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Versions: (draft-hong-6lo-ipv6-over-nfc) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

6Lo Working Group                                              Y-H. Choi
Internet-Draft                                                 Y-G. Hong
Intended status: Standards Track                                    ETRI
Expires: December 6, 2017                                      J-S. Youn
                                                            Dongeui Univ
                                                                D-K. Kim
                                                                     KNU
                                                               J-H. Choi
                                                Samsung Electronics Co.,
                                                            June 4, 2017


       Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Near Field Communication
                         draft-ietf-6lo-nfc-07

Abstract

   Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones
   and portable devices to establish radio communication with each other
   by touching them together or bringing them into proximity, usually no
   more than 10 cm.  NFC standards cover communications protocols and
   data exchange formats, and are based on existing radio-frequency
   identification (RFID) standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.
   The standards include ISO/IEC 18092 and those defined by the NFC
   Forum.  The NFC technology has been widely implemented and available
   in mobile phones, laptop computers, and many other devices.  This
   document describes how IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LowPAN
   techniques.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on December 6, 2017.






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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Overview of Near Field Communication Technology . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Protocol Stacks of NFC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.3.  NFC-enabled Device Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Specification of IPv6 over NFC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.1.  Protocol Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Link Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.3.  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.4.  IPv6 Link Local Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.5.  Neighbor Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.6.  Dispatch Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.7.  Header Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.8.  Fragmentation and Reassembly  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.9.  Unicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.10. Multicast Address Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Internet Connectivity Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.1.  NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet  . . . . . .  12
     5.2.  Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16






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1.  Introduction

   NFC is a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically
   requiring a distance of 10 cm or less.  NFC operates at 13.56 MHz on
   ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface and at rates ranging from 106 kbit/s to
   424 kbit/s.  NFC always involves an initiator and a target; the
   initiator actively generates an RF field that can power a passive
   target.  This enables NFC targets to take very simple form factors
   such as tags, stickers, key fobs, or cards that do not require
   batteries.  NFC peer-to-peer communication is possible, provided both
   devices are powered.  NFC builds upon RFID systems by allowing two-
   way communication between endpoints, where earlier systems such as
   contactless smart cards were one-way only.  It has been used in
   devices such as mobile phones, running Android operating system,
   named with a feature called "Android Beam".  In addition, it is
   expected for the other mobile phones, running the other operating
   systems (e.g., iOS, etc.) to be equipped with NFC technology in the
   near future.

   Considering the potential for exponential growth in the number of
   heterogeneous air interface technologies, NFC would be widely used as
   one of the other air interface technologies, such as Bluetooth Low
   Energy (BT-LE), Wi-Fi, and so on.  Each of the heterogeneous air
   interface technologies has its own characteristics, which cannot be
   covered by the other technologies, so various kinds of air interface
   technologies would co-exist together.  Therefore, it is required for
   them to communicate with each other.  NFC also has the strongest
   ability (e.g., secure communication distance of 10 cm) to prevent a
   third party from attacking privacy.

   When the number of devices and things having different air interface
   technologies communicate with each other, IPv6 is an ideal internet
   protocols owing to its large address space.  Also, NFC would be one
   of the endpoints using IPv6.  Therefore, this document describes how
   IPv6 is transmitted over NFC using 6LoWPAN techniques.

   RFC4944 [1] specifies the transmission of IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4.
   The NFC link also has similar characteristics to that of IEEE
   802.15.4.  Many of the mechanisms defined in RFC 4944 [1] can be
   applied to the transmission of IPv6 on NFC links.  This document
   specifies the details of IPv6 transmission over NFC links.

2.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [2].




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3.  Overview of Near Field Communication Technology

   NFC technology enables simple and safe two-way interactions between
   electronic devices, allowing consumers to perform contactless
   transactions, access digital content, and connect electronic devices
   with a single touch.  NFC complements many popular consumer level
   wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing
   standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and
   JIS-X 6319-4).  NFC can be compatible with existing contactless card
   infrastructure and it enables a consumer to utilize one device across
   different systems.

   Extending the capability of contactless card technology, NFC also
   enables devices to share information at a distance that is less than
   10 cm with a maximum communication speed of 424 kbps.  Users can
   share business cards, make transactions, access information from a
   smart poster or provide credentials for access control systems with a
   simple touch.

   NFC's bidirectional communication ability is ideal for establishing
   connections with other technologies by the simplicity of touch.  In
   addition to the easy connection and quick transactions, simple data
   sharing is also available.

3.1.  Peer-to-peer Mode of NFC

   NFC-enabled devices are unique in that they can support three modes
   of operation: card emulation, peer-to-peer, and reader/writer.  Peer-
   to-peer mode enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each
   other to exchange information and share files, so that users of NFC-
   enabled devices can quickly share contact information and other files
   with a touch.  Therefore, an NFC-enabled device can securely send
   IPv6 packets to any corresponding node on the Internet when an NFC-
   enabled gateway is linked to the Internet.

3.2.  Protocol Stacks of NFC

   IP can use the services provided by the Logical Link Control Protocol
   (LLCP) in the NFC stack to provide reliable, two-way transport of
   information between the peer devices.  Figure 1 depicts the NFC P2P
   protocol stack with IPv6 bindings to LLCP.

   For data communication in IPv6 over NFC, an IPv6 packet SHALL be
   passed down to LLCP of NFC and transported to an Information Field in
   Protocol Data Unit (I PDU) of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.
   LLCP does not support fragmentation and reassembly.  For IPv6
   addressing or address configuration, LLCP SHALL provide related
   information, such as link layer addresses, to its upper layer.  The



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   LLCP to IPv6 protocol binding SHALL transfer the SSAP and DSAP value
   to the IPv6 over NFC protocol.  SSAP stands for Source Service Access
   Point, which is a 6-bit value meaning a kind of Logical Link Control
   (LLC) address, while DSAP means an LLC address of the destination
   NFC-enabled device.

      |                                        |
      |                                        |  Application Layer
      |         Upper Layer Protocols          |   Transport Layer
      |                                        |    Network Layer
      |                                        |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
      |            IPv6-LLCP Binding           |         |
      +----------------------------------------+        NFC
      |                                        |    Logical Link
      |      Logical Link Control Protocol     |       Layer
      |                 (LLCP)                 |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
      |                                        |         |
      |               Activities               |         |
      |            Digital Protocol            |        NFC
      |                                        |      Physical
      +----------------------------------------+       Layer
      |                                        |         |
      |               RF Analog                |         |
      |                                        |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------

                     Figure 1: Protocol Stacks of NFC

   The LLCP consists of Logical Link Control (LLC) and MAC Mapping.  The
   MAC Mapping integrates an existing RF protocol into the LLCP
   architecture.  The LLC contains three components, such as Link
   Management, Connection-oriented Transport, and Connection-less
   Transport.  The Link Management component is responsible for
   serializing all connection-oriented and connection-less LLC PDU
   (Protocol Data Unit) exchanges and for aggregation and disaggregation
   of small PDUs.  This component also guarantees asynchronous balanced
   mode communication and provides link status supervision by performing
   the symmetry procedure.  The Connection-oriented Transport component
   is responsible for maintaining all connection-oriented data exchanges
   including connection set-up and termination.  The Connectionless
   Transport component is responsible for handling unacknowledged data
   exchanges.







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3.3.  NFC-enabled Device Addressing

   According to NFCForum-TS-LLCP_1.3 [3], NFC-enabled devices have two
   types of 6-bit addresses (i.e., SSAP and DSAP) to identify service
   access points.  The several service access points can be installed on
   a NFC device.  However, the SSAP and DSAP can be used as identifiers
   for NFC link connections with the IPv6 over NFC adaptation layer.
   Therefore, the SSAP can be used to generate an IPv6 interface
   identifier.  Address values between 00h and 0Fh of SSAP and DSAP are
   reserved for identifying the well-known service access points, which
   are defined in the NFC Forum Assigned Numbers Register.  Address
   values between 10h and 1Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC to
   services registered by local service environment.  In addition,
   address values between 20h and 3Fh SHALL be assigned by the local LLC
   as a result of an upper layer service request.  Therefore, the
   address values between 20h and 3Fh can be used for generating IPv6
   interface identifiers.

3.4.  NFC MAC PDU Size and MTU

   As mentioned in Section 3.2, an IPv6 packet SHALL passed down to LLCP
   of NFC and transported to an Unnumbered Information Protocol Data
   Unit (UI PDU) and an Information Field in Protocol Data Unit (I PDU)
   of LLCP of the NFC-enabled peer device.

   The information field of an I PDU SHALL contain a single service data
   unit.  The maximum number of octets in the information field is
   determined by the Maximum Information Unit (MIU) for the data link
   connection.  The default value of the MIU for I PDUs SHALL be 128
   octets.  The local and remote LLCs each establish and maintain
   distinct MIU values for each data link connection endpoint.  Also, an
   LLC MAY announce a larger MIU for a data link connection by
   transmitting an MIUX extension parameter within the information
   field.  If no MIUX parameter is transmitted, the default MIU value of
   128 SHALL be used.  Otherwise, the MTU size in NFC LLCP SHALL
   calculate the MIU value as follows:

                             MIU = 128 + MIUX.

   When the MIUX parameter is encoded as a TLV, the TLV Type field SHALL
   be 0x02 and the TLV Length field SHALL be 0x02.  The MIUX parameter
   SHALL be encoded into the least significant 11 bits of the TLV Value
   field.  The unused bits in the TLV Value field SHALL be set to zero
   by the sender and SHALL be ignored by the receiver.  However, a
   maximum value of the TLV Value field can be 0x7FF, and a maximum size
   of the MTU in NFC LLCP is 2176 bytes.





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4.  Specification of IPv6 over NFC

   NFC technology also has considerations and requirements owing to low
   power consumption and allowed protocol overhead. 6LoWPAN standards
   RFC 4944 [1], RFC 6775 [4], and RFC 6282 [5] provide useful
   functionality for reducing overhead which can be applied to NFC.
   This functionality consists of link-local IPv6 addresses and
   stateless IPv6 address auto-configuration (see Section 4.3), Neighbor
   Discovery (see Section 4.5) and header compression (see Section 4.7).

4.1.  Protocol Stacks

   Figure 2 illustrates IPv6 over NFC.  Upper layer protocols can be
   transport layer protocols (TCP and UDP), application layer protocols,
   and others capable running on top of IPv6.

      |                                        |     Transport &
      |         Upper Layer Protocols          |  Application Layer
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
      |                                        |         |
      |                 IPv6                   |         |
      |                                        |      Network
      +----------------------------------------+       Layer
      |   Adaptation Layer for IPv6 over NFC   |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
      |            IPv6-LLCP Binding                     |
      |      Logical Link Control Protocol     |   NFC Link Layer
      |                 (LLCP)                 |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------
      |                                        |         |
      |               Activities               |        NFC
      |            Digital Protocol            |   Physical Layer
      |               RF Analog                |         |
      |                                        |         |
      +----------------------------------------+ <------------------

                Figure 2: Protocol Stacks for IPv6 over NFC

   The adaptation layer for IPv6 over NFC SHALL support neighbor
   discovery, stateless address auto-configuration, header compression,
   and fragmentation & reassembly.

4.2.  Link Model

   In the case of BT-LE, the Logical Link Control and Adaptation
   Protocol (L2CAP) supports fragmentation and reassembly (FAR)
   functionality; therefore, the adaptation layer for IPv6 over BT-LE
   does not have to conduct the FAR procedure.  The NFC LLCP, in



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   contrast, does not support the FAR functionality, so IPv6 over NFC
   needs to consider the FAR functionality, defined in RFC 4944 [1].
   However, the MTU on an NFC link can be configured in a connection
   procedure and extended enough to fit the MTU of IPv6 packet (see
   Section 4.8).

   The NFC link between two communicating devices is considered to be a
   point-to-point link only.  Unlike in BT-LE, an NFC link does not
   support a star topology or mesh network topology but only direct
   connections between two devices.  Furthermore, the NFC link layer
   does not support packet forwarding in link layer.  Due to this
   characteristics, 6LoWPAN functionalities, such as addressing and
   auto-configuration, and header compression, need to be specialized
   into IPv6 over NFC.

4.3.  Stateless Address Autoconfiguration

   An NFC-enabled device (i.e., 6LN) performs stateless address
   autoconfiguration as per RFC 4862 [6].  A 64-bit Interface identifier
   (IID) for an NFC interface is formed by utilizing the 6-bit NFC LLCP
   address (see Section 3.3).  In the viewpoint of address
   configuration, such an IID SHOULD guarantee a stable IPv6 address
   because each data link connection is uniquely identified by the pair
   of DSAP and SSAP included in the header of each LLC PDU in NFC.

   Following the guidance of RFC 7136 [10], interface identifiers of all
   unicast addresses for NFC-enabled devices are 64 bits long and
   constructed in a modified EUI-64 format as shown in Figure 3.

   0                1                3                4               6
   0                6                2                8               3
  +----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  |RRRRRRuRRRRRRRRR|RRRRRRRR11111111|11111110RRRRRRRR|RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR|
  +----------------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+

        Figure 3: Formation of IID from NFC-enabled device address

   The 'R' bits are output values which MAY be created by mechanisms
   like hash functions with input values, i.e., the SSAP and other
   values (e.g., a prefix and a nonce) because the 6-bit address of SSAP
   is easy and short to be targeted by attacks of third party (e.g.,
   address scanning).  Figure 4 shows an example for IID creation.  The
   F() means a mechanism to make a output value for 64-bit IID, and an
   parameter, "nonce" is an example input value for making the different
   output values.






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       IID = F( SHA-256(6-bit SSAP, 64-bit Prefix), 'u' bit, nonce )

             Figure 4: An example of an IID creation mechanism

   In addition, the "Universal/Local" bit (i.e., the 'u' bit) of an NFC-
   enabled device address MUST be set to 0 RFC 4291 [7].

4.4.  IPv6 Link Local Address

   Only if the NFC-enabled device address is known to be a public
   address, the "Universal/Local" bit be set to 1.  The IPv6 link-local
   address for an NFC-enabled device is formed by appending the IID, to
   the prefix FE80::/64, as depicted in Figure 5.

        0          0                  0                          1
        0          1                  6                          2
        0          0                  4                          7
       +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
       |1111111010|       zeros      |    Interface Identifier    |
       +----------+------------------+----------------------------+
       |                                                          |
       | <---------------------- 128 bits ----------------------> |
       |                                                          |

                 Figure 5: IPv6 link-local address in NFC

   The tool for a 6LBR to obtain an IPv6 prefix for numbering the NFC
   network is can be accomplished via DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation (RFC 3633
   [8]).

4.5.  Neighbor Discovery

   Neighbor Discovery Optimization for 6LoWPANs (RFC 6775 [4]) describes
   the neighbor discovery approach in several 6LoWPAN topologies, such
   as mesh topology.  NFC does not support a complicated mesh topology
   but only a simple multi-hop network topology or directly connected
   peer-to-peer network.  Therefore, the following aspects of RFC 6775
   are applicable to NFC:

   1.  In a case that an NFC-enabled device (6LN) is directly connected
       to a 6LBR, an NFC 6LN MUST register its address with the 6LBR by
       sending a Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message with the Address
       Registration Option (ARO) and process the Neighbor Advertisement
       (NA) accordingly.  In addition, if DHCPv6 is used to assign an
       address, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) MAY not be required.






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   2.  For sending Router Solicitations and processing Router
       Advertisements the NFC 6LNs MUST follow Sections 5.3 and 5.4 of
       RFC 6775.

4.6.  Dispatch Header

   All IPv6-over-NFC encapsulated datagrams are prefixed by an
   encapsulation header stack consisting of a Dispatch value followed by
   zero or more header fields.  The only sequence currently defined for
   IPv6-over-NFC is the LOWPAN_IPHC header followed by payload, as
   depicted in Figure 6.

             +---------------+---------------+--------------+
             | IPHC Dispatch |  IPHC Header  |    Payload   |
             +---------------+---------------+--------------+

    Figure 6: A IPv6-over-NFC Encapsulated 6LOWPAN_IPHC Compressed IPv6
                                 Datagram

   The dispatch value may be treated as an unstructured namespace.  Only
   a single pattern is used to represent current IPv6-over-NFC
   functionality.

              +------------+--------------------+-----------+
              |  Pattern   | Header Type        | Reference |
              +------------+--------------------+-----------+
              | 01  1xxxxx | 6LOWPAN_IPHC       | [RFC6282] |
              +------------+--------------------+-----------+

                         Figure 7: Dispatch Values

   Other IANA-assigned 6LoWPAN Dispatch values do not apply to this
   specification.

4.7.  Header Compression

   Header compression as defined in RFC 6282 [5], which specifies the
   compression format for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, is
   REQUIRED in this document as the basis for IPv6 header compression on
   top of NFC.  All headers MUST be compressed according to RFC 6282
   encoding formats.

   Therefore, IPv6 header compression in RFC 6282 [5] MUST be
   implemented.  Further, implementations MAY also support Generic
   Header Compression (GHC) of RFC 7400 [11].






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   If a 16-bit address is required as a short address, it MUST be formed
   by padding the 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) address to the left with
   zeros as shown in Figure 8.

                      0                   1
                      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     | Padding(all zeros)| NFC Addr. |
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 8: NFC short address format

4.8.  Fragmentation and Reassembly

   NFC provides fragmentation and reassembly (FAR) for payloads from 128
   bytes up to 2176 bytes as mentioned in Section 3.4.  The MTU of a
   general IPv6 packet can fit into a single NFC link frame.  Therefore,
   the FAR functionality as defined in RFC 4944, which specifies the
   fragmentation methods for IPv6 datagrams on top of IEEE 802.15.4, MAY
   NOT be required as the basis for IPv6 datagram FAR on top of NFC.
   The NFC link connection for IPv6 over NFC MUST be configured with an
   equivalent MIU size to fit the MTU of IPv6 Packet.  If NFC devices
   support extension of the MTU, the MIUX value is 0x480 in order to fit
   the MTU (1280 bytes) of a IPv6 packet.

4.9.  Unicast Address Mapping

   The address resolution procedure for mapping IPv6 non-multicast
   addresses into NFC link-layer addresses follows the general
   description in Section 7.2 of RFC 4861 [9], unless otherwise
   specified.

   The Source/Target link-layer Address option has the following form
   when the addresses are 6-bit NFC link-layer (node) addresses.

                      0                   1
                      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     |      Type     |   Length=1    |
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     |                               |
                     +-     Padding (all zeros)     -+
                     |                               |
                     +-                  +-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     |                   | NFC Addr. |
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                     Figure 9: Unicast address mapping



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   Option fields:

      Type:

         1: for Source Link-layer address.

         2: for Target Link-layer address.

      Length:

         This is the length of this option (including the type and
         length fields) in units of 8 octets.  The value of this field
         is 1 for 6-bit NFC node addresses.

      NFC address:

         The 6-bit address in canonical bit order.  This is the unicast
         address the interface currently responds to.

4.10.  Multicast Address Mapping

   All IPv6 multicast packets MUST be sent to NFC Destination Address,
   0x3F (broadcast) and be filtered at the IPv6 layer.  When represented
   as a 16-bit address in a compressed header, it MUST be formed by
   padding on the left with a zero.  In addition, the NFC Destination
   Address, 0x3F, MUST NOT be used as a unicast NFC address of SSAP or
   DSAP.

                      0                   1
                      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                     | Padding(all zeros)|1 1 1 1 1 1|
                     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 10: Multicast address mapping

5.  Internet Connectivity Scenarios

   As two typical scenarios, the NFC network can be isolated and
   connected to the Internet.

5.1.  NFC-enabled Device Connected to the Internet

   One of the key applications of using IPv6 over NFC is securely
   transmitting IPv6 packets because the RF distance between 6LN and
   6LBR is typically within 10 cm.  If any third party wants to hack
   into the RF between them, it must come to nearly touch them.
   Applications can choose which kinds of air interfaces (e.g., BT-LE,



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   Wi-Fi, NFC, etc.) to send data depending on the characteristics of
   the data.

   Figure 11 illustrates an example of an NFC-enabled device network
   connected to the Internet.  The distance between 6LN and 6LBR is
   typically 10 cm or less.  If there is any laptop computers close to a
   user, it will become the a 6LBR.  Additionally, when the user mounts
   an NFC-enabled air interface adapter (e.g., portable NFC dongle) on
   the close laptop PC, the user's NFC-enabled device (6LN) can
   communicate with the laptop PC (6LBR) within 10 cm distance.

                                           ************
         6LN ------------------- 6LBR -----* Internet *------- CN
          |  (dis. 10 cm or less)  |       ************         |
          |                        |                            |
          | <-------- NFC -------> | <----- IPv6 packet ------> |
          | (IPv6 over NFC packet) |                            |

      Figure 11: NFC-enabled device network connected to the Internet

5.2.  Isolated NFC-enabled Device Network

   In some scenarios, the NFC-enabled device network may transiently be
   a simple isolated network as shown in the Figure 12.

         6LN ---------------------- 6LR ---------------------- 6LN
          |     (10 cm or less)      |     (10 cm or less)      |
          |                          |                          |
          | <--------- NFC --------> | <--------- NFC --------> |
          |   (IPv6 over NFC packet) |  (IPv6 over NFC packet)  |

              Figure 12: Isolated NFC-enabled device network

   In mobile phone markets, applications are designed and made by user
   developers.  They may image interesting applications, where three or
   more mobile phones touch or attach each other to accomplish
   outstanding performance.

6.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations related to this document.

7.  Security Considerations

   When interface identifiers (IIDs) are generated, devices and users
   are required to consider mitigating various threats, such as
   correlation of activities over time, location tracking, device-
   specific vulnerability exploitation, and address scanning.



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   IPv6-over-NFC is, in practice, not used for long-lived links for big
   size data transfer or multimedia streaming, but used for extremely
   short-lived links (i.e., single touch-based approaches) for ID
   verification and mobile payment.  This will mitigate the threat of
   correlation of activities over time.

   IPv6-over-NFC uses an IPv6 interface identifier formed from a "Short
   Address" and a set of well-known constant bits (such as padding with
   '0's) for the modified EUI-64 format.  However, the short address of
   NFC link layer (LLC) is not generated as a physically permanent value
   but logically generated for each connection.  Thus, every single
   touch connection can use a different short address of NFC link with
   an extremely short-lived link.  This can mitigate address scanning as
   well as location tracking and device-specific vulnerability
   exploitation.

   However, malicious tries for one connection of a long-lived link with
   NFC technology are not secure, so the method of deriving interface
   identifiers from 6-bit NFC Link layer addresses is intended to
   preserve global uniqueness when it is possible.  Therefore, it
   requires a way to protect from duplication through accident or
   forgery and to define a way to include sufficient bit of entropy in
   the IPv6 interface identifier, such as random EUI-64.

8.  Acknowledgements

   We are grateful to the members of the IETF 6lo working group.

   Michael Richardson, Suresh Krishnan, Pascal Thubert, Carsten Bormann,
   and Alexandru Petrescu have provided valuable feedback for this
   draft.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [1]        Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.

   [2]        Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [3]        "NFC Logical Link Control Protocol version 1.3", NFC Forum
              Technical Specification , March 2016.



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   [4]        Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
              Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
              Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
              RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.

   [5]        Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.

   [6]        Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.

   [7]        Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February
              2006, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.

   [8]        Troan, O. and R. Droms, "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic
              Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6", RFC 3633,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3633, December 2003,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3633>.

   [9]        Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.

   [10]       Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Significance of IPv6
              Interface Identifiers", RFC 7136, DOI 10.17487/RFC7136,
              February 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7136>.

   [11]       Bormann, C., "6LoWPAN-GHC: Generic Header Compression for
              IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
              (6LoWPANs)", RFC 7400, DOI 10.17487/RFC7400, November
              2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7400>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [12]       "Near Field Communication - Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-
              1) 3rd Ed.", ECMA-340 , June 2013.








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Authors' Addresses

   Younghwan Choi
   Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
   218 Gajeongno, Yuseung-gu
   Daejeon  34129
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 860 1429
   Email: yhc@etri.re.kr


   Yong-Geun Hong
   Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
   161 Gajeong-Dong Yuseung-gu
   Daejeon  305-700
   Korea

   Phone: +82 42 860 6557
   Email: yghong@etri.re.kr


   Joo-Sang Youn
   DONG-EUI University
   176 Eomgwangno Busan_jin_gu
   Busan  614-714
   Korea

   Phone: +82 51 890 1993
   Email: joosang.youn@gmail.com


   Dongkyun Kim
   Kyungpook National University
   80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu
   Daegu  702-701
   Korea

   Phone: +82 53 950 7571
   Email: dongkyun@knu.ac.kr











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   JinHyouk Choi
   Samsung Electronics Co.,
   129 Samsung-ro, Youngdong-gu
   Suwon  447-712
   Korea

   Phone: +82 2 2254 0114
   Email: jinchoe@samsung.com











































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