [dnssec-nego].

10.  Security Considerations

   [ TODO ]

11.  IANA Considerations

   This specification requires the registration of a new value in the
   DNS EDNS0 Option Code Registry, maintained by IANA.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,

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   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,

   [RFC6891]  Damas, J., Graff, M., and P. Vixie, "Extension Mechanisms
              for DNS (EDNS(0))", STD 75, RFC 6891,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6891, April 2013, <https://www.rfc-

12.2.  Informative References

              Herzberg, A. and H. Shulman, "Cipher-Suite Negotiation for
              DNSSEC: Hop-by-Hop or End-to-End?", in IEEE Internet
              Computing, February 2015,

              Herzberg, A. and H. Shulman, "Fragmentation Considered
              Poisonous", in IEEE Conference on Communications and
              Network Security, October 2013,

   [nsec5]    Vcelak, J., Goldberg, S., Papadopoulos, D., Huque, S., and
              D. Lawrence, "NSEC5, DNSSEC Authenticated Denial of
              Existence", <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-vcelak-

   [RFC2845]  Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake 3rd, D., and B.
              Wellington, "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS
              (TSIG)", RFC 2845, DOI 10.17487/RFC2845, May 2000,

   [RFC5625]  Bellis, R., "DNS Proxy Implementation Guidelines",
              BCP 152, RFC 5625, DOI 10.17487/RFC5625, August 2009,

   [RFC6698]  Hoffman, P. and J. Schlyter, "The DNS-Based Authentication
              of Named Entities (DANE) Transport Layer Security (TLS)
              Protocol: TLSA", RFC 6698, DOI 10.17487/RFC6698, August
              2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6698>.

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   [RFC6975]  Crocker, S. and S. Rose, "Signaling Cryptographic
              Algorithm Understanding in DNS Security Extensions
              (DNSSEC)", RFC 6975, DOI 10.17487/RFC6975, July 2013,

   [RFC7671]  Dukhovni, V. and W. Hardaker, "The DNS-Based
              Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) Protocol: Updates
              and Operational Guidance", RFC 7671, DOI 10.17487/RFC7671,
              October 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7671>.

   [RFC8080]  Sury, O. and R. Edmonds, "Edwards-Curve Digital Security
              Algorithm (EdDSA) for DNSSEC", RFC 8080,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8080, February 2017, <https://www.rfc-

   [RFC8085]  Eggert, L., Fairhurst, G., and G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", BCP 145, RFC 8085, DOI 10.17487/RFC8085,
              March 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8085>.

Authors' Addresses

   Shumon Huque

   Email: shuque@gmail.com

   Haya Shulman
   Fraunhofer Institute

   Email: haya.shulman@gmail.com

   Shane Kerr
   Oracle Dyn

   Email: shane@time-travellers.org

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