[Docs] [txt|pdf] [Tracker] [WG] [Email] [Diff1] [Diff2] [Nits]

Versions: (draft-hui-6lowpan-hc) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 RFC 6282

Network Working Group                                        J. Hui, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                     Arch Rock Corporation
Updates: 4944 (if approved)                                   P. Thubert
Intended status: Standards Track                                   Cisco
Expires: January 1, 2010                                   June 30, 2009


       Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams in 6LoWPAN Networks
                        draft-ietf-6lowpan-hc-05

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
   Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 1, 2010.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Abstract

   This document specifies an IPv6 header compression format for IPv6
   packet delivery in 6LoWPAN networks.  The compression format relies



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 1]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   on shared context to allow compression of arbitrary prefixes.  The
   information that is maintained in that shared context is out of
   scope.  This document specifies compression of multicast addresses
   and a framework for compressing next headers.  This framework
   specifies UDP compression and is prepared for additional transports.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  IPv6 Header Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  LOWPAN_IPHC Encoding Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.1.  Base Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
       2.1.2.  Context Identifier Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.2.  IPv6 Header Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       2.2.1.  Traffic Class and Flow Label Compression . . . . . . .  8
       2.2.2.  Stateless Multicast Addresses Compression  . . . . . . 10
       2.2.3.  Stateful Multicast Addresses Compression . . . . . . . 11
   3.  IPv6 Next Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.1.  LOWPAN_NHC Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.2.  IPv6 Extension Header Compression  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.3.  UDP Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.3.1.  Compressing UDP ports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.3.2.  Compressing UDP checksum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
       3.3.3.  UDP LOWPAN_NHC Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
   7.  Changes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

















Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 2]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


1.  Introduction

   The [IEEE 802.15.4] standard specifies an MTU of 128 bytes, yielding
   about 80 octets of actual MAC payload once security is turned on, on
   a wireless link with a link throughput of 250 kbps or less.  The
   6LoWPAN adaptation format [RFC4944] was specified to carry IPv6
   datagrams over such constrained links, taking into account limited
   bandwidth, memory, or energy resources that are expected in
   applications such as wireless Sensor Networks.  [RFC4944] defines a
   Mesh Addressing header to support sub-IP forwarding, a Fragmentation
   header to support the IPv6 minimum MTU requirement [RFC2460], and
   stateless header compression for IPv6 datagrams (LOWPAN_HC1 and
   LOWPAN_HC2) to reduce the relatively large IPv6 and UDP headers down
   to (in the best case) several bytes.

   LOWPAN_HC1 and LOWPAN_HC2 are insufficient for most practical uses of
   6LoWPAN networks.  LOWPAN_HC1 is most effective for link-local
   unicast communication, where IPv6 addresses carry the link-local
   prefix and an Interface Identifier (IID) directly derived from IEEE
   802.15.4 addresses.  In this case, both addresses may be completely
   elided.  However, though link local addresses are commonly used for
   local protocol interactions such as IPv6 ND [RFC4861], DHCPv6
   [RFC3315] or routing protocols, they are usually not used for
   application layer data traffic, so the actual value of this
   compression mechanism is limited.

   Routable addresses must be used when communicating with devices
   external to the LoWPAN or in a route-over configuration where IP
   forwarding occurs within the LoWPAN.  For routable addresses,
   LOWPAN_HC1 requires both IPv6 source and destination addresses to
   carry the prefix in-line.  In cases where the Mesh Addressing header
   is not used, the IID of a routable address must be carried in-line.
   However, LOWPAN_HC1 requires 64-bits for the IID when carried in-line
   and cannot be shortened even when it is derived from the IEEE
   802.15.4 16-bit short address.

   When the destination is an IPv6 multicast address, LOWPAN_HC1
   requires the full 128-bit address to be carried in-line.  This
   specification provides an additional mechanism to compress Unique
   Local, Global and multicast IPv6 Addresses based on shared states
   within contexts.  It also introduces a number of additional
   improvements over [RFC4944].

   LOWPAN_HC1 cannot elide the IPv6 Hop Limit in the IPv6 header, even
   though a limited set of values are useful in many practical cases.
   For instance, if the LoWPAN is a mesh-under stub, a Hop Limit of 1
   for inbound and a default value such as 64 for outbound are usually
   enough for application layer data traffic.  Compressing that field



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 3]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   enables saving one octet per packet.

   LOWPAN_HC1 can be extended to include a LOWPAN_HC2 octet to support
   compression of UDP, TCP, or ICMPv6; that LOWPAN_HC2 octet is placed
   right after the LOWPAN_HC1 octet and before the uncompressed IP
   fields.  This specification moves the transport control octet after
   the uncompressed IP fields for a more properly layered structure.

   [RFC4944] defines a compression mechanism for UDP, but that mechanism
   does not enable checksum compression when rendered possible by
   additional upper layer mechanisms such as upper layer Message
   Integrity Check (MIC).  This specification adds the capability to
   compress the UDP checksum over the LoWPAN, which enables to save an
   additional pair of octets.

   Finally, LOWPAN_HC1 lacks the flexibility to support the compression
   of additional transport mechanisms that could be introduced in the
   future.

   This document specifies a header compression format for IPv6
   datagrams.  This format improves on the header compression format
   defined in [RFC4944] by generalizing it to support a broader range of
   communication paradigms, including both mesh-under and route-over
   configurations; communication to nodes internal and external to the
   6LoWPAN network; and multicast communication.  This document also
   defines a flexible framework for compressing arbitrary next headers
   and defines UDP header compression within this framework.  This
   compression format carries forward the design concepts in RFC 4944
   [RFC4944], minimizing any state and relying on shared context among
   all nodes in a 6LoWPAN network.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].


2.  IPv6 Header Compression

   In this section, we define the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding format for
   compressing the IPv6 header.  To enable effective compression
   LOWPAN_IPHC relies on information pertaining to the entire 6LoWPAN
   network.  LOWPAN_IPHC assumes the following will be the common case
   for 6LoWPAN communication: Version is 6; Traffic Class and Flow Label
   are both zero; Payload Length can be inferred from lower layers from
   either the 6LoWPAN Fragmentation header or the IEEE 802.15.4 header;
   Hop Limit will be set to a well-known value by the source; addresses



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 4]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   assigned to 6LoWPAN interfaces will be formed using the link-local
   prefix or a single routable prefix assigned to the entire 6LoWPAN
   network; addresses assigned to 6LoWPAN interfaces are formed with an
   IID derived directly from either the 64-bit extended or 16-bit short
   IEEE 802.15.4 addresses.


      +-------------------------------------+------------------------
      | Dispatch + LOWPAN_IPHC (2-3 octets) | Compressed IPv6 Header
      +-------------------------------------+------------------------


                       Figure 1: LOWPAN_IPHC Header

   The LOWPAN_IPHC encoding utilizes 11 bits, 3 of which are taken from
   the rightmost bit of the dispatch type.  The encoding may be extended
   by another octet to support additional contexts.  Uncompressed IPv6
   header fields follow the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding, as shown in Figure 1.
   With the above scenario, the LOWPAN_IPHC can compress the IPv6 header
   down to two octets (the dispatch octet and the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding)
   with link-local communication.  When routing over multiple IP hops,
   LOWPAN_IPHC can compress the IPv6 header down to 7 octets (1-octet
   dispatch, 1-octet LOWPAN_IPHC, 1-octet Hop Limit, 2-octet Source
   Address, and 2-octet Destination Address).

2.1.  LOWPAN_IPHC Encoding Format

2.1.1.  Base Format


       0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   0   1   2   3   4   5
     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
     | 0 | 1 | 1 |  TF   |NH | HLIM  |CID|SAC|  SAM  | M |DAC|  DAM  |
     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


                      Figure 2: LOWPAN_IPHC Encoding

   TF: Traffic Class, Flow Label:
      00:  4-bit Pad + Traffic Class + Flow Label (4 bytes)
      01:  ECN + 2-bit Pad + Flow Label (3 bytes)
      10:  Traffic Class (1 byte)
      11:  Version, Traffic Class, and Flow Label are compressed.








Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 5]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   NH: Next Header:
      0: Full 8 bits for Next Header are carried in-line.
      1: The Next Header field is compressed and the next header is
         compressed using LOWPAN_NHC, which is discussed in Section 3.

   HLIM: Hop Limit:
      00:  The Hop Limit field is carried in-line.
      01:  The Hop Limit field is elided and the the hop limit is 1.
      10:  The Hop Limit field is elided and the the hop limit is 64.
      11:  The Hop Limit field is elided and the hop limit is 255.

   CID: Context Identifier Extension:
      0: No additional 8-bit Context Identifier Extension is used.  If
         context-based compression is specified in either SC or DC,
         context 0 is used.
      1: An additional 8-bit Context Identifier Extension field
         immediately follows the DAM field.

   SAC: Source Address Compression
      0: Source address compression uses stateless compression.
      1: Source address compression uses stateful, context-based
         compression.

   SAM: Source Address Mode:
      If SAC=0:
         00:  128 bits.  The full address is carried in-line.
         01:  64 bits.  The first 64-bits of the address are elided.
            The value of those bits is the link-local prefix padded with
            zeros.  The remaining 64 bits are carried inline.
         10:  16 bits.  The first 112 bits of the address are elided.
            The value of those bits is the link-local prefix padded with
            zeros.  The remaining 16 bits are carried inline.
         11:  0 bits.  The address is fully elided.  The first 64 bits
            of the address are the link-local prefix padded with zeros.
            The remaining 64 bits are computed from the link-layer
            address as defined in [RFC4944].
      If SAC=1:
         00:  Reserved.
         01:  64 bits.  The address is derived using context information
            and the 64 bits carried inline.
         10:  16 bits.  The address is derived using context information
            and the 16 bits carried inline.
         11:  0 bits.  The address is derived using context information
            and possibly link-layer addresses.







Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 6]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009



   M: Multicast Compression
      0: Destination address does not use multicast compression.
      1: Destination address uses multicast compression.

   DAC: Destination Address Compression
      0: Destination address compression uses stateless compression.
      1: Destination address compression uses stateful, context-based
         compression.

   DAM: Destination Address Mode:
      If M=0:
         If DAC=0:
            00:  128 bits.  The full address is carried in-line.
            01:  64 bits.  The first 64-bits of the address are elided.
               The value of those bits is the link-local prefix padded
               with zeros.  The remaining 64 bits are carried inline.
            10:  16 bits.  The first 112 bits of the address are elided.
               The value of those bits is the link-local prefix padded
               with zeros.  The remaining 16 bits are carried inline.
            11:  0 bits.  The address is fully elided.  The first 64
               bits of the address are the link-local prefix padded with
               zeros.  The remaining 64 bits are computed from the link-
               layer address as defined in [RFC4944].
         If DAC=1:
            00:  Reserved.
            01:  64 bits.  The address is derived using context
               information and the 64 bits carried inline.
            10:  16 bits.  The address is derived using context
               information and the 16 bits carried inline.
            11:  0 bits.  The address is derived using context
               information and possibly link-layer addresses.
      If M=1 and DAC=0:
         00:  48 bits.  The address takes the form FFXX::00XX:XXXX:XXXX.
         01:  32 bits.  The address takes the form FFXX::00XX:XXXX.
         10:  16 bits.  The address takes the form FF0X::0XXX.
         11:  8 bits.  The address takes the form FF02::00XX.
      If M=1 and DAC=1:
         00:  128 bits.  The full address is carried in-line.
         01:  48 bits.  The address takes the form FFXX::XXLL:PPPP:PPPP:
            XXXX:XXXX.  L denotes nibbles used to encode the prefix
            length.  P denotes nibbles used to encode the prefix itself.
            The prefix information is taken from the specified context.
         10:  reserved







Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 7]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


         11:  reserved

2.1.2.  Context Identifier Extension

   This specification expects that a concept of context is shared
   between the node that compresses a packet and the node(s) that need
   to expand it.  The specification enables a node to use of up to 16
   contexts.  How the contexts are shared and maintained is out of
   scope.  What the context information is is out of scope.  Actions in
   response to unknown and/or invalid contexts are out of scope.

   If the CIF field is set to '1' in the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding, then an
   additional octet extends the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding following the DAM
   bits but before the IPv6 header fields that are carried in-line.  The
   additional octet identifies the prefix when the IPv6 source and/or
   destination address is compressed.  The context identifier is 4 bits
   for each address, supporting up to 16 contexts.  The encoding is
   shown in Figure 3.


                       0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
                     |      SCI      |      DCI      |
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


                      Figure 3: LOWPAN_IPHC Encoding

   SCI: Source Context Identifier  Identifies the prefix that is used
      when the IPv6 source address is compressed.
   DCI: Destination Context Identifier  Identifies the prefix that is
      used when the IPv6 destination address is compressed.

2.2.  IPv6 Header Encoding

   Fields carried in-line (in part or in whole) appear in the same order
   as they do in the IPv6 header format [RFC2460].  The Version field is
   always elided.  Unicast IPv6 addresses may be compressed to 64 or 16
   bits or completely elided.  Multicast IPv6 addresses may be
   compressed to 8, 16, or 24 bits.  The IPv6 Payload Length field MUST
   always be elided and inferred from lower layers using the 6LoWPAN
   Fragmentation header or the IEEE 802.15.4 header.

2.2.1.  Traffic Class and Flow Label Compression

   The Traffic Class field in the IPv6 header comprises 6 bits of
   diffserv extension [RFC2474] and 2 bits of Explicit Congestion
   Notification (ECN) [RFC3168].  If the ECN information is carried by



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 8]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   the Lower Layers in a compatible fashion then it can be elided from
   the 6LoWPAN header.  Otherwise, it has to be transported in one of
   the following encodings.

   The TF field in the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding indicate whether the Traffic
   Class and Flow Label are carried in-line in the compressed IPv6
   header.  When Flow Label is included while the Traffic Class is
   compressed, an additional 4 bits are included to maintain byte-
   alignment.  Two of the 4 bits contain the ECN bits from the Traffic
   Class field.

   To ensure that the ECN bits appear in the same location for all
   encodings that include them, the Traffic Class field is rotated right
   by 2 bits in the compressed IPv6 header.  The encodings are shown
   below:


                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |ECN|   DSCP    |  rsv  |             Flow Label                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


          TF = 00: Traffic Class and Flow Label carried in-line.



                          1                   2
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |ECN|rsv|             Flow Label                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                   TF = 01: Flow Label carried in-line.



      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |ECN|   DSCP    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


                  TF = 10: Traffic Class carried in-line.





Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010                [Page 9]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


2.2.2.  Stateless Multicast Addresses Compression

   LOWPAN_IPHC supports stateless compression of multicast address when
   M = 1 and SAC = 0.  An IPv6 multicast address may be compressed down
   to 48, 32, 16, or 8 bits using stateless compression.  The format
   supports compression of the Solicited-Node Multicast Address (FF02::
   1:FFXX:XXXX) as well as any IPv6 multicast address where the upper
   bits of the multicast group identifier are zero.  The compressed
   forms only carry the least-significant bits of the multicast group
   identifier.  All compressed forms carry the multicast scope in-line
   and all (except DAM=10) carry the multicast flags as well.


                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Flags | Scope |              Group Identifier                 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Group Identifier       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


   DAM = 00. 48-bit Compressed Multicast Address (FFfs::00gg:gggg:gggg)



                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Flags | Scope |              Group Identifier                 |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


      DAM = 01. 32-bit Compressed Multicast Address (FFfs:00gg:gggg).



                          1
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Scope |   Group Identifier    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


        DAM = 10. 16-bit Compressed Multicast Address (FF0s::0ggg).






Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 10]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |   Group ID    |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


         DAM = 11. 8-bit Compressed Multicast Address (FF02::gg).

2.2.3.  Stateful Multicast Addresses Compression

   LOWPAN_IPHC supports stateful compression of multicast addresses when
   M = 1 and SAC = 1.  This document currently defines SAM = 01:
   context-based compression of Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6 Multicast
   Addresses [RFC3306][RFC3956].  In particular, the Prefix Length and
   Network Prefix can be taken from a context.  As a result, LOWPAN_IPHC
   can compress a Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6 Multicast Address down to 6
   octets by only carrying the 4-bit Flags, 4-bit Scope, 8-bit RIID, and
   32-bit Group Identifier in-line.


                          1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Flags | Scope |   Reserved    |       Group Identifier        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |        Group Identifier       |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+


     DAM = 01. Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6 Multicast Address Compression

   Note that the Reserved field MUST carry the reserved bits from the
   multicast address format as described in [RFC3306].  When a
   Rendezvous Point is encoded in the multicast address as described in
   [RFC3956], the Reserved field carries the RIID bits in-line.


3.  IPv6 Next Header Compression

   LOWPAN_IPHC elides the IPv6 Next Header field when the NH bit is set
   to 1.  It also indicates the use of 6LoWPAN next header compression,
   LOWPAN_NHC.  The value of IPv6 Next Header is recovered from the
   first bits in the LOWPAN_NHC encoding.  The following bits are
   specific to the IPv6 Next Header value.  Figure 4 shows the structure
   of an IPv6 datagram compressed using LOWPAN_IPHC and LOWPAN_NHC.






Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 11]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   +-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------------+--------
   | LOWPAN_IPHC | In-line     | LOWPAN_NHC  | In-line Next    | Payload
   |   Encoding  |   IP Fields |   Encoding  |   Header Fields |
   +-------------+-------------+-------------+-----------------+--------


       Figure 4: Typical LOWPAN_IPHC/LOWPAN_NHC Header Configuration

3.1.  LOWPAN_NHC Format

   Compression formats for different next headers are identified by a
   variable length bit-pattern immediately following the LOWPAN_IPHC
   compressed header.  When defining a next header compression format,
   the number of bits used SHOULD be determined by the perceived
   frequency of using that format.  However, the number of bits and any
   remaining encoding bits SHOULD respect octet alignment.  The
   following bits are specific to the next header compression format.
   In this document, we define a compression format for UDP headers.


               +----------------+---------------------------
               | var-len NHC ID | compressed next header...
               +----------------+---------------------------


                       Figure 5: LOWPAN_NHC Encoding

3.2.  IPv6 Extension Header Compression

   A necessary property of encoding headers using LOWPAN_NHC is that the
   immediately preceding header must either be encoded using LOWPAN_IPHC
   or LOWPAN_NHC.  In other words, all headers compressed using the
   6LoWPAN header compression format defined in this document must be
   contiguous.  As a result, this document defines a set of LOWPAN_NHC
   encodings for selected IPv6 Extension Headers such that the UDP
   Header Compression defined in Section 3.3 may be used in the presence
   of those extension headers.

   The LOWPAN_NHC encodings for IPv6 Extension Headers are composed of a
   single LOWPAN_NHC octet followed by the IPv6 Extension Header.  The
   format of the LOWPAN_NHC octet is shown in Figure 6.  The first 7
   bits serve as an identifier for the IPv6 Extension Header immediately
   following the LOWPAN_NHC octet.  The remaining bit indicates whether
   or not the following header utilizes LOWPAN_NHC encoding.







Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 12]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


                       0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
                     | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 |    EID    |NH |
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


                 Figure 6: IPv6 Extension Header Encoding

   EID: IPv6 Extension Header ID:
      0: IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Options [RFC2460]
      1: IPv6 Routing [RFC2460]
      2: IPv6 Fragment [RFC2460]
      3: IPv6 Destination Options [RFC2460]
      4: IPv6 Mobility Header [RFC3775]
      5: Reserved
      6: Reserved
      7: IPv6 Header

   NH: Next Header:
      0: Full 8 bits for Next Header are carried in-line.
      1: The Next Header field is compressed and the next header is
         compressed using LOWPAN_NHC, which is discussed in Section 3.

   For the most part, the IPv6 Extension Header is carried verbatim in
   the bytes immediately following the LOWPAN_NHC octet, with two
   important exceptions: Length Field and Next Header Field.

   The Next Header Field contained in IPv6 Extension Headers is elided
   when the NH bit is set in the LOWPAN_NHC encoding octet.  Note that
   doing so allows LOWPAN_NHC to utilize no more overhead than the non-
   encoded IPv6 Extension Header.

   The Length Field contained in IPv6 Extension Headers indicate the
   length of the IPv6 Extension Header in octets, not including the
   LOWPAN_NHC byte.  Note that this changes the standard Length Field
   definition from indicating the header size in 8-octet units, not
   including the first 8 octets.  Changing the Length Field to be in
   units of octets removes wasteful internal fragmentation.  However,
   specifying units in octets also means that LOWPAN_NHC CANNOT be used
   to encode IPv6 Extension Headers that exceed 255 octets.

   IPv6 Hop-by-Hop and Destination Options Headers may use Pad1 and PadN
   to pad out the header to a multiple of 8 octets in length.  When
   using LOWPAN_NHC, those Pad1 and PadN options MAY be elided and the
   length of the header reduced by the size of those Pad1 and PadN
   options.  When converting from the LOWPAN_NHC encoding back to the
   standard IPv6 encoding, Pad1 and PadN options MUST be used to pad out
   the containing header to a multiple of 8 octets in length if



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 13]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   necessary.  Note that Pad1 and PadN options that do not appear at the
   end of the containing header MUST NOT be elided as they are used to
   align subsequent options.

   When the identified next header is an IPv6 Header (EID=7), the NH bit
   of the LOWPAN_NHC encoding is unused and SHOULD be set to zero.  The
   bytes following follow the LOWPAN_IPHC encoding as defined in
   Section 2.

3.3.  UDP Header Compression

   This document defines a compression format for UDP headers using
   LOWPAN_NHC.  The UDP compression format is shown in Figure 7.  Bits 0
   through 4 represent the NHC ID and '11110' indicates the specific UDP
   header compression encoding defined in this section.

3.3.1.  Compressing UDP ports

   This specification introduces a range of well-known port (0xF0Bx)
   that can be compressed to 4 bits.  Considering that this represents
   only 16 contiguous ports, it can be expected that many incompatible
   applications will use the same port numbers of their own end-to-end
   needs.

   The overloading of the 0xF0Bx ports increases the risk of getting the
   wrong type of payload and misinterpreting the content compared to
   ports that reserved at IANA.  It is thus recommended that the use of
   those ports be associated with a mechanism such as a Transport Layer
   Security (TLS) Message Integrity Check (MIC) that validates that the
   content is expected and checked for integrity.

3.3.2.  Compressing UDP checksum

   The UDP checksum operation is mandatory with IPv6 [RFC2460] for all
   packets.  For that reason [RFC4944] disallows the compression of the
   UDP checksum.

   With this specification, a compressor in the source transport
   endpoint MAY elide the UDP checksum if it authorized by the Upper
   Layer.  The compressor SHOULD NOT set the C bit unless it has
   received such authorization.  The Upper Layer SHOULD only provide the
   authorization in the following cases:

   Tunneling:  In this case, 6LowPAN is deployed as a wireless pseudo-
      fieldbus by tunneling existing field protocols over UDP.  If the
      tunneled PDU possesses its own addressing, security and integrity
      check, the tunneling mechanism MAY authorize to elide the UDP
      checksum in order to save on the encapsulation overhead.



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 14]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   Upper Layer Message Integrity Check:  In this case, there is some
      other form of integrity check in the UDP payload that covers at
      least the same information as the UDP checksum (pseudo-header,
      data) and has at least the same strength.

   A forwarding node MAY imply authorization from the incoming packet
   being forwarded if the C bit was set there.  The forwarding node that
   can not derive the authorization in an non-ambiguous fashion SHOULD
   NOT elide the UDP checksum when performing 6LoWPAN compression.  The
   forwarding node that expands a 6LoWPAN packets with the C bit on MUST
   compute the UDP checksum on behalf of the source node and place that
   checksum in the restored UDP header as specified in the incumbent
   standards [RFC0768], [RFC2460].

   If a 6LoWPAN termination is also the transport endpoint, and it
   receives a compressed packet that has the C bit set, then it is
   entitled to ignore the UDP checksum process completely.  If the C bit
   is not set, the packet might have been forwarded by an edge router,
   so this is not an indication that the MIC is not present.  If the
   terminating node knows that the message integrity will be validated
   by the upper layer by some state associated to the Service Access
   Point, it is entitled to ignore the checksum operation as if the C
   bit was set.

3.3.3.  UDP LOWPAN_NHC Format


                       0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
                     | 1 | 1 | 1 | 1 | 0 | C |   P   |
                     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+


                       Figure 7: UDP Header Encoding

   C: Checksum:
      0: All 16 bits of Checksum are carried in-line.
      1: All 16 bits of Checksum are elided.  The Checksum is recovered
         by recomputing it on the 6LoWPAN termination point.

   P: Ports:
      00:  All 16 bits for both Source Port and Destination Port are
         carried in-line.
      01:  All 16 bits for Source Port are carried in-line.  First 8
         bits of Destination Port is 0xF0 and elided.  The remaining 8
         bits of Destination Port are carried in-line.





Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 15]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


      10:  First 8 bits of Source Port are 0xF0 and elided.  The
         remaining 8 bits of Source Port are carried in-line.  All 16
         bits for Destination Port are carried in-line.
      11:  First 12 bits of both Source Port and Destination Port are
         0xF0B and elided.  The remaining 4 bits for each are carried
         in-line.

   Fields carried in-line (in part or in whole) appear in the same order
   as they do in the IPv6 header format [RFC2460].  IPv6 addresses may
   be compressed to 64 or 16 bits or completely elided.  The UDP Length
   field MUST always be elided and is inferred from lower layers using
   the 6LoWPAN Fragmentation header or the IEEE 802.15.4 header.


4.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines a new IPv6 header compression format for
   6LoWPAN networks.  The document allocates Dispatch type values of
   0x08-0x0F (TBD) for LOWPAN_IPHC.


5.  Security Considerations

   The definition of LOWPAN_IPHC permits the compression of header
   information on communication that could take place in its absence,
   albeit in a less efficient form.  It recognizes that a IEEE 802.15.4
   PAN may have associated with it a number of prefixes through shared
   context.  How the shared context is assigned and managed is beyond
   the scope of this document.

   The overloading of the 0xF0Bx ports increases the risk of getting the
   wrong type of payload and misinterpreting the content compared to
   ports that reserved at IANA.  It is thus recommended that the use of
   those ports be associated with a mechanism such as a Transport Layer
   Security (TLS) Message Integrity Check (MIC) that validates that the
   content is expected and checked for integrity.


6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Julien Abeille, Carsten Bormann, Christos Polyzois, Erik
   Nordmark, Robert Assimiti, Shoishi Sakane, Zach Shelby, Stephen
   Dawson-Haggerty, Jay Werb and Mathilde Durvy for useful design
   consideration and implementation feedback.







Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 16]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


7.  Changes

   Draft 05:
      - Added LOWPAN_NHC encodings for IPv6 Extension Headers.
      - Specify use of context 0 when CID is 0.
      - Indicate that first 64-bits is link-local prefix padded with
      zeros when link-local prefix is elided.
      - Made prefix-based multicast encoding format more explicit for
      clarity.
      - Changed wording around stateful compression to allow for using
      the inline bits as an additional index to identify the compressed
      address.
      - Removed support for compressing unspecified address.
      - Full 128-bit addr inline only in stateless encoding.

   Draft 04:
      - Fixed typos leftover from the changes in 03.
      - Gave more details on UDP checksum compression.
      - Clarify that the context information is out of scope.
      - Added security concern on 0xF0Bx port overloading.

   Draft 03:
      - Decoupled meaning of SAM bits from the destination address.
      - Have separate bit to indicate multicast address compression.
      - More extensive support for multicast address compression,
      including Unicast-Prefix-based Multicast Addresses.

   Draft 02:
      - Updated wording with compression mode to clarify that a
      compression mode does not enforce what kind of destination address
      is being used.  Specifically changed Destination Dependent Field
      to Compression Mode.
      - Specify that the configuration and management of contexts is out
      of scope of this document.

   Draft 01:
      - HC back to 1 byte by default by stealing a few bits from the
      dispatch field.
      - Added better support for multicast address compression.
      - Fixed alignment for UDP port compression.
      - Better support for Traffic Class and Flow Label compression.
      - Pascal joined as an author.


8.  References






Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 17]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC0768]  Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
              August 1980.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

   [RFC2474]  Nichols, K., Blake, S., Baker, F., and D. Black,
              "Definition of the Differentiated Services Field (DS
              Field) in the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers", RFC 2474,
              December 1998.

   [RFC3168]  Ramakrishnan, K., Floyd, S., and D. Black, "The Addition
              of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP",
              RFC 3168, September 2001.

   [RFC3775]  Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support
              in IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.

   [RFC4007]  Deering, S., Haberman, B., Jinmei, T., Nordmark, E., and
              B. Zill, "IPv6 Scoped Address Architecture", RFC 4007,
              March 2005.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC4302]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              December 2005.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, December 2005.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, September 2007.

8.2.  Informative References

   [IEEE 802.15.4]
              IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2006",
              October 2006.

   [RFC3306]  Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6
              Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, August 2002.



Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 18]


Internet-Draft    6LoWPAN Compression of IPv6 Datagrams        June 2009


   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3956]  Savola, P. and B. Haberman, "Embedding the Rendezvous
              Point (RP) Address in an IPv6 Multicast Address",
              RFC 3956, November 2004.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.


Authors' Addresses

   Jonathan W. Hui (editor)
   Arch Rock Corporation
   501 2nd St. Ste. 410
   San Francisco, California  94107
   USA

   Phone: +415 692 0828
   Email: jhui@archrock.com


   Pascal Thubert
   Cisco Systems
   Village d'Entreprises Green Side
   400, Avenue de Roumanille
   Batiment T3
   Biot - Sophia Antipolis  06410
   FRANCE

   Phone: +33 4 97 23 26 34
   Email: pthubert@cisco.com
















Hui & Thubert            Expires January 1, 2010               [Page 19]


Html markup produced by rfcmarkup 1.129c, available from https://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcmarkup/